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Essential Question
What was Reconstruction and how did it
change South Carolina’s society, economy,
and government?
The Second Civil War
Q1: Why can tenant farming and sharecropping be called
a form of economic slavery?
Q2: How did Republicans in Congress extend
Reconstruction past when President Johnson thought it
had ended?
The Challenge of Freedom
and Restoring the Union
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
“With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right,
as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we
are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have
borne the battle, and for
his widow, and his orphan -to do all which may achieve
and cherish a just, and a
lasting peace, among
ourselves, and with all
Excerpt from Lincoln’s second
Inaugural Address
Lincoln’s Plan
Proclamation of Amnesty and
Full pardons ((amnesty
amnesty)) for all Southerners
except highhigh-ranking Confederate
Readmission to Union, only if…
10% of people who voted in 1860 pledge
loyalty to the United States
Former Confederate states support
Limited suffrage for former slaves
A Difference of Opinion
Radical Republicans,
ans, a small, but loud
group of Republicans, disagreed with
Lincoln’s plan.
They wanted to punish the South, so
they proposed that—
50% of Southerners take loyalty
Former Confederate leaders be
stripped of any political power
Former slaves be granted full civil
Lincoln vetoed the proposed
The President v. Congress
The disagreement between Lincoln and
Radicals in his party caused a
stalemate between the president
and Congress.
Before their differences could be
resolved, Lincoln was assassinated.
Lincoln’s vice president, Andrew
Johnson, became president and
inherited the stalemate.
Johnson’s relations with Congress would
grow steadily worse.
Johnson’s Plan
President Johnson kept most of
Lincoln’s ideas but also required
states to—
Declare secession illegal
Ratify the 13th Amendment
He also demanded that wealthy
planters and highhigh-ranking
Confederates ask him
personally for forgiveness
WarWar-torn South Carolina
The war devastated the South, especially
South Carolina. The state’s wealth had
been consumed by the war.
400,000 African Americans were suddenly
Congress created the
Freedmen’s Bureau
to protect and help
former slaves
(called freedmen)
and poor whites.
Bureau agents fed the
poor, created
schools for black
children, protected
freedmen from
hostile whites, and
provided medical
By December 1865, all
former Confederate
states had met Johnson’s
requirements for
readmission to the Union.
Johnson considered
Reconstruction complete.
Southern states held
elections and rebuilt their
state governments.
Many former Confederates
regained power.
Congressional Reconstruction
Republicans in Congress took
steps to protect freedpeople
and grant them civil rights.
a bill to extend the life of
Freedmen’s Bureau.
the Civil Rights Act of
Johnson vetoed both measures;
Congress overrode the
president’s veto.
Congress then passed the 14th
States Pass Harsh Black Codes
Southern states passed black
codes to help restore order
to the South.
Similar to the old slave codes,
these laws applied only to
African Americans and
severely restricted their
South Carolina and Mississippi
had some of the harshest
black codes of all the
Southern states.
Fears of Race War
Many Southerners
viewed Bureau
agents with
suspicion and even
Many white people
lived “in a dreadful
state of
apprehension and
Picture: Freedmen’s
Bureau keeping the
peace between blacks
and whites (191)
A New System of Labor
The end of slavery meant that plantation owners had
to find a new system of labor.
Tenant Farming
Freedmen and poor
whites rented a plot of
land and a house from
a white landowner.
Tenant farmers chose
what crops they grew
and used the income
from selling crops to
pay rent and other
Sharecroppers lived on
land and in a house
owned by a white
Landowners decided
what to grow.
At harvest time, the
landowner kept most
of the crop, but
gave a share to
sharecroppers to
sell on their own.
An Endless Cycle of Debt
Tenant farmers and
sharecroppers often lived in
constant debt.
Crop liens were a form of
credit where tenants,
sharecroppers, and even
landowners used crops to
pay for supplies.
How did this system result in
an unending cycle of debt for
Congress Reacts
Republicans in Congress
refused to seat former
Confederates when they
returned to Washington,
Reconstruction was far
from complete …
Radical Republicans were
ready to challenge the
Republicans Gain Control of Congress
President Johnson toured the country
in 1866 to support Democrats
running for Congress.
He also urged states not to ratify the
14th Amendment.
His actions helped Republicans win a
landslide victory in elections that
Republicans now had a “veto“veto-proof”
majority in Congress and would take
full control of Reconstruction.
Military Reconstruction
Republicans in Congress restarted
The South was divided into five
military districts.
Each district placed under martial
Union troops were stationed in
the South to prevent violence
and protect freedmen.
Southern states faced strict
requirements for readmission.
Congress Impeaches President Johnson
What does it mean to
impeach a president, or
any government official?
What legal reason did
Congress give for
impeaching Johnson?
What was the real
reason behind his
South Carolina’s 1868 Constitution
States needed to revise
their constitutions to be
readmitted to the Union.
Democrats boycotted South
Carolina’s constitutional
Changes were made to
South Carolina’s
constitution that changed
the state.