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Making Healthy Choices For Your Body
 Think of calories as a measurement tool; they measure the
energy a food or beverage provides
 When choosing what to eat, its important to get the right
mix - enough nutrients, but not too many calories
 Calorie balance: everyone has a personal calorie
limit. It all has to do with energy in versus energy out.
 energy in is the calories you consume from food/beverages,
energy out is the calories you burn for basic body functions and
physical activity.
 In-season athlete versus couch potato: it's a balancing act
 Definition: A substance required in relatively large
 Carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Fats
Definition: A substance required in relatively
small amounts.
 Moistens tissues
 Protects body organs and tissues
 Helps prevent constipation
 Regulates body temperature
 Lubricates joints
 Carries nutrients and oxygen to cells
 Helps dissolve minerals and other nutrients to make them
accessible to the body
 Grains
 Vegetables
 Fruits
 Dairy
 Protein Foods
 Nutrient: a substance that provides nourishment
essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
 HDL Cholesterol: “Good” cholesterol because it
helps remove LDL cholesterol from the arteries.
 LDL Cholesterol: “Bad” cholesterol because it
contributes to plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can
clog arteries and make them less flexible.
 Definition: Used to describe all chemical reactions involved in
maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism.
 Catabolism - the breakdown of molecules to obtain energy
 Anabolism - the synthesis of all compounds needed by the cells
 Nutrition is the key to metabolism. The pathways of metabolism
rely upon nutrients that they breakdown in order to produce
 The more essential nutrients in your diet, the better your
metabolism will be.
 Role in the body:
 Fuel during high intensity exercise
 Spares protein (to help preserve muscle lass during exercise)
 Fuel for the Central Nervous System (your brain)
 Recommended Allowance:
 Sedentary individuals- 40-50% of your total daily calories
 Exercise Regularly- 60%
 Athletes/heavy training- 70%
 Food sources:
 Grains & fruits
 Role in the body:
 Involved in metabolic, transport, and hormone systems
 make up enzymes that regulate metabolism
 Involved in acid/base balance to maintain a neutral environment in our
 Daily Allowance:
 Sedentary individuals- .36 grams of protein per pound of body weight
 Teenage athlete- .82-.91 grams
 Recreationally active- .45 - .68 grams
 Food sources:
 meat, fish, dairy, eggs, legumes
 Role in the body:
 energy reserve
 protects vital organs, insulation
 Transports fat soluble vitamins
 Recommended allowance:
 20-35% of your total calories should come from fat
 Less than 10% of total daily calories should come form saturated
 Food sources:
 Oils, nuts, seeds, meat, fish, dairy
 Fat soluable (Dissolve in fat and are stored in body tissue):
 Vitamin A, D, E, K
 Vision, healthy skin/hair, promotes strong teeth and bones,
prevents damage to cell membranes, aids in blood clotting, etc.
 Water soluable (Dissolve in water):
 Vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, C, and Folic acid
 Needed to build and maintain body tissues, helps with
development/aid of the nervous system, helps break down
proteins, needed to release energy in food, etc.
 Calcium
 Potassium
 Sodium
 Iron
 Zinc
 Functions: Maintains teeth and bones, regulates water
balance, stimulates nerves, transports oxygen, forms blood
cells, forms enzymes, aids in healing wounds, etc.
 Vitamin C: citrus fruits, cabbage, berries, peppers
 Vitamin B6: meats, vegetables, yeast, nuts, beans, fish, rice
 Vitamin A: eggs, cheese, milk, butter
 Vitamin D: milk, tuna, salmon, egg yolks, exposure to sunlight
 Vitamin E: seeds and nuts
 Vitamin K: green leafy vegetables
 Calcium: milk, legumes, dark green vegetables
 Potassium: bananas, oranges, meats, poultry, potatoes
 Iron: red meats, dark green vegetables
 Health benefits:
 May reduce risk of heart disease
 Whole grains contain fiber and can help reduce constipation
 May help with weight management
 Nutrients:
 Fiber, several B vitamins, and minerals such as iron,
magnesium, selenium
 May help reduce blood cholesterol levels
 May lower risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes
 B vitamins play a key role in metabolism and having a healthy
nervous system
 Health benefits:
 Reduced risk of chronic diseases
 May protect against cancer, heart disease, stroke, and
heart attack
 Reduced risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes
 Vegetables are naturally low in fat and cholesterol
 Contains many nutrients across the board!
 Health benefits:
 May reduce risk for heart disease, cancer, stroke, heart
 Rich in fiber, which can help with weight control and type 2
 Fruits rich in potassium may lower blood pressure, may
reduce risk of developing kidney stones
 May help reduce calorie intake
 Nutrients:
 Naturally low in fat, sodium, and calories. None have
 Rich in essential nutrients: potassium, fiber, vitamin C, and
folic acid
 Health benefits:
 Linked to improved bone health and may reduce the risk of
 Important in growth and development years, which is when bone
mass is being built
 Associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2
diabetes, and with lower blood pressure in adults
 Nutrients:
 Calcium, used for building bones and teeth
 Potassium helps maintain a healthy blood pressure level
 Vitamin D, helps to regulate levels of calcium in the body
 Health benefits:
 Meat, poultry, dry beans and peas, eggs, etc. supply many nutrients
including protein, B vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, and magnesium
 Proteins function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage,
skin, and blood
 Help with releasing energy from muscles
 Nutrients:
 Choose your protein foods wisely! Some have BAD cholesterol
levels and are high in fat
 LDL (low density lipoprotein) = BAD, increases the risk for coronary heart
 HDL (high density lipoprotein) = GOOD, this kind of cholesterol "cleans up"
LDL cholesterol
 Seafood and low-fat meat/poultry are best