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10/17/2016
Winning at Any Cost: A Review of
Performance Enhancing Drugs
and Other Dietary Supplements
Diane King MS, ATC, RD, CSSD
Athletic Trainer, South Forsyth High School
Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics
November 5,2016
What About Supplementation?
• To supplement the body with nutrients it may not receive from food (ex. Multivitamin)
• To regenerate disrupted/damaged muscle tissue after exercise training
• To ensure sufficient calorie intake • To enhance recovery or refill your gas tank
• This is a day‐to‐day process (ex. Tour De France, or repeated 2‐a day football practices)
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Dietary Supplements
•
•
•
It is often accepted that athletes may take a multivitamin or mineral without harm in an attempt to improve their dietary status and maintain optimum health. Dietary Supplements including a multivitamin or mineral preparation will not fix an otherwise poor diet. Other nutrients may be necessary in the event dietary deficiencies are present or when extra nutrients are needed, as in the case of recovery from surgery.
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Vitamins for Athletes
• Look for no more than
100% USRDA of any one
vitamin or mineral
• Take only one each day
“Mega Men”
• 20 vitamins & Minerals listed
• 11 in amounts > 100% US
RDA
• 3 in amounts > 1000% US
RDA
• 18 other substances
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Ergogenic Aids
•
•
Ergogenic aids are designed to optimize performance for the athlete. These of products offers to increase muscle size, increase strength, increase endurance, boost energy, decrease body fat or improve concentration. The claims are very appealing, so care must be taken on the part of the athlete and the sports medicine team to evaluate these products carefully to assure products are appropriate for use.
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Legality
•
•
•
Many substances are banned by a variety of sports governing bodies. The saying “Buyer Beware” remains relevant as thousands of new products are introduced into the market every year. Store clerks are not likely to have knowledge of these specific guidelines and the internet sites are even less helpful. The athlete must know what is legal for their sport.
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Safety
• At this time, the US government still does not test supplements for safety. • Ingredients used to manufacture may contain contaminants that the manufacturer of the supplement may not even be aware of. • Recent studies have shown a high level of contamination with Chinese herbs that cause a number of health problems including liver toxicity or kidney failure Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Effectiveness
•
If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Many products are not based on sound research. And even if a supplement is appropriate for one population, athletes should not assume it will work the same way for them. There is no “one‐supplement‐fits‐all” approach for athletes. •
For example, does increasing muscle mass automatically improve performance? While it may be beneficial to an athlete that does high intensity, short duration events, increased mass may not benefit the endurance swimmer.
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
What’s The Problem with Supplement
Use
• Dangers of athletes purchasing supplements
– Don’t understand ingredient list
• Most supplements have multiple ingredients (especially Weight loss pills)
– Side effects caused by supplement
– Appropriate dosage for safe supplements
• “More is better”
– Exact reason why they are taking them – Sold by someone who has less knowledge than they do (supplement store employee, gym employee, or even a coach)
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
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10/17/2016
Signs That Your Supplement May Be
Harmful
Natural
testosterone
booster
Aromatase
inhibitor
Increased
testosterone
Testosterone
booster
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
What Athletes Want To Take
Dimethylamylamine (DMAA)
Dimethylamphetamine
Geranamine
Geranium Extract
Methylhexaneamine
2-Amino-4-methylhexane
Forthan
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Third Party Certification Programs
US Pharmacopia– dietary supplement verification program
http://www.quality-supplements.org/Verification
ConsumerLab.com approved quality product seal:
http://www.ConsumerLab.com/seal.asp
NSF Certified for Sportwww.nsfsport.com
http://www.nsf.org/newsroom_pdf/DS_Cert_for_Sport_Consumer
_Trifold.pdf
Informed Sport - http://www.informed-sport.com/
Informed Choice - http://www.informed-choice.org/
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10/17/2016
Energy Drinks
• Rock Star, Full Throttle, Red Bull, Cocaine, Bawls
• Significant increase in athletes using it as a food substitute, especially girls.
• May provide a quick boost of energy, followed by
a rapid drop in blood sugar.
• Will increase core temperature.
• May increase rate of dehydration
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Caffeine Intoxication
• "recent consumption of caffeine, usually in excess of 250 milligrams and taken very quickly)... with five or more of the following signs: restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flush face, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, rambling flow, thoughts and speech ... periods of inexhaustibility, motor agitation." Am Psychiatric Assoc DSM‐V; Caffeine Use Disorder is an actual proposed addiction under review at this time
•
2013: According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, energy drink‐related ER visits have doubled in the last 4 years, however, 42% of these visits involved caffeine in combination with other drugs such as alcohol or other narcotics. src.
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Caffeine Contents
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Starbucks, Grande (16 oz) – 400 mg
Redline Power Rush, 2.5 oz – 350 mg
NOS High Performance, 8 0z – 343 mg
Cocaine Energy Drink, 8.4 oz ‐ 280 mg
NOS, 16 oz – 260 mg
No Doze, 1 tablet – 200 mg
Crunk, 16 oz – 150 ‐ 200 mg
Coffee, avg. 12 oz – 150 mg
Red Bull, 8 oz – 80 mg
Iced Tea or Soda, 12 oz – 25 ‐ 35mg
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10/17/2016
Supplements Used by Athletes
• Potentially Safe & Beneficial Supplements – Creatine
– Whey and Casein Proteins
– Carb/Protein Shakes (recovery, weight gain, meal replacement)
– Glutamine (Amino Acid) and Branched Chain Amino Acids
– Vitamins E & C
– Omega 3 Fatty Acids – Flax and Fish Oil
– Chocolate Milk – effective and inexpensive
• Potentially Hazardous Supplements
– NO2 – NO Explode or Arginine Alpha Keto‐Glutarate
– Weight loss products/Stimulants (even Ephedra Free)
– Energy Drinks (Red Bull, etc.)
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Supplement Resources
• Need help?
• www.usada.org (Supplement 411 app)
• www.drugfreesport.com
• http://www.fda.gov/medwatch
• www.consumerlab.com
• www.taylorhooton.org
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