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Why are some volcanoes more dangerous to human life than others? Lawrence Yano, SLZUSD, Bohannon MS Julie Ramirez, SLZUSD, Bohannon MS Marilyn Stewart, SLZUSD, Bohannon MS Linda Preminger, SLZUSD, Washington Manor MS Generative Question Assessments Lesson Planning Why are some volcanoes more dangerous to human life than others? USGS The Pacific Ring of Fire contains the worlds most destructive volcanoes. Why? And why do their eruptions result in more explosive force that volcanoes found in geologic hot spots, such as those on the Hawaiian Islands? Learning Objectives Students will understand (content knowledge): Plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth's surface and major geologic events. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: 1.e. – major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from plate motions. 1.f. – how to explain major features of California geology (including mountains, faults, volcanoes) in terms of plate tectonics. 2.d. - earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods change human and wildlife habitats. 7.c. – construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about relationships between variables. The lessons below are part of a larger unit on volcanoes. The Day 4 lesson plan below highlights The Great Viscosity Race, which helps students understand the role of silica content as a factor of volcanic explosivity. Day 1: The anatomy of a volcano, and reading. Day 2: Mapping activity of a representative sample of 28 active volcanoes. Day 3: Gas content of volcanoes and results of a sudden release of pressure, with videos of 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Day 4: The Great Viscosity Race activity. Day 5: Analyze data from Day 3 activity. Day 6: Summative assessment. Students should understand: The most explosive volcanoes are those that form along subduction zones, because their magma has the highest silica content as well as the highest gas content. The eruption characteristics Warm Up Probe: Students examine shape of active volcanoes, taking note of their shapes, and making hypotheses as to why the shapes are different. • Students will differentiate between low and high silica content magma by predicting and then testing the viscosity (flow rate) of different. • creating data tables showing different flow rates of corn syrup and corn syrup with sand. • Compare and contrast the different types of volcanoes by magma composition and shape by predicting the kind of volcano would be created by thin, runny magma and thick, sticky magma. • Describe different types of volcanic eruptions by completing a chart showing the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) Addressing Misconceptions: • Volcanoes are different because of different soil types. • Volcanoes are located in areas that have hot climate conditions. • The shape of volcanoes is a result of erosion. • All volcanoes erupt with explosive lava fountains. Where in the world are volcanoes located? Formative Assessment: Viscosity Probe Students respond to pictures of active volcanoes: one each of a shield, stratovolcano, and cinder cone. They are making predictions about the silhouette of the volcanoes to link what they will learn about how viscosity and gas content are related to volcano shape. Card sort: Pacific Ring of Fire Convergent Plate Boundaries/ Subduction Zones Rift Zones Divergent Plate Boundaries/ Mid-Ocean Ridges Hot Spots Movement of Plate over Weak Place in Lithosphere Students match results of The Great Viscosity Race “more fluid/less fluid” to the words “More Viscous” and “Less Viscous.” What are the types of volcanoes and where are they found? Scientific Diagram: Students will draw a profile view. Data table in Science Notebook/Worksheet: Students record speeds in which liquids of varying viscosities move down an inclined surface. Summative Assessment: Volcano Research Project and Presentation Students might work in teams to research particularly active and destructive volcanoes, the native myths associated with their eruptive history, and the geologic and eruptive characteristics of the volcano. In this project students explore internet sites, books, videos, interactive animations, and other multimedia. They develop critical observation and mathematics skills associated with proportional thinking and solid geometry by calculating volume and building a scale model. Stratovolcanoes – Subduction Zones Shield Volcanoes/Underwater Seamounts – Rift Zones and Hot Spots Cinder Cones – Subduction zones and secondary volcanic activity What factors govern the characteristics of a volcanic eruption? The Variables…. Low silica content Low gas content Results in: • Runny magma • Quiet eruption Low silica content High gas content Results in: • Runny, bubbly magma • Fire fountain Instructional Strategies USGS Lesson Aims: Scientific Investigation Inquiry Activity: The Great Viscosity Race These strategies are imbedded in the lesson to support EL students, Special Ed students and low performing students. • Students are in mixed ability groups. • Rotate the following inquiry jobs: Pourer, Timer, 2nd Timer, Data Recorder • Activity Before Content: Students are mapping volcanoes the day before the lesson to link locations of stratovolcanoes with the Ring of Fire • Use of sentence frames to respond to assessment questions, such as, “This is probably a ______________ volcano. It most likely formed along a ________________ [zone or area]. The characteristics of its magma are __________ and ________________. I have decided this because the volcano has a _______________ shape.” High silica content Low gas content Results in: • Thick, sticky magma • Quiet eruption High silica content High gas content Results in: Thick, sticky magma Explosive eruption Students first locate volcanoes on a world map which shows the tectonic plates. In a series of hands-on investigations students learn that viscosity and gas pressure determine type, shape, and explosivity of the world’s volcanoes. Then students learn about the difference between subduction zones and geologic hotspots. In the process they are able to tie all these factors together to shed misconceptions that all volcanoes erupt with fire fountain lava flows, have the same classic conic shape of a stratovolcano, or that all are located in sub-tropical climates.