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230 Chapter 10 And he compared this to the work of visual artists Martin Kippenberger and Albert Oehlen: Itâs about being flaccidly awful, overdone, retarded, and âHe has skill and he doesnât apply it, or he does?â [...] Youâre like âWhyâs it wrong?â. And then you realise maybe itâs not wrong, or itâs wrong because of this. And then you realise that your value system is correct, or skewed, or not... itâs a good way to judge things. However, whilst many musicians pointed to the fact that sounds or techniques that came out âwrongâ could have a positive influence on a group situation (and propel the music in new, unforeseen directions), there were also âmistakesâ which were not considered so kindly. Olaf Rupp described how destroying certain âdirectionsâ16 or tensions could lead to âmusicalâ failure, adding that: We all know... itâs a great situation when you have established tension... itâs gorgeous [and] somehow this is the essence of the magic of improv, when you reach this... [but] sometimes I realise in other situations you do the same stuff and it doesnât work. And, similarly, in the case of Rule- and Concept-based improvising, departing from the concept (not following the 15 minute crescendo, playing a pitch outside a cell of pre-determined melodic materials, or not waiting 60 seconds before playing the idea you first thought of) could also be classed as a non-desirable âmistakeâ, Valerio Tricoli describing how: You have four horns... [and] their improvisation is making beatings over a sharp note. And then [if], by playing clarinet, at one point it [squeaks], because he canât hold the circular breathing - that obviously sounds like a mistake. [...] Itâs not that then he does this and... then somebody else is going to react to that. 5. Conceptions of Sound A further set of distinctions and specialist listening strategies emerging from fieldwork related to the question of sound and meaning, with musicians and âexpertâ listeners suggesting four main modes of listening, which applied directly to the intentions of different individual musicians and group contexts. The first category, âliteralâ listening, was the intention of relatively few musicians. JD 16 The term âdirectionsâ is used in the sense of Voutchkova (see p. 185). Rupp also described that mistakes could lie in decisions made before performance, such as going to the sauna (meaning his nails would be too soft to play).