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Transcript
Chapter 26 Resources
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TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES
Graphic Organizer Student
Activity 26 Transparency L2
Graphic Organizer 1: Main
Idea Chart
Chapter
Transparency 26 L2
Map Overlay
Transparency 26 L2
CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 26
Main Idea
World War II (1939–1945)
Europe in June 1942
Map Overlay Transparency
Supporting Detail
Supporting Detail
Supporting Detail
15°E
45°E
60°N
SWEDEN
North
Sea
IRELAND
N
W
E
S
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
SWITZERLAND
40°N
PORTU
GA
L
Supporting Detail
Supporting Detail
15°W
Benjamin Charles Steele, Tayabas Road Hospital, Copyright 1946; from Prisoner of War;
Permanent Collection at the North Steele Gallery of Art, Montana State University–Billings.
Supporting Detail
26
Neutral nations
Black Sea
SPAIN
TURKEY
0
0
200
400 mi.
Mediterranean Sea
200 400 km
APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT
Date
Class
Name
Name
★
Enrichment Activity 26
★
Date
Class
PRIMARY SOURCE R
EADING
W
orld War II erupted in 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland. In July
1941, Nazi leaders set into motion a plan to exterminate all the
Jews in Europe—the Holocaust. During the next four years, the
Nazis rounded up millions of Jews and sent them to concentration camps
such as Auschwitz. The following interview describes the experience of one
woman sent to the death camp at Auschwitz. She was there from the early
days until the camp was liberated by the Allies.
World War II
Italy 5.8%
Soviet Union 50%
France 16.9%
Other 11.9%
Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn how the Jews were sorted for slave labor or death when they
arrived at Auschwitz.
Italy 0.5%
United States
0.6%
26
Rena’s Promise: A Story of Sisters in Auschwitz
more than 23,000,000 soldiers lost
their lives.
World War I
Other 10.1%
Germany
22.6%
France 1.4%
United States 1.9%
Great Britain
11.3%
Great Britain 2%
China 3.3%
Russia 21.2%
TOTAL: 8,020,780
Austria-Hungary
11.5%
Germany 19%
Japan 10%
TOTAL: 15,000,000
DIRECTIONS: Use the graphs above to answer the questions below in the space provided.
1. Based on the total number of military deaths, World War II was almost how many times
as costly as World War I? _________________________________________________________
b. Is this number greater or less than the number of Germans killed during World War I?
4. In which war did the United States lose more soldiers? ______________________________
5. a. About how many French soldiers were killed during World War I? _________________
b. About how many were killed in World War II? __________________________________
c. Based on your knowledge of the two wars, why did the French lose fewer soldiers in
World War II? _______________________________________________________________
6. Military deaths among the Axis powers made up what percentage of the total deaths in
World War II?
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. a. About how many German soldiers were killed in World War II? ___________________
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
b. About how many soldiers did this country lose? _________________________________
The brakes squeal with such finality that we
know instinctively that our journey has ended.
The doors are pushed open to a dull gray haze.
We blink at the light stinging our eyes. The sign
reads AUSCHWITZ.
“Get out of the car,” the Germans order. We
shift from blank stares to the business of collecting our belongings.
“Go quick!” Men in striped caps and uniforms prod us with sticks, whispering under
their breath, “Move quickly. We don’t want to
hurt you.” The SS aim their guns, forcing these
poor prisoners to hit us so that we jump from
the car. And we jump, half dead, with our luggage, if we have luggage.
It is four feet to the ground. My knees,
cramped from being stationary for so long, feel
as if they will snap as I land. I turn to help the
woman with her baby. A stick taps my shoulder,
“Go quick.” I look for the eyes belonging to the
voice, but there are only hollow black holes staring into my face.
“Get in line!” Orders are sharp, punctuated
by whips against shining leather boots.
“Throw your suitcases over there,” the SS
shout.
I place mine upright, neatly, next to the
growing pile, then turn to ask one of the SS
guards, “How are we going to find our suitcases
later?” I figure I am a human being, I have a
right to ask.
“Get in line and shut up!” he yells in my
face, pointing his gun at me. The hair on my
skin bristles. He doesn’t see that I am human.
There is an odor I cannot identify. It is not
from human waste or people who have not
bathed in days, although those smells are also
prevalent. It is the scent of fear permeating the
air around me. It is everywhere, in the eyes of
the men and women around me, in our clothing
and our sweat.
The baby isn’t alive anymore, but its mother
does not notice the limpness of the form in her
arms. Her desperate grasp on its corpse spooks
me. There is too much happening. Everything is
so hurried, so haphazard, that there is no way to
make sense of the situation. I look through the
crowd for some direction, for someone to tell me
why we are here and what will befall us. I see
him. He stands before us, superior and seraphic
[angelic], taking control, directing us to go this
way or that. He is so neat and refined in his gray
uniform; he is gorgeous. I smile into his blue
eyes, hoping he will see me for who I am.
“Do you want to give up the child?” he asks
the woman with the dead baby.
“No.” Her head shakes frantically.
“Go over there,” he says.
How kind of him not to point out to her that
her infant is dead, I think to myself. How kind
of him to send her over to the group who is
obviously weaker. The elderly and the very
young are gathered apart from those of us who
are stronger, able to work long, hard hours. I
have no idea how many men, women, and children are on the platform, but each of us is told to
go either to the left or the right. The direction
has no meaning to us. I wonder which way the
man in the gray will tell me to go.
Parents try to hug their children before they
are taken away. “We have to go work.” They try
to comfort each other. “You are young enough
I M U L AT I O N
CTIVITY
1.1. Japan
Japandemonstrates
demonstratesitsitsterritorial
territorialambitions
ambitions by
byexpanding
expandinginto
intoManchuria
Manchuriaand
andsetting
settingupupa a
puppet
puppetruler.
ruler.
2.2. Italian
forces
invade
Ethiopia.
Mussolini
and
Italian
forces invade Ethiopia.
3.3. Hitler
occupies
the provides
Rhineland.
Spanish
Civil War
an opportunity for
4. Hitler
Mussolini
the Rome-Berlin
Hitlerand
to test
his warsign
machine.
4. Axis.
Hitler occupies the Rhineland.
5.5. Germany
annexes
Austria.
Hitler and
Mussolini
sign the Rome-Berlin
In the early 1990s, Germany saw an
increase in violent offenses against minority
groups. Most of these offenses were against
Turks and immigrants from eastern Europe.
Many of the major incidents occurred in
eastern Germany and were characterized by
arson (fire) attacks on immigrant shelters
and immigrant residences. Look at the chart
and read the accompanying information.
6. Stalin
begins secret talks with Hitler.
Axis.
7. 6.
German
transports
attack
Denmark and the
Germany
annexes
Austria.
Low Countries.
8. Germans begin blitz of London.
9. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
10. The Japanese government announces plans
for “a new order in greater East Asia.”
Factors Involved
In 1989, the Berlin Wall that separated
Communist East Germany and democratic
West Germany fell. The two parts of
Germany were finally united in 1990. Joy
over the unification soon turned to unease
as the economic situation worsened.
Billions of dollars needed to be spent in the
eastern part of the country to rebuild the
economy and to improve its levels of production.In spite of these positive changes,
Germans in the east grew more nervous as
the familiar social and economic structures
of the Communist regime disappeared.
Unemployment throughout Germany rose
to 10 percent by 1994, but reached 25 per-
Decision Making Choose a captain and a recorder. All other students are fact-finders. On each index
card, write one response relating to your statement. The group leader will keep track of the time for
reviewing the material and writing the facts—30 minutes. The recorder enters the information onto
the class chart.
.
.
Recorder
Fact-Finders
Individual Work Review the chapter. Below, write the responses that countries made that relate to
your topic.
Group Work: Action or Nonaction?
Your team will write one response on each card. When your leader calls time, hand the cards to your
leader. Your leader will read the cards aloud. Decide if the responses involve action or nonaction and
then write A or N on the card.
Class
!
806A
★
Date
Cooperative Learning Activity
Class
26 ★
Propaganda and Advertising
BACKGROUND
Propaganda is often used by governments to create or increase public support in
times of war or crisis. Both the Allies and the Axis powers used propaganda extensively during World War II. There are many similarities between propaganda techniques and modern advertising techniques and both have proven to be effective in
gaining responses to calls to action. This activity uses group techniques to research
propaganda and to compare its methods with those of modern consumer advertising.
German Government’s
Response to Violence
On December 1, 1994, due to the increase
in right-wing hate crimes, Germany
strengthened its already strict constitutional
laws against antidemocratic groups and
political parties. The new laws outlawed
the use of Nazi-like flags, symbols, uniforms, and slogans, and increased penalties
for hate crimes. The use of actual Nazi
material such as newsletters and propaganda had already been illegal since
Germany’s constitution of 1945. Today 85
percent of anti-Jewish or neo-Nazi material
distributed in Germany comes from groups
in the United States, where free-speech laws
protect the publication of racist propaganda.
GROUP DIRECTIONS
1. Research forms of propaganda used in World War II and in other military conflicts and times of crisis. Older relatives and friends who were involved in or
spectators during World War II may be able to provide first-hand accounts. If
you can arrange to do so, interview them or provide them with a list of questions to answer about propaganda used during World War II by both sides.
2. You should also research forms of propaganda using the library and Internet
resources. Collect specific examples of propaganda used. Remember that not all
propaganda was print-based. You will present your information in an oral
report to this group.
3. Another part of the group should collect examples of effective modern advertising from newspapers, magazines, and the Internet.
4. As a group, compare the examples of propaganda with the advertising samples.
Decide how they are similar and dissimilar.
5. Create a multimedia presentation, using presentation software comparing propaganda and advertising. Prepare hardcopy examples of both to illustrate the key
points in your analysis. Consider the following headings for comparing the two:
Violent Offenses with Proven or Suspected Right-Wing Motivation
Year
Number of Violent Offenses
Change Over Previous Year
1990
309
—
1991
1,492
+ 383%
2,639
+ 77%
1992
1993
2,232
–15%
1994
1,498
–33%
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. What events that occurred in Germany of the 1930s and 1940s bear some resemblance to
this increase in violent crimes against minorities?
2. Describe the economic situation in Germany in the early 1990s.
3. How was this situation similar to the situation in prewar Germany?
4. What were the 1994 laws meant to accomplish?
R
• World War II: The War Chronicles
(ISBN 1–56501–484–7)
• The War in Europe (ISBN 1–56501–993–8)
• The War in the Pacific (ISBN 1–56501–994–6)
• Churchill and the War Cabinet Room
(ISBN 1–56501–813–3)
Name
cent or more in parts of the east as factories
had to be closed. Yet, while the German
economy was feeling the strain of reunification, in 1992 approximately 1,000,000 immigrants arrived in Germany from countries
in eastern Europe to take advantage of
Germany’s relative prosperity.
R
The following videotape programs are available
from Glencoe as supplements to Chapter 26:
Cooperative Learning
Activity 26 L1/ELL
Right-Wing Violence and Hate Crimes in Germany
HANDOUT MATERIAL
The Path to War—Planning Form
Captain
Date
Historical Significance Activity 26
26
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. a. Which nation lost the most soldiers in World War II? _____________________________
c. This country mobilized 20,000,000 troops. Military deaths make up what percentage
of the total force mobilization? _________________________________________________
Name
Class
ISTORY
★
The Cost of War
During the two world wars that
took place between 1914 and 1945,
Date
HS
A
Historical Significance
Activity 26 L2
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Name
History Simulation
Activity 26 L1
Primary Source
Reading 26 L2
• The Decision to Drop the Bomb
(ISBN 1–56501–600–9)
• Anne Frank (ISBN 0–7670–1409–X)
To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To find
classroom resources to accompany many of these
videos, check the following home pages:
A&E Television: www.aande.com
The History Channel: www.historychannel.com
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Enrichment Activity 26 L3
•
•
•
•
purpose
audience(s)
media used
techniques
appeal to emotion
exaggeration
simplicity
eye- or ear-appeal
repetition
consistency
reaching the audience
•
•
•
advantages gained
risks
effectiveness
★
Chapter 26 Resources
REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT
Linking Past and Present
Activity 26 L2
Time Line Activity 26 L2
Name
Name ____________________________________
Date ________________
Class __________
Date
Reteaching Activity 26 L1
Name
Class
‘
Time Line Activity 26
Date
Critical Thinking Skills
Activity 26 L2
Vocabulary Activity 26 L1
Class
Name
f
Reteaching Activity 26
Date
Name
Class
Date
Class
Critical Thinking Skills Activity 26
Vocabulary Activity 26
Analyzing Information
Linking Past and Present Activity 26
World War II
appropriate box.
a. extermination of millions of Jews, Slavs, and
Gypsies in death camps
1937 Japan
attacks China.
b. conquers European colonies in East and
Southeast Asia
1938 Anschluss plan to group all German peoples into
one country is put into action; Munich Conference
1936 Spanish Civil War
begins; Germany occupies Rhineland.
1940
1940 Germans enter Paris
and France surrenders;
Germany begins blitz of
London.
1.
1941 Germany invades
Soviet Union; Japan attacks
U.S. naval base at Pearl
Harbor.
t. attacks naval base at Pearl Harbor
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
those available today.
x. prime minister allows Hitler to take Czech
territory
3
y. directs Normandy invasion
z. gains control over all of eastern Europe as war
comes to an end
Great Britain
4
5
France
6
Soviet Union
ALLIED POWERS
WORLD WAR II
Event
Foreign aggression in the Pacific brings the United States into the war.
AXIS POWERS
Event
Germany
Germany occupies and annexes Austria.
Year
6.
Italy
Japan
Event
8
9
10
11
12
13
I pushed this across to Stalin, who
had by then heard the translation. There
was a slight pause. Then he took his
blue pencil and made a large tick upon
it, and passed it back to us. It was all
settled in no more time then it takes to
set down.
Of course we had long and
anxiously considered our point, and
were only dealing with immediate wartime arrangements. All larger questions
were reserved on both sides for what
we then hoped would be a peace table
when the war was won.
After this there was a long silence.
The pencilled paper lay in the centre of
the table. At length I said, “Might it not
be thought rather cynical if it seemed
we had disposed of these issues, so
fateful to millions of people in such an
offhand manner? Let us burn the paper.”
“No, you keep it,” said Stalin.
—From Triumph and Tragedy by
Winston Churchill
1. What was being decided at the meeting?
2. What does the offhand mean and why was it used in the final paragraph?
3. Write a few sentences explaining the significance of this account in providing an
understanding of the end of the war.
4. How might this account of the meeting differ from one that might appear in the
newspaper?
14. The fate of which democratic country was decided at a meeting in Munich?
Counterattack launched to roll back Axis forces from Italian peninsula.
Year
T
2
w. Vichy government collaborates with the Nazis
l. surrenders on May 7, 1945
Event
Year
5.
The 1944 Percentage Deal
he moment was apt for business, so
I said, “Let us settle about our affairs
in the Balkans. Your armies are in
Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don’t
let us get at cross-purposes in small
ways. So far as Britain and Russia are
concerned, how would it do for you to
have ninety per cent predominance in
Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent
of the say in Greece, and go fifty-fifty
about Yugoslavia?” While this was being
translated I wrote out on a half-sheet of
paper:
Rumania
Russia
90%
The others
10%
Greece
Great Britain
90%
(in accord with U. S. A.)
Russia
10%
Yugoslavia
50 –50%
Hungary
50 –50%
Bulgaria
Russia
75%
The others
25%
7
Germany and Italy aid the Nationalist forces led by Franco against the opposing Loyalist
forces.
Year
memoirs Triumph and Tragedy. Think about its historical context, the writer’s motivation, the
point of view it presents, and possible ways that it may be biased. Then answer the
questions that follow on a separate sheet of paper.
1
m. mainland invaded by Germany in September, 1943
United States
3.
4.
k. invades Ethiopia to increase its power status
Event
Complete devastation of cities forces Japan to surrender.
Year
that American military women have more
opportunities today than during World
War II?
i. air force wins victory over German Luftwaffe
Nation is divided; Germans occupy the capital and the northern half while collaborationist government is set up in southern part in the city of Vichy.
Year
u. loses 1.5 million people in two-year siege at
Leningrad
DIRECTIONS: Read the following excerpt from British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s
8. mass destruction of the Jewish people,
among others
9. race of people occupying a large part of
Eastern and Northern Europe
10. the day of Allied attack on the coast of
Normandy
11. “lightning war”
12. measures taken to stop trade and other
economic contacts with a nation that
has broken international law
13. Italian resistance fighter who fought
against Mussolini
v. became the arsenal of the Allied powers
j. invades Poland, sparking the war
1945 Germany surrenders;
United States drops atomic
bombs on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki.
1944 D-Day: Allies
invade Normandy.
2.
2. Making inferences: Why do you think
h. “leapfrogs” through Pacific islands
1950
1943 Allies invade
island of Sicily.
r. defeats German troops at Stalingrad
s. annexes Austria and the Sudetenland
e. falls after evacuation of 338,000 soldiers
f. King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini
g. originally signs a nonaggression pact with Hitler
1930
o. invades Manchuria
p. remains last European holdout against Hitler
d. drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
1939 Spanish Civil War ends; Nazi-Soviet
Nonaggression Pact; Germany invades
Poland; World War II begins.
n. officially surrenders in August, 1945
q. establishes Maginot Line to defend against attack
c. remains neutral in the beginning
1935 Italy
invades Ethiopia.
1. political union
2. series of air raids
3. Japanese pilots who flew suicide
missions
4. nuclear weapon in which enormous
energy is released by nuclear fission
(two words)
5. operates both on land and in water
6. policy of granting concessions in order
to maintain peace
7. weapons and fortifications are not
permitted
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the idea web by placing the letters of the statements provided in the
event that led to that outcome.
1931 Japan invades Chinese
province of Manchuria.
World War II: 1939–1945
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the term for each definition listed below, writing one letter in each
square. Then use the letters in the shaded squares to answer the question that follows.
In World War II, the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union fought
together as the Allied Powers. Their enemies, the Axis powers, were Germany, Italy, and
Japan. Events just before and during World War II are listed below.
After World War I, territorial aggression and minor conflicts during the 1930s
laid the groundwork for another major war. Tensions among European nations
had become so strong by 1939 that it took only a spark—Germany’s invasion of Poland—to ignite
World War II.
DIRECTIONS: Read the time line. Then, for each outcome listed below, write the year and
to understand why it was written, what is
being said, and how it is significant.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Critical Thinking
Directions: Answer the following questions
on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Making comparisons: Compare and contrast the roles available to American
military women during World War I with
World War II
Now Today, the roughly 200,000 women who
serve in the military make up nearly 15 percent of America’s Armed Forces. Women have
served in military actions in Somalia, Haiti,
Bosnia, and the Gulf region, and are eligible
for most jobs in the United States military.
The extent of women’s integration into the
military, however, varies according to national
policy. Belgium, Canada, Holland, and
Norway place no restrictions on women’s roles
in combat. Israel maintains all-female tank
units. In the United States, each branch of the
Armed Forces sets its own policy. Women are
excluded from Army infantry or armor units,
submarine service, and Special Forces.
While reservations about women’s full participation in combat persist, the performance
of female nurses, soldiers, aviators, and support personnel has opened new opportunities
for military women. Several American military
women have attained high rank. In 1999 Air
Force Colonel Eileen Collins commanded a
space shuttle mission. In 2001 Navy top gun
Lieutenant Kendra Williams became the first
female pilot to drop bombs and fire missiles
during combat.
Co-educational basic training, women’s full
participation in combat, and their service
aboard ships are still controversial issues.
However, America recognized the value of
women’s military service in 1997 when the
Women in Military Service for America
Memorial was dedicated in Arlington National
Cemetery. This site honors the 1.8 million
women who have served in the American military since the Revolutionary War.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Then “Is there any regulation which specifies
that a Navy yeoman be a man?” That simple
question solved a major problem for Secretary
of the Navy Josephus Daniels during World
War I–the problem being a shortage of sailors.
After being allowed to enlist in the Navy in
1917, women served in non-combat roles ranging from clerks to electricians to nurses.
Eventually about 33,000 women served in the
Army, Navy, and Marine Corps during the
war. Thousands more served overseas with
civilian groups such as the Red Cross.
During World War II, over 100,000
American women in all-female auxiliary units
served as nurses or in support roles that
ranged from teaching to repairing aircraft.
Women’s Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs) like
Jacqueline Cochran, who ferried planes and
flew test flights, were not recognized as military pilots until 1977.
Yugoslav, French, and Italian women
fought with partisan resistance movements.
British agents Nancy Wake and Pearl
Witherton led French resistance fighters into
battle. Russian women volunteered for the
army; many specialized in firing anti-aircraft
guns, although some served as snipers, commanded tanks, or flew combat missions.
After World War II, American women were
allowed to join the regular military. However,
women could make up no more than 2 percent
of the Armed Forces and could not be promoted beyond a certain rank.
In 1967 Master Sergeant Barbara J. Dulinsky
volunteered for duty in Vietnam and became
the first female Marine ordered to a combat
zone. Nearly 10,000 American women served
in Vietnam, eight of whom died.
During the 1970s, the Armed Forces began
training women as military pilots. Laws
restricting women’s participation in combat
were repealed in the 1990s.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Women in Warfare
When you research a topic, you have to
analyze the information you find in order
Event
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
Chapter 26 Test
Form A L2
Chapter 26 Test
Form B L2
ExamView® Pro
Testmaker CD-ROM
Performance Assessment
Activity 26 L1/ELL
Standardized Test Practice
Workbook Activity 26 L2
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
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✔
★ Performance Assessment Activity 26
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Score
Chapter 26 Test, Form A
Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________
Standardized Test Practice
Score
Chapter 26 Test, Form B
Use with Chapter 26.
A
CTIVITY 26
Recognizing Forms of Propaganda
World War II
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
Column A
Column A
Column B
1. policy of maintaining peace and stability by satisfying the
reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers
2. Neville Chamberlain thought the agreement meant “peace
for our time”
A. Axis Powers
B. “Mukden
incident”
3. “lightning war” that utilized tanks supported by airplanes
D. Vichy France
4. authoritarian regime under German control that was set up
to govern occupied France
E. appeasement
4. policy that initially kept the United States from becoming
involved in the war against Germany
F.
Einsatzgruppen
G. Luftwaffe
6. Germany, Italy, and Japan
B. Potsdam
Conference
E. Allied Powers
H. Munich
Conference
I.
Yalta Conference
J.
Holocaust
8. Japanese pilots who flew suicide missions against U.S.
warships
Nazi-Soviet
Nonaggression
Pact
10. meeting at which Truman demanded free elections
throughout Eastern Europe
persuade people to accept a viewpoint that may be good or bad. Through appeals to the emotions,
propaganda attempts to force the public to accept a particular viewpoint without careful reflection.
Both the Axis and Allies in World War II used propaganda.
★ Learning to Recognize Propaganda
Use the following guidelines to help you recognize propaganda.
★ AUDIENCE
• Look for emotion-filled words.
• Identify various techniques of propagandists.
• Find out who is the target for propaganda.
Your audience includes your teacher, other students, and anyone who might read
a newspaper.
G. Tehran
Conference
9. meeting of the Big Three to discuss the final attack on
Germany
10. meeting at which the Allies agreed to form a United
Nations organization
In contrast to the scientific method that is based on factual evidence, propaganda aims to
You and four or five classmates are newspaper journalists who are reporting on
World War II. You are to write and publish a newspaper for a specific day during the
war. You will include several war-related articles as well as other newspaper items
such as political cartoons, weather, sports, local news, and perhaps an advertisement
or two.
D. D-Day
F.
Reading Objective 6: The student will recognize points of view, propaganda, and/or statements of fact and
nonfact in a variety of written texts.
★ TASK
C. Anti-Comintern
Pact
5. Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States
6. history’s greatest naval invasion
7. Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews
7. special strike forces for carrying out Nazi Final Solution
8. the slaughter of European civilians, particularly European
Jews, by the Nazis
9. British term for the German air raids
A. isolationism
2. gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland
C. blitz
3. used as an excuse for Japanese seizure of Manchuria
5. German air force
★ BACKGROUND
Journalists play an important role in reporting events worldwide. In times of war,
they go into war zones to bring back photos and stories about the situation as it
changes. During World War II, before the age of television, the public relied on newspapers to keep them informed about the course of the war and how the Allies were
progressing.
Column B
1. treaty between Germany and Japan promising a common
front against communism
H. blitzkrieg
★ PURPOSE
I.
kamikaze
J.
Your purpose is to inform the public about the events that happened on a particular day during World War II.
Final Solution
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
12. Two days after Hitler’s invasion of
war on Germany.
A. Poland
B. Austria
, Britain and France declared
C. France
D. Slovakia
13. Hitler’s blitzkrieg, or “lightning war,” was
A. a new form of warfare that used airplanes exclusively for the first wave of attack.
B. a form of attack that used tank divisions supported by air attacks.
C. a strategy in which armies rested very little between attacks to wear the enemy
down more quickly.
D. a naval strategy that combined battleships and submarines together in a single
attack.
1. As a group, decide on the individual jobs for each member. Agree on who will
serve as the editor-in-chief, the layout editor, and the journalists.
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence
or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the
sentence. (4 points each)
2. Decide which day you will cover in your reporting. You may want to choose a
date mentioned in Chapter 26 of your textbook.
11. Great Britain’s policy of
toward Germany was based on the belief that
the satisfaction of reasonable demands would maintain peace in Europe.
A. laissez-faire
C. appeasement
B. detente
D. Anschluss
3. Research the day you have chosen by reading other newspapers that were printed
on that day. Photocopy the most important stories and other items that interest
you. If you discover that little of interest was reported, choose a different day.
4. The journalists will write articles summarizing the news stories. They may also
want to write an editorial or create a political cartoon giving their own point of
view on one of the news events. The articles will be edited by the editor-in-chief.
12. Neville Chamberlain boasted that the Munich Conference meant
A. Great Britain had made Germany
C. Germany and Great Britain were
back down.
allies.
B. “peace for our time.”
D. “safety for Mother England.”
Read the following selection, study the poster, and complete the activity that follows.
5. Have one member of your group draw “photos” or make photocopies of published photos to go with some of the articles.
The Use of Propaganda in War Time
6. The layout editor will supervise the design of the masthead and the style of the
headlines as well as the layout of the articles and photos. If necessary, shorten or
lengthen the articles to fit the layout.
13. The “Mukden incident,” which Japan used as an excuse to seize
Manchuria, was
A. an attack on a Japanese railway by Japanese soldiers disguised as Chinese.
B. the accidental sinking of the Japanese merchant ship Mukden by a Chinese
warship.
C. the murder of a Japanese soldier in Mukden.
D. a labor strike by Chinese workers in a Japanese factory in Mukden.
“Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal
weapons of World War II, but there were other,
more subtle, forms of warfare as well. Words,
posters, and films waged a constant battle for the
hearts and minds of the American citizenry just
as surely as military weapons engaged the enemy.
Persuading the American public became a
wartime industry, almost as important as the
manufacturing of bullets and planes. The
Government launched an aggressive propaganda
campaign to galvanize public support, and some
of the nation’s foremost intellectuals, artists, and
filmmakers became warriors on that front.”
(Source: Introduction to “Powers of Persuasion” Exhibit,
National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.)
7. Make your finished newspaper available for the rest of the class to read.
During World War II, the most effective
propaganda posters were those that made a
direct, eye-catching appeal.
INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES
Mapping History
Activity 26 L2
Date
World Art and Music
Activity 26 L2
History and Geography
Activity 26 L2
Class
Name
Mapping History Activity 26
World Art and
Date
Music Activi
Name
Class
ty 26
★
War on a Global Scale
One of the main arguments used by the Axis powers to support their imperialist
conquests was the need for raw materials and food. The wheat fields of the
Soviet Union and its oil resources became primary targets for German forces.
Likewise, Japan targeted the tin, rubber, and oil of Southeast Asia held by France
and Great Britain.
musicians would record “sinleanora Holiday was
gles”—records with only one
born in Baltimore,
song per side. Holiday
Maryland, on April 7, 1915.
received between $35 and
Her father, Clarence, served
$75 for each of these recordin World War I and afterings. Although the record
ward traveled as a guitarist
companies earned thousands
with a band, so Holiday saw
from the sales of these
little of him during her childrecords, she never received
hood. Her mother, Sadie,
any royalties. As was comworked as a maid. When her
mon with many jazz artists,
mother traveled to
Holiday never learned to
Philadelphia and then to
read music. Because much of
New York for work, Eleanora
jazz performance is improviwas left with relatives in
sation, the ability to read
Baltimore. Because she was
music was not essential. For
a tomboy and a fighter,
Holiday, the music had to
Eleanora’s father called her
come from inside.
“Bill”; she changed it to Billie
Holiday toured for two
and remained Billie there“I can’t stand to sing the same song the same way two nights
years as the vocalist with
after. Her other nickname,
in succession, let alone two years or ten years. If you can, then
Count Basie’s band. Bands
“Lady Day,” was a combiit ain’t music, it’s close-order drill or exercise or yodeling or
something, not music.”
at the time consisted of a
nation of the “day” from
—From Lady Sings the Blues by Billie Holiday
bandleader, who often
Holiday and the “Lady”
composed most of the material the band played, 4–16
from a lifelong reputation for dignity and pride.
musicians, and a vocalist. The instruments included
Holiday had to struggle all her life against racism,
trumpets, trombones, saxophones, clarinets, drums,
poverty, and domestic violence. Her life changed draand piano. The bandleaders played instruments as
matically when she landed her first singing job—$18 a
well—Benny Goodman the clarinet, Louis Armstrong
week, guaranteed, at a nightclub in Harlem.
the trumpet, Duke Ellington the piano. While the
She was an immediate success with the audiences
bandleaders and musicians were usually men, the
and began making friends and contacts among the
vocalists were nearly always women.
jazz greats of the day, such as clarinetist Benny
Like all African Americans, Holiday suffered under
Goodman and agent Joe Glaser. These contacts led to
the Jim Crow laws, which were abolished in 1954. She
her first recordings. During the 1920s and 1930s, jazz
E
San Francisco
Los Angeles
GREAT
BRITAIN
GERMANY
Liverpool
New York Marseilles
UNITED
STATES
PORTUGAL
SPAIN
Hampton
Roads, VA
Naples
INDIA
Mumbai
New Guinea
AUSTRALIA
New
Caledonia
Extent of Axis Powers
Extent of Japanese
Conquests
Allied Nations
N
W
E
S
1. What prevented Germany from controlling all of continental Europe?
2. The Japanese and the Germans both controlled areas bordering on which country?
3. Read the following description of how the United States Army was able to supply the war effort on both fronts. Then draw the supply lines that are described.
From New York, the United States Army sent
supplies to the port cities of Liverpool, England;
Antwerp, Belgium; Marseilles, France; and Naples,
Italy. Supplies from Hampton Roads, Virginia,
were shipped all the way to Bombay, India. On the
Pacific side, the United States supplied the Aleutian
Islands of Alaska from Seattle. As the United States
advanced on Japanese possessions in this region, it
shipped supplies from San Francisco to New
Caledonia, the eastern coast of Australia, the island
of New Guinea, the island of Saipan, Manila in the
Philippines, and Okinawa (after conquest by the
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Neutral Nations
(continued)
The guilt of Stalin and his immediate entourage . . . for
the mass repressions and lawlessness they committed is
enormous and unforgivable.
Mikhail Gorbachev in a 1987 speech on the
anniversary of the Russian Revolution
Japanese Supply Routes
Lumber and beans
from Manchuria
JAPAN
Rice and wheat from Korea
Submarines
55%
Inland
Sea
Rice and wheat from
Formosa (Taiwan)
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Airplanes
31%
Raw materials streaming toward
Japan were cut off by an Allied
blockade. Not only did the Allies
sink ships sailing between the
resource-rich Dutch East Indies
and Japan, but Allied planes also
dropped mines into the waters of
Japan’s vital Inland Sea, sharply
curtailing movement among the
home islands themselves.
Class
26
P r o f i le 1
Joseph Stalin (1879–1953)
CHINA
Mines
and other
14%
Date
ld History: Activity
People in Wor
materials from its overseas conquests. It
imported almost all of the oil needed to fuel
its war machine, along with 80 percent of
the iron ore it used to build ships. Half
of its food also came from outside the
home islands.
Recognizing this weakness, Allied strategists targeted Japan’s merchant fleet. From
the pitching decks of aircraft carriers, U.S.
planes led the attack on the lifelines of the
Japanese war machine. By 1944, the flow
Oil, rubber, iron
ore, tin from the
Dutch East Indies
PHILLIPPINE
ISLANDS
Mariana
Islands
Allied air forces
Singapore
Allied naval forces
Japanese Empire
c. 1931
DUTCH
EAST INDIES
MULTIMEDIA
Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Audio Program
World History Primary Source
Document Library CD-ROM
Name
Cause of Losses to Japanese
Merchant Fleet
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Antwerp
Aleutian Islands
Seattle
JAPAN
Okinawa
Saipan
Manila
Class
For ten weeks, Allied planes and submarines had dogged the Japanese supply
convoy, picking off its ships until only one
was left, the Sarawak Maru. Finally, on
March 20, 1945, that tanker, too, sank in a
seething cloud of fire. How did the fate of
the Sarawak Maru foreshadow the surrender
of Japan?
The war between the Allies and Japan in
the Pacific was fought over immense
stretches of ocean that prevented rapid
movement except by air. This meant that
ships traveling the long sea-lanes were vulnerable to attack.
Japan, as a nation of
islands with limited natural
resources, depended heavily
on shipping to bring in raw
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about this African American jazz singer,
then answer the questions in the space provided.
Height of Axis Power in 1942
Date
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITY 26
The Blockade of Japan
Billie Holiday
“. . . [W]ithout feeling, whatever you do amounts to nothing,” Billie
Holiday wrote in her 1956 autobiography, Lady Sings the Blues. Among
the many great singers of her era—Lena Horne, Sarah Vaughan, Ella
Fitzgerald—Holiday stands out for the emotion she always brought to her
performances.
DIRECTIONS: The map below shows areas affected by World War II. Use the map
to complete the activities that follow.
Calcutta
People in World History
Activity 26 L2
MindJogger Videoquiz
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
TeacherWorks CD-ROM
Interactive Student Edition CD-ROM
The World History Video Program
Occupied by Japan
1937–1942
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Name
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
11. Hitler demanded, and was given, what area in northwestern
Czechoslovakia?
A. Slovakia
C. Rhineland
B. Danzig
D. Sudetenland
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
★ PROCEDURES
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence
or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the
sentence. (4 points each)
• Draw conclusions about the use of
propaganda to unite and motivate.
★ Practicing the Skill
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
Joseph Stalin rose from a life of poverty
to become the dictator of the former Soviet
Union from 1929 to 1953. A brutal ruler, he
systematically imprisoned or killed anyone
who opposed his decisions. As a result, he
was feared and hated around the world.
Nonetheless, Stalin helped transform the
Soviet Union from an undeveloped country
into one of the world’s industrial and military giants.
When Stalin was 19 years old, he joined a
secret group of Marxist revolutionaries.
Social and economic conditions were very
bad in Russia. Farmers were starving; factory workers could not earn enough to live.
Czar Nicholas restricted education, forbade
student groups, and censored the newspapers. Stalin was expelled from school for his
Marxist activities.
Using various false names, Stalin helped
organize strikes and set up a secret press.
He was arrested and imprisoned many
times during these years. In 1904 he joined
the Bolsheviks, a wing of the Russian
Marxist movement. By 1912 Stalin was one
of their inner group of leaders.
World War I was very harsh time for
Russia. Food shortages led to riots and
strikes. On March 15, 1917, the czar was
forced from his throne. Vladimir Ilyich
Lenin took charge.
In November
1917, the
Bolsheviks seized
control of the government. During
the civil war that
followed, Stalin
was appointed to
the Politburo, the
policy-making
committee of the Russian Communist party.
From this position of power, he plotted to
become dictator. When Lenin died in 1924,
Stalin continued to maneuver his power,
destroying his rivals along the way. Five
years later, Stalin succeeded in becoming
dictator of Russia, rejecting many of Lenin’s
policies.
In 1929 Stalin transferred control of all
farms to the government. Farmers who
resisted collectivization were exiled or
killed––more than a million in all. In the
1930s Stalin purged millions more, anyone
who opposed him. During World War II, he
first allied Russia with Germany, but in 1943,
when Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Stalin
joined forces with England and America.
After the war, Stalin cut off all contact
with non-Communist countries. Even after
his death, many Communist countries
ruled as he had done––a style of government known as Stalinism. Nikita
Khrushchev, Stalin’s successor, initiated a
de-Stalinization program from 1956 to 1964
to reverse many of Stalin’s policies.
REVIEWING THE PROFILE
Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Why did Stalin become a Marxist?
2. Why did Stalin join forces with the Allies (England and America) during World War II?
SPANISH RESOURCES
The following Spanish language materials
are available:
• Spanish Guided Reading Activities
• Spanish Reteaching Activities
• Spanish Quizzes and Tests
• Spanish Vocabulary Activities
• Spanish Summaries
• Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide
806B
Chapter 26 Resources
SECTION RESOU RCES
Daily Objectives
SECTION 1
Paths to War
1. Explain how Adolf Hitler’s theory of
Aryan racial domination laid the
foundation for aggressive expansion
outside of Germany.
2. Specify how the actions and ambitions of Japan and Germany paved
the way for the outbreak of World
War II.
SECTION 2
The Course of World War II
1. Discuss how the bombing of Pearl
Harbor created a global war
between the Allied and the Axis
forces.
2. Describe how Allied perseverance
and effective military operations, as
well as Axis miscalculations, brought
an end to the war.
SECTION 3
The New Order and the Holocaust
1. Report how Adolf Hitler’s philosophy
of Aryan superiority led to the
Holocaust.
2. Analyze how the Japanese conquest
of Southeast Asia forced millions of
native peoples to labor for the
Japanese war machine.
SECTION 4
The Home Front and the Aftermath
of the War
1. Discuss how World War II left a
lasting impression on civilian
populations.
2. Summarize how the end of the war
created a new set of problems for
the Allies as the West came into conflict with the Soviet Union.
Reproducible Resources
Multimedia Resources
Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–1
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–1
Guided Reading Activity 26–1*
Section Quiz 26–1*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–1*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–1
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–2
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–2
Guided Reading Activity 26–2*
Section Quiz 26–2*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–2*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–2
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–3
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–3
Guided Reading Activity 26–3*
Section Quiz 26–3*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–3*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–3
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–4
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–4
Guided Reading Activity 26–4*
Section Quiz 26–4*
Reteaching Activity 26*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–4*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–4
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Assign the Chapter 26 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.
*Also Available in Spanish
806C
Blackline Master
Transparency
CD-ROM
DVD
Poster
Music Program
Audio Program
Videocassette
Chapter 26 Resources
Teacher’s
Corner
INDEX TO
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE
The following articles relate to this chapter:
• “Hiroshima,” by Ted Gup, August 1995.
• “Blueprints for Victory,” by John F. Shupe, May 1995.
• “The Wings of War,” by Thomas B. Allen, March 1994.
• “Pearl Harbor: A Return to the Day of Infamy,” by Thomas
B. Allen, December 1991.
• “Remembering the Blitz,” by Cameron Thomas, July 1999.
• “Ghosts of War in the South Pacific,” by Peter Benchley,
April 1988.
WORLD HISTORY
Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content is
covered in the Student Edition.
You and your students can visit www.wh.glencoe.com , the
Web site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovative
integration of electronic and print media offers your students a
wealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to the
Web site for the following options:
• Chapter Overviews
• Self-Check Quizzes
• Student Web Activities
• Textbook Updates
Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in the
Web Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources and
Interactive Tutor Puzzles are also available.
MEETING SPECIAL NEEDS
In addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found in
each section, the following resources are also suitable for
your special needs students:
•
•
•
•
•
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers to
tailor tests by reducing answer choices.
The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of the
student edition so that less-proficient readers can listen to
the words as they read them.
The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides the
same content as the student edition but is written two
grade levels below the textbook.
Guided Reading Activities give less-proficient readers
point-by-point instructions to increase comprehension as
they read each textbook section.
Enrichment Activities include a stimulating collection of
readings and activities for gifted and talented students.
KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS
Teaching strategies have been coded.
L1 BASIC activities for all students
L2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average students
L3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students
ELL ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activities
From the Classroom of…
Loretta Smithson
Elsinore High School
Lake Elsinore, California
Experiencing the Holocaust
Organize the class into small groups to research
the roots and results of anti-Semitism. Assign each
group a different area to research: (1.) a history of the
Hebrew people, including the Diaspora (A.D. 70); (2.)
a history of Jewish expulsion from European countries
(e.g., Spain, 1493); (3.) excerpts from books, writings,
or speeches by famous people (e.g., Martin Luther);
(4.) excerpts from books or stories of the Holocaust
(e.g., The Blue Tattoo); (5.) reasons given by Nazis for
their treatment of European Jews; and (6.) world
reactions to Nazi treatment of Jews.
Provide students with the condensed materials
they need for their categories, and encourage them
to prepare their information in interesting ways for
group presentations, such as charts, maps, diagrams,
and slides.
After group presentations, let students share their
analyses of the materials provided, then conduct a
class discussion on the meaning of genocide and
its implications for world events in recent years (in
Kosovo, for example).
Activities that are suited to use within the block
scheduling framework are identified by:
806D
Introducing
CHAPTER 26
Performance
Assessment
World War II
Refer to Activity 26 in the
Performance Assessment
Activities and Rubrics
booklet.
1939–1945
Key Events
As you read this chapter, look for the key events in the history of World War II.
• Adolf Hitler’s philosophy of Aryan superiority led to World War II in Europe and was
also the source of the Holocaust.
• Two separate and opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis Powers, waged a worldwide war.
• World War II left lasting impressions on civilian populations.
The Impact Today
Remind students that World War II
brought advances in medicine, transportation, and weapons. Today the World
War II generation is honored as “The
Greatest Generation” for the sacrifices
they made. Have students identify and
compile a list of the changes that resulted
from the world wars of the twentieth century. Have students share their lists during
a class discussion and ask them to refer
to these lists as they study this chapter
and those that follow. L1
L2
The Impact Today
The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.
• By the end of World War II, the balance of power had shifted away from Europe.
• Germany and Japan’s search for expanded “living space” is comparable to nations
fighting over borders today.
• Atomic weapons pose a threat to all nations.
World History Video The Chapter 26 video, “The Holocaust,”
illustrates the horrors of Hitler’s Final Solution.
The World History
Video Program
1939
Britain and
France declare
war when
Germany
invades Poland
1936
Germany signs
separate pacts with
Italy and Japan
To learn more about Jewish life under
Hitler, students can view the Chapter
26 video, “The Holocaust,” from The
World History Video Program.
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
MindJogger Videoquiz
Use the MindJogger Videoquiz to
preview Chapter 26 content.
1935
Hitler violates
Treaty of
Versailles
Available in VHS.
Adolf Hitler and Nazi
officers in Paris, 1940
1940
France falls
to Germany
806
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
806
PURPOSE FOR READING
Two-Column Notes Have students create a two-column chart in their notes under the heading
The Causes of the World Wars. Label the left column World War I and the right column World War
II. Ask students to review the causes of World War I and add the information to the left column.
Have students discuss the information with a partner, or conduct a class discussion based on their
responses. You may ask them to predict the causes of World War II. Have them complete the World
War II column as they study the chapter. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
Introducing
CHAPTER 26
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter,
students should be able to:
1. identify the steps taken by
Germany and Japan that led
to the beginning of World
War II;
2. describe the successes of Germany and Japan in the early
years of the war;
3. list the major events of the
last years of the war;
4. explain the causes and results
of the Holocaust;
5. explain the conditions of the
peace settlement and the
ways in which the peace settlement led to the Cold War.
HISTORY
Chapter Overview
The Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, depicts marines raising the American flag
on Iwo Jima in February 1945.
Self-Portrait with a
Jewish Identity Card by
Felix Nussbaum, 1943
1945
Japanese surrender
after United States
drops atomic bombs
on Japan
1942
Nazi death camps
in full operation
1941
1942
1941
United States
enters war after
Japan attacks
Pearl Harbor
Introduce students to chapter
content and key terms by having
them access Chapter Overview
26 at wh.glencoe.com .
Atomic bomb dropped
on Hiroshima
1943
1944
1945
1946
1945
Germany
surrenders
1946
Churchill
proclaims
existence of
“iron curtain”
in Europe
Soldiers and civilians
celebrate V-E Day, Paris
HISTORY
Chapter Overview
Visit the Glencoe World
History Web site at
wh.glencoe.com and click
on Chapter 26–Chapter
Overview to preview
chapter information.
807
MORE ABOUT THE ART
Iwo Jima was a ferocious World War II battle in the Pacific that began in February 1945. Because the
island of Iwo Jima is only 650 miles (1,046 km) from Tokyo, Japanese soldiers planned to defend it
to the last man. After 36 days of intense fighting, the United States Marines were able to raise the
flag. The moment was captured by a photographer. The photo caused a sensation in the United
States. Within days, the public and government leaders were clamoring for a commemorative statue.
Three of the original soldiers who raised the American flag survived the war and were used as models for the statue. The images of the other soldiers were based on photographs. The inscription on
the memorial reads, “Uncommon Valor was a Common Virtue.”
Time Line Activity
As they read this chapter, have students interpret the time line on these
pages by explaining the significance
of the dates 1939 through 1945. L2
Dinah Zike’s Foldables are threedimensional, interactive graphic
organizers that help students
practice basic writing skills, review
key vocabulary terms, and identify
main ideas. Have students complete
the foldable activity in the Dinah
Zike’s Reading and Study Skills
Foldables booklet.
807
Introducing
A Story That Matters
Depending on the ability levels
of your students, select from the
following questions to reinforce
the reading of A Story That
Matters.
• Why would Hitler regard
democracy as a “cancer”?
(He believed that certain races,
certain people, were superior to
others, and thus should be in
control, whereas in a democracy
all people are equal.)
• What does Hitler mean by
“ruthless Germanization?”
(fast, quick domination of lands
and cultures by Germany to provide for the expansion of what
Hitler believed was the superior
race)
• Ask students to study the
maps on page 816, in the Reference Atlas, and in outside
sources to identify the countries that took part in World
War II, and those that did not.
Poster, c. 1938,
which proclaims
“One People, one
State, one Leader!”
Hitler’s Vision
O
n February 3, 1933, Adolf Hitler met secretly with
Germany’s leading generals. He had been appointed
chancellor of Germany only four days before and was by
no means assured that he would remain in office for long.
Nevertheless, he spoke with confidence.
Hitler told the generals about his desire to remove the
“cancer of democracy,” create “the highest authoritarian state
leadership,” and forge a new domestic unity. All Germans
would need to realize that “only a struggle can save us and
that everything else must be subordinated to this idea.” The
youth especially would have to be trained and their wills
strengthened “to fight with all means.”
Hitler went on to say that Germany must rearm by instituting a military draft. Leaders must ensure that the men who
were going to be drafted were not “poisoned by pacifism,
Marxism, or Bolshevism.” Once Germany had regained its
military strength, how should this strength be used? Hitler
had an answer. Because Germany’s living space was too small
for its people, it must prepare for “the conquest of new living
space in the east and its ruthless Germanization.”
Even before he had consolidated his power, Hitler had a
clear vision of his goals. Reaching those goals meant another
European war. Although World War I has been described as a
total war, World War II was even more so. It was fought on a
scale unprecedented in history and led to the most widespread
human-made destruction that the world had ever seen.
L2
About the Art
Before his entry into politics,
Hitler was a struggling artist. As
leader of Germany, Hitler mastered the art of propaganda. He
used both auditory and visual
means to appeal to the people of
Germany. Simple slogans were
developed and chanted at rallies.
Visual elements, such as the
“Heil-Hitler” salute, were used
to create support for Hitler’s
Nazi Party policies. The poster
combines a picture of Hitler with
one of his slogans into an image
that promotes the basic goals of
fascism.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
808
After becoming dictator in 1933, Hitler often held
large rallies to inspire the loyalty of Germans.
Why It Matters
World War II in Europe was clearly
Hitler’s war. Other countries may
have helped make the war possible
by not resisting Germany earlier,
before it grew strong, but it was
Nazi Germany’s actions that made
the war inevitable. Globally, World
War II was more than just Hitler’s
war. It consisted of two conflicts.
One arose, as mentioned above,
from the ambitions of Germany in
Europe. The other arose from the
ambitions of Japan in Asia. By 1941,
with the involvement of the United
States in both conflicts, these two
conflicts merged into one global
world war.
History and You The decision
by the United States to use atomic
bombs against Japan led to the end
of World War II. Find two contrasting views on the potential of nuclear
warfare today and analyze the
perspectives.
808
HISTORY AND YOU
Had Hitler succeeded in destroying democracy and establishing German world domination, life today would be
very different. Democratic nations, working together, ensured that democracy and democratic ideals would persevere by stopping German and Japanese aggression. At the end of World War II, nations joined together to form
organizations such as NATO, CETO, and the United Nations to ensure mutual protection and to seek peaceful solutions to international conflicts. Ask students to speculate on how their lives might be different if Hitler had been victorious in Europe.
CHAPTER 26
Paths to War
Section 1, 809–813
Guide to Reading
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• Adolf Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial
domination laid the foundation for
aggressive expansion outside of
Germany.
• The actions and ambitions of Japan
and Germany paved the way for the
outbreak of World War II.
Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph
Stalin, Chiang Kai-shek
Categorizing Information Create a chart
listing examples of Japanese aggression
and German aggression prior to the outbreak of World War II.
Places to Locate
Rhineland, Sudetenland, Manchukuo
1. What agreement was reached at the
Munich Conference?
2. Why did Germany believe it needed
more land?
Key Terms
demilitarized, appeasement, sanction
Preview of Events
✦1931
✦1932
Japanese Aggression German Aggression
Preview Questions
✦1933
✦1934
✦1935
✦1936
1936
Hitler and Mussolini
create Rome-Berlin Axis
1931
Japanese forces
invade Manchuria
✦1937
1937
Japanese seize
Chinese capital
✦1938
1938
Hitler annexes
Austria
1 FOCUS
Section Overview
This section describes Hitler’s
racial theories and how the
expansionist activities of Germany and Japan led to World
War II.
BELLRINGER
✦1939
Skillbuilder Activity
1939
World War II
begins
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
26–1
Voices from the Past
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
5
After the leaders of France and Great Britain gave in to Hitler’s demands on Czechoslovakia in 1938, Winston Churchill spoke to the British House of Commons:
Why do you think
Chamberlain thought the
meeting with Hitler would
bring peace?
2
Why did Churchill think the
meeting was shameful?
3
Why do you think Churchill
felt the meeting would
bring war?
“There has come back from Germany to
Downing Street peace
with honour. I believe
it is peace for our time.”
“
I will begin by saying what everybody would like to ignore or forget but which
must nevertheless be stated, namely, that we have sustained a total and unmitigated
defeat. . . . And I will say this, that I believe the Czechs, left to themselves and told they
were going to get no help from the Western Powers, would have been able to make
better terms than they have got. . . . We are in the presence of a disaster of the first
magnitude which has befallen Great Britain and France. . . . And do not suppose that
this is the end. This is only the beginning of the reckoning.
—Neville Chamberlain, prime minister
of Great Britain after a meeting with
Hitler in which 30,000 sq km of Czech
territory was given to Germany
“England has been
offered a choice between
war and shame. She has chosen
shame—and will get war.”
—Winston Churchill, member of Parliament
”
Guide to Reading
—Parliamentary Debates, London, 1938
Churchill believed that Hitler’s actions would lead to another war. He proved to
be right.
The German Path to War
World War II in Europe had its beginnings in the ideas of Adolf Hitler. He
believed that Germans belonged to a so-called Aryan race that was superior to all
other races and nationalities. Consequently, Hitler believed that Germany was
capable of building a great civilization. To be a great power, however, Germany
needed more land to support a larger population.
Already in the 1920s, Hitler had indicated that a Nazi regime would find this
land to the east—in the Soviet Union. Germany therefore must prepare for war
with the Soviet Union. Once the Soviet Union had been conquered, according to
Hitler, its land would be resettled by German peasants. The Slavic peoples could
World War II
ANSWERS
1. because he felt that the territory given to Hitler would
satisfy him 2. because he felt that giving anything to Hitler
was wrong 3. because he felt that Hitler would not be
satisfied with the territory
Paths to War
1
CHAPTER 26
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 26 TRANSPARENCY 26-1
809
Answers to Graphic: Japanese:
seized Manchuria; invaded China;
cooperated with Nazi Germany;
launched surprise attack on United
States;
German: expanded armed forces;
sent troops into Rhineland; annexed
Austria; invaded Poland
Preteaching Vocabulary
Discuss the meaning of the word
appeasement. In what ways did European nations follow a policy of
appeasement and what was the
result?
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–1
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–1
• Guided Reading Activity 26–1
• Section Quiz 26–1
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–1
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–1
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
809
CHAPTER 26
be used as slave labor to build the Third Reich, an
Aryan racial state that Hitler thought would dominate Europe for a thousand years.
Section 1, 809–813
2 TEACH
The First Steps
After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles had limited Germany’s military power. As
chancellor, Hitler, posing as a man of peace, stressed
that Germany wished to revise the unfair provisions
of the treaty by peaceful means. Germany, he said,
only wanted its rightful place among the European
states.
On March 9, 1935, however, Hitler announced the
creation of a new air force. One week later, he began
a military draft that would expand Germany’s army
from 100,000 to 550,000 troops. These steps were in
direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned Germany’s actions and warned against future aggressive
steps. In the midst of the Great Depression, however,
these nations were distracted by their own internal
problems and did nothing further.
Hitler was convinced that the Western states had
no intention of using force to maintain the Treaty of
Versailles. Hence, on March 7, 1936, he sent German
troops into the Rhineland. The Rhineland was part
of Germany, but, according to the Treaty of Versailles,
it was a demilitarized area. That is, Germany was
not permitted to have weapons or fortifications there.
France had the right to use force against
any violation of the
History
Answer: fascism
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 26–1
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 26, Section 1
Did You Know
?
Japan’s policy of expansion during the 1930s
was the direct result of its poor economic geography, or the economic resources contained within a region or nation. Japan’s goal to
become a great power was seriously limited by this reality.
Fortunately, post World War II Japan solved this problem through
exports. The revenues from exporting goods have been successfully
used to buy natural resources on the world market.
I.
The German Path to War (pages 809–812)
A. Adolf Hitler believed that Germany could build a great civilization. To do this,
Germany needed more land to support more German people. He wanted lands in the
east including the Soviet Union and prepared for war. His plan was to use the land for
German settlements. The Slavic people would become slaves.
B. Hitler proposed that Germany be able to revise the unfair provisions of the Treaty of
Versailles that had ended World War I. At first he said he would use peaceful means.
However, in March of 1935, he created a new air force and began a military draft.
C. France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned Hitler’s moves. Due to problems at home
caused by the Great Depression however, they were not prepared to take action. Hitler
became convinced that the Western states would not stop him from breaking the proi i
f th T t f V
ill
demilitarized Rhineland but would not act without
British support.
Great Britain did not support the use of force
against Germany, however. The British government
viewed the occupation of German territory by German troops as a reasonable action by a dissatisfied
power. The London Times noted that the Germans
were only “going into their own back garden.”
Great Britain thus began to practice a policy of
appeasement. This policy was based on the belief
that if European states satisfied the reasonable
demands of dissatisfied powers, the dissatisfied
powers would be content, and stability and peace
would be achieved in Europe.
New Alliances
Meanwhile, Hitler gained new
allies. Benito Mussolini had long dreamed of creating a new Roman Empire in the Mediterranean, and,
in October 1935, Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia.
Angered by French and British opposition to his
invasion, Mussolini welcomed Hitler’s support. He
began to draw closer to the German dictator.
In 1936, both Germany and Italy sent troops to
Spain to help General Francisco Franco in the Spanish
Civil War. In October 1936, Mussolini and Hitler made
an agreement recognizing their common political and
economic interests. One month later, Mussolini spoke
of the new alliance between Italy and Germany, called
the Rome-Berlin Axis. Also in November, Germany
and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, promising
a common front against communism.
Union with Austria By 1937, Germany was once
more a “world power,” as Hitler proclaimed. He was
convinced that neither France nor Great Britain
would provide much opposition to his plans. In 1938,
he decided to pursue one of his goals: Anschluss
(ANSH•luhs), or union, with Austria, his native land.
By threatening Austria with invasion, Hitler forced
the Austrian chancellor to put Austrian Nazis in
charge of the government. The new government
promptly invited German troops to enter Austria and
“help” in maintaining law and order. One day later,
on March 13, 1938, after his triumphal return to his
native land, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany.
Journalism Have students
research and write a brief report on
the work of one of the World War II
correspondents or journalists such as
Edward R. Murrow, Alan Moorehead,
Robert Capa, Margaret BourkeWhite, Max Alpert, or Henri CartierBresson who gained fame due to
their work during the war. L2
History
Enrich
Have students research the reasons for the downfall of Neville
Chamberlain. Then guide the
class in a discussion of the reasons for Great Britain’s change of
attitude toward Germany when
Winston Churchill became prime
minister. L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
810
This 1937 Italian illustration depicts Hitler
and Mussolini. What ideology brought
Hitler and Mussolini together?
810
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
Benito Mussolini The Fasci di Combattimento were founded in March 1919 by Mussolini and
other veterans of World War I. Taking their name from the fasces, an ancient symbol of Roman
discipline, this nationalistic, antiliberal, and antisocialist movement attracted lower middle-class
support in turbulent postwar Milan. Fascism grew rapidly after the mid-1920s, winning support in
the countryside, where its black-shirt militia attacked peasant and socialist groups. By 1926, Mussolini had created an alliance with the army and the king, ultimately transforming the country into
a single-party, totalitarian regime. SS.C.1.4.1
CHAPTER 26
German and Italian Expansion, 1935–1939
10°E
UNITED
KINGDOM
NETHER–
LANDS
Paris
LUX.
FRANCE
ND
ELA
IN
RH
BELGIUM
50°N
DENMARK
North
Sea
Baltic
Sea
MEMEL
TERR.
Danzig
Berlin
LITHUANIA
SOVIET
UNION
Warsaw
SUDETEN
Prague
POLAND
LA
HUNGARY
ROMANIA
Germany, 1935
Rome
ALBANIA
Sardinia
SUD
AN
GREECE
Sicily
Addis
Ababa
ETHIOPIA
N
W
ERITR
EA
Mediterranean Sea
KENYA
0
E
0
S
0
LIBYA
Demands and Appeasement Hitler’s next objective was the destruction of Czechoslovakia. On September 15, 1938, he demanded that Germany be
given the Sudetenland, an area in northwestern
Czechoslovakia that was inhabited largely by Germans. He expressed his willingness to risk “world
war” to achieve his objective.
At a hastily arranged conference in Munich,
British, French, German, and Italian representatives
did not object to Hitler’s plans but instead reached an
agreement that met virtually all of Hitler’s demands.
German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudetenland. The Czechs, abandoned by their Western allies,
stood by helplessly.
The Munich Conference was the high point of
Western appeasement of Hitler. When Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, returned to England from Munich, he boasted that the agreement
meant “peace for our time.” Hitler had promised
Chamberlain that he would make no more demands.
Like many others, Chamberlain believed Hitler’s
promises.
10°N
L
LI I A N
LA
ND
BULGARIA
Corsica
40°N
German occupation, 1936
German acquisitions,
1938–1939
Italy and possessions, 1935
Italian acquisitions,
1935–1939
YUGOSLAVIA
ITALY
Answers:
1. Germany annexed approximately
50 percent more territory than it
held. By 1939, the size of the
country was about 50 percent
larger.
Germany and Italy
expanded their territories
in the years leading up to
World War II.
N
C ZECHOS D SL
O VA
LO
VAKI A KIA
Vienna
AUSTRIA
Section 1, 809–813
30°E
EAST
PRUSSIA
GERMANY
Munich
SWITZ.
SWEDEN
LATVIA
20°E
A
IT MA
O
500 miles S
500 kilometers
0°
50°E
500 miles
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
1. Interpreting Maps
Approximately how
much territory did
Germany annex between
1936 and 1939? How did
its size in 1939 compare
to its size in 1935?
2. Applying Geography
Skills Use the information on the map to create a chart comparing
German and Italian
expansion. What reasons
can you give for the
more aggressive of the
two being the more
aggressive country?
2. Students will create charts.
Answers may include that Germany wanted to repopulate the
world with Aryan Germans, while
Italy had no similar plans. Italy
was also surrounded on three
sides by water.
Critical Thinking
Ask students to examine the
map on this page. Why would
the transport of raw materials
have been a problem for Germany during World War II?
(There were few ports that were
accessible year-round within Germany’s territories.) L2
Great Britain and France React
In fact, Hitler was
more convinced than ever that the Western democracies were weak and would not fight. Increasingly,
Hitler was sure that he could not make a mistake,
and he had by no means been satisfied at Munich.
In March 1939, Hitler invaded and took control of
Bohemia and Moravia in western Czechoslovakia. In
the eastern part of the country, Slovakia became a
puppet state controlled by Nazi Germany. On the
evening of March 15, 1939, Hitler triumphantly
declared in Prague that he would be known as the
greatest German of them all.
At last, the Western states reacted to the Nazi
threat. Hitler’s aggression had made clear that his
promises were worthless. When Hitler began to
demand the Polish port of Danzig, Great Britain saw
the danger and offered to protect Poland in the event
of war. At the same time, both France and Britain
realized that only the Soviet Union was powerful
enough to help contain Nazi aggression. They began
political and military negotiations with Joseph
Stalin, the Soviet dictator.
CHAPTER 26
World War II
Critical Thinking
Ask students why some people
saluted Hitler and his entourage
when he annexed the Sudetenland. (The area had a German population of 3.5 million.) L2
Connecting Across Time
The twentieth-century German
and Japanese empires were transitory. Other empires and dynasties lasted for thousands of years.
Have students analyze examples
of major empires of the world. L2
811
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY
EXTENDING
THE CONTENT
Creating an Oral Report Organize students into groups of four to six to research how the world
reacted to the expansion of Japan into Nanjing, Italy into Ethiopia, and Germany into the Rhineland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. Have each group choose one of these conquests and then find
newspaper reports about it. Encourage students to apply different methods that historians have
used to interpret the past, and to use the process of historical inquiry to research and to interpret
the evidence. Also encourage students to use quotations that reveal the point of view of the
reporter toward the conquest. Then have each group present its report to the class. L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
FCAT LA.A.2.4.4
For grading this activity, refer to the Performance Assessment Activities booklet.
811
Answer: in eastern Europe, including
the Soviet Union
Answer:
1. Student questions will vary but
should be consistent with material presented in this section.
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 26–1
Name
Date
Class
Guided Reading Activity 26-1
Paths To War
Reading Check Identifying Where did Hitler believe
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.
he could find more “living space” to expand Germany?
1. To be a great power, Germany needed more land which Hitler felt would be found
Japanese Expansion,
1933–1941
SOVIET UNION
KARAFUTO
140°E
W
E
Sea of
Japan
S
The Japanese Path to War
3. When Hitler announced the creation of an air force, and expanded the German army, he
violated what agreement?
In September 1931, Japanese soldiers had seized
Manchuria, which had natural resources Japan
needed. Japan used as an excuse a Chinese attack on
a Japanese railway near the city of Mukden. In fact,
the “Mukden incident” had been carried out by
Japanese soldiers disguised as Chinese.
Worldwide protests against the Japanese led the
League of Nations to send investigators to Manchuria.
When the investigators issued a report condemning
the seizure, Japan withdrew from the league. Over
the next several years, Japan strengthened its hold on
Manchuria, which was renamed Manchukuo. Japan
now began to expand into North China.
By the mid-1930s, militants connected to the government and the armed forces had gained control of
Japanese politics. The United States refused to recognize the Japanese takeover of Manchuria but was
unwilling to threaten force.
Critical Thinking
Ask students to evaluate the following statement: “Building a
powerful military leads a country to war because it is natural
for military leaders to want to
use and expand their power.”
Do students believe that this
statement is true? To what extent
might it explain why Japan’s
army invaded China? L2
SS.A.3.4.9
3 ASSESS
War with China Chiang Kai-shek tried to avoid a
conflict with Japan so that he could deal with what
he considered the greater threat from the
Communists. When clashes between Chinese and
812
CHAPTER 26
Beijing
KOREA
N
40°
Yan-an
CHINA
Nanjing
SICHUAN Chongqing
PROVINCE
ng
30°N
Shanghai
Hankou
g Ji a
an
Ch
Europe for a thousand years?
He
Hua
2. What was the name given to the Aryan racial state that Hitler thought would dominate
Assign Section 1 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
MANCHUKUO
(Manchuria)
N
ng
where?
Japanese troops broke out, he sought to appease
Japan by allowing it to govern areas in North China.
As Japan moved steadily southward, protests
against Japanese aggression grew stronger in Chinese cities. In December 1936, Chiang ended his military efforts against the Communists and formed a
new united front against the Japanese. In July 1937,
Chinese and Japanese forces clashed south of Beijing
and hostilities spread.
Japan had not planned to declare war on China.
However, the 1937 incident eventually turned into a
major conflict. The Japanese seized the Chinese capital
of Nanjing in December. Chiang Kai-shek refused to
surrender and moved his government upriver, first to
Hankou, then to Chongqing.
PA N
Hitler and the Soviets Meanwhile, Hitler pressed
on in the belief that the West would not fight over
Poland. He now feared, however, that the West and
the Soviet Union might make an alliance. Such an
alliance could mean a two-front war for Germany. To
prevent this possibility, Hitler made his own agreement with Joseph Stalin.
On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet
Union signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. In
it, the two nations promised not to attack each other.
To get the nonaggression pact, Hitler offered Stalin
control of eastern Poland and the Baltic states.
Because he expected to fight the Soviet Union anyway, it did not matter to Hitler what he promised—
he was accustomed to breaking promises.
Hitler shocked the world when he announced the
nonaggression pact. The treaty gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland. He told his generals, “Now
Poland is in the position in which I wanted her. . . . I
am only afraid that at the last moment some swine
will submit to me a plan for mediation.”
Hitler need not have worried. On September 1,
German forces invaded Poland. Two days later,
Britain and France declared war on Germany.
Section 1, 809–813
JA
CHAPTER 26
Formosa
Guangzhou
F
IC O
TROP ER
C
N
CA
20°N
Hong Kong U.K.
Hainan
South
China
Sea
FRENCH
INDOCHINA
110°E
Japanese territory, 1933
Japanese acquisitions
to November 1941
0
1,000 miles
10°N
0
1,000 kilometers
Two-Point Equidistant projection 130°E
Like Germany, Japan attempted to expand its territories
prior to the beginning of the war.
1. Applying Geography Skills Pose and answer your
own question about the territories Japan did not
acquire but wanted to acquire.
World War II
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
READING THE TEXT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
812
2
Comparing and Contrasting On page 813, the author suggests that the Japanese government
might have rationalized its expansion into Asia in this fashion: “After all, who could better teach
Asian societies how to modernize than the one Asian country that had already done it?” Ask students to identify what basic fallacy in logic Japan is making in this argument. (Students might suggest that Japan assumes that the other countries want to modernize in the same way, and that
because modernization worked in Japan, it would work anywhere.) How does this compare to reasoning used by Western countries to justify their expansion? (Western countries used similar thinking to justify their colonization of Africa and other regions of the world.) Have students analyze the
Japanese Empire and summarize the effect of its imperialism on other societies. L2 SS.A.3.4.9
CHAPTER 26
The New Asian Order
Japanese military leaders
had hoped to force Chiang to agree to join a New
Order in East Asia, comprising Japan, Manchuria,
and China. Japan would attempt to establish a new
system of control in Asia with Japan guiding its
Asian neighbors to prosperity. After all, who could
better teach Asian societies how to modernize than
the one Asian country that had already done it?
Part of Japan’s plan was to seize Soviet Siberia,
with its rich resources. During the late 1930s, Japan
began to cooperate with Nazi Germany. Japan
assumed that the two countries would ultimately
launch a joint attack on the Soviet Union and divide
Soviet resources between them.
When Germany signed the nonaggression pact
with the Soviets in August 1939, Japanese leaders
had to rethink their goals. Japan did not have the
resources to defeat the Soviet Union without help.
Thus, the Japanese became interested in the raw
materials that could be found in Southeast Asia to
fuel its military machine.
A move southward, however, would risk war with
the European colonial powers and the United States.
Japan’s attack on China in the summer of 1937 had
already aroused strong criticism, especially in the
United States. Nevertheless, in the summer of 1940,
Japan demanded the right to exploit economic
resources in French Indochina.
The United States objected. It warned Japan that it
would apply economic sanctions—restrictions
intended to enforce international law—unless Japan
Section 1, 809–813
Answer: Japan wanted to assert
control and guide its neighbors to
modernization and prosperity.
L2
Section Quiz 26–1
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Cabinet of Japanese prime minister Tojo (front center), 1941
Score
Chapter 26
Section Quiz 26-1
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. alliance between Mussolini and Hitler
withdrew from the area and returned to its borders of
1931. Japan badly needed the oil and scrap iron it was
getting from the United States. Should these
resources be cut off, Japan would have to find them
elsewhere. Japan viewed the possibility of economic
sanctions as a threat to its long-term objectives.
Japan was now caught in a dilemma. To guarantee
access to the raw materials it wanted in Southeast
Asia, Japan had to risk losing raw materials from the
United States. After much debate, Japan decided to
launch a surprise attack on U.S. and European
colonies in Southeast Asia.
2. alliance between Germany and Japan
A. Anti-Comintern
Pact
3. no weapons or fortifications permitted
B. demilitarized
4. policy of satisfying reasonable demands in exchange
for peace
C. Rome-Berlin Axis
D. Nazi-Soviet
Nonaggression
Pact
5. agreement between Hitler and Stalin
E. appeasement
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 26–1
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 26, Section 1
For use with textbook pages 809–813
PATHS TO WAR
Reading Check Explaining Why did Japan want to
KEY TERMS
demilitarized
establish a New Order in East Asia?
an area that is free of weapons or fortifications (page 810)
appeasement a policy of giving in to the demands of a dissatisfied power in an attempt to keep
the peace (page 810)
sanction
a restriction intended to enforce international law (page 813)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
How do you resolve conflicts with other people? Do you ever give in to their
demands in order to avoid conflict?
In this section, you will learn about the actions of Germany and Japan that paved the
Checking for Understanding
1. Define appeasement, demilitarized,
sanction.
Critical Thinking
6. Explain In what sense was World
War II a product of World War I?
2. Identify Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini,
Joseph Stalin, Chiang Kai-shek.
7. Sequencing Information Create a
chart like the one below listing in
chronological order the agreements
that emboldened Hitler in his aggressive expansion policies.
3. Locate Rhineland, Sudetenland,
Manchukuo.
4. Explain why Japan felt the need to
control other nations, especially how
this relates to its need for resources.
5. List the reasons why Hitler’s pact with
Stalin was a key factor in forcing Britain
and France to declare war on Germany.
Analyzing Visuals
8. Analyze the illustration on page 810 to
determine what opinion the artist had
about Italy’s alliance with Germany.
What aspects of the illustration indicate
that its creator and its publisher either
did or did not support Hitler’s relationship with Mussolini and Italy?
Ask students to create a table
that compares the political and
economical conditions in Germany and Japan before World
War II. L1
Agreements Encouraging Hitler’s Aggression
Leading to World War II
4 CLOSE
9. Persuasive Writing Imagine you
are the editor of a British newspaper
in 1938. Write an editorial that captures the essence of your viewpoint.
Use a headline that offers suggestions on how war can be avoided.
CHAPTER 26
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Adolf Hitler (p. 809); Benito
Mussolini (p. 810); Joseph Stalin
(p. 811); Chiang Kai-shek (p. 812)
3. See chapter maps.
4. Japan depended on foreign
sources for raw materials. Japan
sought to expand on the Asian
mainland, but risked losing raw
materials from the United States if
Reteaching Activity
it did so.
5. Britain had offered to protect
Poland in the event of war. The
pact between Stalin and Hitler gave
Hitler the freedom to invade
Poland.
6. See The First Steps on page 810.
7. agreement with Mussolini, 1936;
Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan,
1936; Munich Agreement, 1938;
World War II
813
Hitler signs nonaggression pact
with Soviet Union, 1939
8. The many Nazi flags in the background make it appear that the
illustrator and publisher supported
Hitler’s relationship with Mussolini
and Italy.
9. Answers will vary.
Ask students to find examples
in Section 1 of countries forming
alliances for their common good.
Make a chart of the alliances
made and the benefits received
by the countries involved. L1
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
813
CHAPTER 26
The Course of
World War II
Section 2, 814–822
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
This section describes the expansion of World War II to a global
conflict and the military and
political operations that ultimately led to the Axis defeat by
the Allies.
BELLRINGER
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• The bombing of Pearl Harbor created a
global war between the Allied and the
Axis forces.
• Allied perseverance and effective military operations, as well as Axis miscalculations, brought an end to the war.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Douglas MacArthur,
Winston Churchill, Harry S Truman
Cause and Effect Create a chart listing
key events during World War II and their
effect on the outcome of the war.
Key Terms
Preview Questions
Places to Locate
Stalingrad, Midway Island, Normandy,
Hiroshima
Skillbuilder Activity
Preview of Events
✦1939
✦1940
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
5
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 26 TRANSPARENCY 26-2
✦1941
ANSWERS
1. The Ju 87 planes opened gaps for the armored attack
to proceed. 2. Tanks and half-tracks made up the main
armor attack. 3. The Blitzkrieg attacks were forceful and
included an enormous amount of armor—nothing could stand
up to them.
How did the German
Junkers open the enemy
forces for an armored
attack?
2
What vehicles were involved 3 Why do you think the
in the main armor attack?
German blitzkrieg attacks
were so successful?
Blitzkrieg in Action
HEADQUARTERS
HEAVY GUNS
133
JUNKERS
JU 87 STUKAS
SUPPLY
AIR SUPPORT
LIGHT AND
MEDIUM TANKS
244
ARMORED
HALF-TRACKS
295
MAIN
ARMOR
ATTACK
Armored
Cars and
Reconnaissance
Vehicles
Protect Flanks
✦1943
✦1944
1943
Germans defeated
at Stalingrad
✦1945
1944
Allied forces invade
France on D-Day
Voices from the Past
The Course of World War II
1
✦1942
1942
Japanese defeated at the
Battle of Midway Island
1940
Germans bomb
British cities
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
26–2
Effect
1. Why did the United States not enter
the war until 1941?
2. What major events helped to end the
war in Europe and Asia?
blitzkrieg, partisan
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Event
ARMORED CARS
58
On September 1, 1939, after beginning his attack on Poland, Hitler addressed the
German Reichstag:
JUNKERS
JU 87 STUKAS
SUPPLY
Armored
AIR SUPPORT
Cars and
Reconnaissance
Vehicles
Protect Flanks
“
I do not want to be anything other than the first soldier of the German Reich.
I have once more put on the uniform which was once most holy and precious to me.
I shall only take it off after victory or I shall not live to see the end. . . . As a National
Socialist and as a German soldier, I am going into this struggle strong in heart. My
whole life has been nothing but a struggle for my people, for their revival, for Germany . . . Just as I myself am ready to risk my life any time for my people and for
Germany, so I demand the same of everyone else. But anyone who thinks that he can
oppose this national commandment, whether directly or indirectly, will die! Traitors
can expect death.
Enemy
Position
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: Japan attacks
Pearl Harbor: United States enters
war; Battle of Midway: Japanese navy
defeated; Invasion of Normandy:
ends war in Europe; atomic bombs
dropped on Japan: Japan surrenders
Preteaching Vocabulary
The British shortened the German
word blitzkrieg to blitz to describe the
intensive German bombardment of
London. Ask students to identify how
the word blitz is used today. L1
”
—Nazism 1919–1945, A Documentary Reader, J. Noakes and G. Pridham, 1995
Hitler had committed Germany to a life-or-death struggle.
Europe at War
Hitler stunned Europe with the speed and efficiency of the German attack on
Poland. His blitzkrieg, or “lightning war,” used armored columns, called panzer
divisions, supported by airplanes. Each panzer division was a strike force of about
three hundred tanks with accompanying forces and supplies.
814
CHAPTER 26
World War II
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
814
2
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–2
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–2
• Guided Reading Activity 26–2
• Section Quiz 26–2
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–2
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–2
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
The forces of the blitzkrieg broke quickly through
Polish lines and encircled the bewildered Polish
troops. Regular infantry units then moved in to hold
the newly conquered territory. Within four weeks,
Poland had surrendered. On September 28, 1939,
Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland.
Hitler’s Early Victories
After a winter of waiting
(called the “phony war”), Hitler resumed the attack
on April 9, 1940, with another blitzkrieg against
Denmark and Norway. One month later, on May 10,
Germany launched an attack on the Netherlands,
Belgium, and France.
The main assault was
NETH.
ENGLAND
through Luxembourg
BELG.
and the Ardennes
s
LUX.
n ne
Arde
(ahr•DEHN) Forest.
German panzer diviFRANCE
sions broke through ATLANTIC
OCEAN
weak French defensive positions there and raced across northern
France. French and British forces were taken by surprise when the Germans went around, instead of
across, the Maginot Line (a series of concrete and
steel fortifications armed with heavy artillery along
France’s border with Germany). The Germans’
action split the Allied armies, trapping French troops
and the entire British army on the beaches of
Dunkirk. Only by the heroic efforts of the Royal
Navy and civilians in private boats did the British
manage to evacuate 338,000 Allied (mostly British)
troops.
The French signed an armistice on June 22. German
armies now occupied about three-fifths of France. An
authoritarian regime under German control was set
up over the remainder of the country. It was known as
Vichy France and was led by an aged French hero of
World War I, Marshal Henri Pétain. Germany was
now in control of western and central Europe, but
Britain had still not been defeated. After Dunkirk, the
British appealed to the United States for help.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounced the
aggressors, but the United States followed a strict
policy of isolationism. A series of neutrality acts,
passed in the 1930s, prevented the United States from
taking sides or becoming involved in any European
wars. Many Americans felt that the United States had
been drawn into World War I due to economic
involvement in Europe and they wanted to prevent a
recurrence. Roosevelt was convinced that the neutrality acts actually encouraged Axis aggression and
wanted the acts repealed. They were gradually
CHAPTER 26
relaxed as the United States supplied food, ships,
planes, and weapons to Britain.
Section 2, 814–822
The Battle of Britain
Hitler realized that an
amphibious (land-sea) invasion of Britain could succeed only if Germany gained control of the air. At the
beginning of August 1940, the Luftwaffe (LOOFT•
vah•fuh)—the German air force—launched a major
offensive. German planes bombed British air and
naval bases, harbors, communication centers, and
war industries.
The British fought back with determination. They
were supported by an effective radar system that
gave them early warning of German attacks. Nevertheless, by the end of August, the British air force had
suffered critical losses.
In September, in retaliation for a British attack on
Berlin, Hitler ordered a shift in strategy. Instead of
bombing military targets, the Luftwaffe began massive bombing of British cities. Hitler hoped in this
way to break British morale. Instead, because military targets were not being hit, the British were able
to rebuild their air strength quickly. Soon, the British
air force was inflicting major losses on Luftwaffe
bombers. At the end of September, Hitler postponed
the invasion of Britain indefinitely.
2 TEACH
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 26–2
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 26, Section 2
Did You Know
?
Some historians think that Hitler was a great
military commander—for the Allies! During the course of the war,
he was responsible for several major blunders. For example, he seriously underestimated the strength of the Soviet Union, and made a
huge mistake by attacking them. Prior to D-Day, the Allies fooled
Hitler into thinking the invasion would be in Calais, which weakened the German response.
I.
Europe at War (pages 814–817)
A. The 1939 invasion of Poland by Germany took just four weeks. The speed and efficiency of the German army stunned the world. Called blitzkrieg (“lightning war”), the
Germans used panzer divisions (strike forces of about 300 tanks and soldiers) that
were supported by airplanes. On September 28, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union
divided Poland.
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 26–2
Name
Date
Class
Guided Reading Activity 26-2
The Course of World War II
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 2.
Hitler stunned Europe with the (1)
(2)
and
of his attack on Poland. His (3)
or
“lightning war,” used panzer divisions supported by airplanes. Within four weeks,
London buildings collapse as a
result of nightly German bombing.
Poland had (4)
. At the beginning of August 1940, the German
air force launched a major offensive against (5)
planes bombed British (6)
(8)
. German
, (7)
, and (9)
(10)
,
. Hitler invaded the
on June 22, 1941. An early (11)
fierce Soviet (12)
O D
b
and
halted the German advance.
7 1941 J
i
ft tt k d th U S
lb
t
Who?What?Where?When?
Radar In 1935, physicist Robert
Watson-Watts developed radar, an
early warning system used to detect
incoming aircraft. This new invention
(radio detecting and ranging) helped
the British defeat the German Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain.
Writing Activity
CHAPTER 26
World War II
815
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY
EXTENDING
THE CONTENT
Organizing a Group Discussion Break students into groups to discuss the answer to the following
question: Why was it easier for a nation like Germany to take control of a vast area (such as it did
in 1939) than it was to maintain control over the same area? (It is easier to take over a territory
through military power than to maintain control and administer an effective government. The German effort to occupy vast territories spread its power and people too thin.) When students have
finished their small group discussions, guide the class in a general discussion of this question and
conclude with a list of other military leaders or empires that experienced the same problems Germany encountered. L2 SS.A.1.4.2
Ask students to write a hypothetical letter from a resident of London to an American relative
describing how he or she feels
after seeing the results of an air
raid, such as the one pictured on
this page. How might such
destruction change this person’s
willingness to fight? L1
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
815
CHAPTER 26
World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1939–1945
Section 2, 814–822
10°W
20°W
0°
SWEDEN
Atlantic
Ocean
IRELAND
Geography Ask students to study
the map on page 817. Which countries did Germany invade in 1941?
(Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Latvia,
Estonia, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria,
Greece) L1
UNITED
KINGDOM
Liverpool
Birmingham
Bristol
Plymouth
50°
N
North
Sea
DENMARK
.
Rhi
ne
aR
L
Ploiesti
UG
A
RT
Corsica
PO
Anzio
(Jan.–Mar. 1944)
Monte Cassino
Sardinia (Jan.–May 1944)
ALBANIA
It.
Tunis
(May 1943)
Malta
TURKEY
GREECE
Mediterranean Sea
North Africa
Landings
(Nov. 1942)
Black
Sea
BULGARIA
Rome
Sicily
(July 1943)
Valletta
Tobruk
(April 1941)
ALGERIA
El Alamein LEBANON
(Oct.–
Nov. 1942) PALESTINE
Alexandria
Cairo
LIBYA
Attack on the Soviet Union
Neutral nations
Major battle with date
Major city severely
damaged by bombing
Air battle
Maginot Line
Although he had no
desire for a two-front war, Hitler became convinced
that Britain was remaining in the war only because it
expected Soviet support. If the Soviet Union was
smashed, Britain’s last hope would be eliminated.
Moreover, Hitler had convinced himself that the
Soviet Union had a pitiful army and could be
defeated quickly.
Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union was scheduled for the spring of 1941, but the attack was
delayed because of problems in the Balkans. Hitler
had already gained the political cooperation of Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. However, the failure of
Mussolini’s invasion of Greece in 1940 had exposed
Hitler’s southern flank to British air bases in Greece.
To secure his Balkan flank, Hitler therefore seized
both Greece and Yugoslavia in April.
816
CHAPTER 26
IRAN
SYRIA
Cyprus
Crete
TUNISIA
Axis Powers
Axis-controlled area, November 1942
Farthest Axis advance, December 1941
Vichy France and territories
Allied Powers
Allied-controlled area, November 1942
a
Se
SPAIN
Ca
sp
i
ROMANIA
Belgrade
YUGOSLAVIA
MOROCCO
By distorting history, Nazi ideology created the belief that
“Aryans” were responsible for
most advances in human history. As you discuss the validity,
or lack of validity, of this view,
ask students to be as specific as
possible regarding the contributions of different cultures and
civilizations. L1 SS.A.1.4.3
816
Vo
lg
S
an
ITALY
SP. MOROCCO
Critical Thinking
1
Stalingrad
(Aug. 1942–
Feb. 1943)
Hanover May 1945)
Dunkirk
Warsaw
D¨usseldorf
BELG.
(Aug. 1944–Jan. 1945)
Dresden
Cologne
Normandy (June 1944)
Kiev
Frankfurt
Battle of the Bulge (Dec. 1944–Jan. 1945)
Mannheim G E R M A N Y
Paris (Aug. 1944)
Stuttgart
FRANCE
Munich SLOVAKIA
AUSTRIA
HUNGARY
SWITZ.
Budapest
Vichy
Remind students that in
Chapter 18 they read about how
Napoleon Bonaparte suffered
a stunning defeat just outside
Moscow during the winter of
1812. In what ways did
Napoleon and Hitler make the
same mistakes? Have students
refer to maps in the Reference
Atlas and in these two chapters
to identify and explain the
answer to this question. (These
two leaders underestimated the
effects of the Russian winter and the
resistance of the Russian people.) L1
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
E
W
SOVIET
UNION
Minsk
(July 1944)
Kursk
(July 1943)
E n g l i s h C h a n n el
Connecting Across Time
Ask students to summarize the
events that brought the Soviet
Union and the United States into
World War II. L1 SS.A.3.4.9
N
Moscow
POLAND
(Apr.–
60°E
Leningrad
(Sept. 1941–Jan. 1944)
ESTONIA
Manchester
LITHUANIA
Hull
Ger.
Coventry
Bremen Hamburg
London NETH.
Berlin
Rotterdam
50°E
40°E
30°E
FINLAND
Baltic
Sea LATVIA
Battle of Britain (July–Oct. 1940)
40°
N
Critical Thinking
20°E
10°E
NORWAY
IRAQ
TRANS-JORDAN
SAUDI
ARABIA
EGYPT
0
400 miles
400 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Reassured, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union on
June 22, 1941. He believed that the Russians could
still be decisively defeated before the brutal winter
weather set in.
The massive attack stretched out along a front
some 1,800 miles (about 2,900 km) long. German
troops advanced rapidly, capturing two million Russian soldiers. By November, one German army group
had swept through Ukraine. A second army was
besieging the city of Leningrad, while a third
approached within 25 miles (about 40 km) of Moscow,
the Soviet capital.
An early winter and fierce Soviet resistance, however, halted the German advance. Because of the
planned spring date for the invasion, the Germans
had no winter uniforms. For the first time in the war,
German armies had been stopped. A counterattack in
World War II
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
The Blitz During World War II, German bombers rained destruction on London and strategic targets in an attempt to knock out Great Britain’s defenses and force the British to surrender. Public
shelters were set up throughout London in subway tunnels and other protected areas. At the
height of the blitz, one out of every seven Londoners slept in a shelter. About two million children
were evacuated to the countryside from London and other British cities. There, many of these city
children played on grass and climbed trees for the first time. Parents and children reunited periodically when the government offered reduced train fares to the country.
Axis Offensives, 1939–1941
Axis offensives, 1939
Axis offensives, 1940
Axis offensives, 1941
0°
40°E
SWEDEN ESTONIA
LATVIA
DENMARK
IRELAND UNITED
Ger. LITH.
KINGDOM
NETH.
Atlantic
BELG.
GERMANY POLAND
Ocean
FRANCE
SLOVAKIA
AL
PO
RTU
G
0
Fr.
Fr.
400 miles
HUNGARY
ROMANIA
Black Sea
TURKEY
GREECE
Med
it
TUNISIA
Fr.
e rra n
400 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
LIBYA
It.
SYRIA
LEBANON
IRAQ
PALESTINE U.K. TRANSJORDAN
EGYPT
0°
10°E
50°E
U.K.
SAUDI
ARABIA
0
Fr.
Answer: Problems in the Balkans led
Hitler to seize both Greece and
Yugoslavia in April 1941. An early
winter and fierce Soviet resistance
halted the German advance.
S
SOVIET
UNION
HUNGARY
ROMANIA
YUGOSLAVIA BULGARIA Black Sea
ITALY
SPAIN
ALBAN.
40°N
MOROCCO
E
W
SWEDEN ESTONIA
LATVIA
DENMARK
IRELAND UNITED
Ger. LITH.
KINGDOM
NETH.
BELG.
GERMANY POLAND
FRANCE
SLOVAKIA
SWITZ.
VICHY
FRANCE
Section 2, 814–822
60°E
N
20°E
FINLAND
NORWAY
SP. MOR.
Fr.
ean Sea
10°W
20°W
Atlantic
Ocean
50°
N
SOVIET
UNION
YUGOSLAVIA BULGARIA
ITALY
ALBAN.
40°N
E
S
50°
N
SP. MOR.
ALGERIA
MOROCCO
30°E 40°E
Allied offensives, 1942–1943
Allied offensives, 1944–1945
W
NORWAY
SPAIN
60°E
N
FINLAND
SWITZ.
VICHY
FRANCE
50°E
AL
10°W
30°E
PO
RTU
G
20°W
20°E
CHAPTER 26
Allied Offensives, 1942–1945
TURKEY
GREECE
ALGERIA
Fr.
400 miles
Med
it
TUNISIA
Fr.
e rra n
400 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
ean Sea
LIBYA
It.
How did Pearl Harbor change the
course of World War II? (The Japanese attack brought the United States,
with its powerful military potential,
into World War II.) SS.A.3.4.9
SYRIA
LEBANON
Fr.
IRAQ
PALESTINE TRANSU.K.
JORDAN
EGYPT
U.K.
SAUDI
ARABIA
Battle Deaths in World War II
Country
USSR
Germany
Yugoslavia
Poland
Romania
United States
United Kingdom
France
Hungary
Finland
Italy
Greece
Canada
Battle Deaths
7,500,000
3,500,000
410,000
320,000
300,000
292,000
245,000
210,000
140,000
82,000
77,000
74,000
37,000
December 1941 by a Soviet army came as an ominous
ending to the year for the Germans.
Reading Check Evaluating In the spring of 1941,
what caused Hitler to delay his invasion of the Soviet Union?
What halted the German advance once it had begun?
Japan at War
As you will learn, the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor outraged Americans and led to
the entry of the United States into the war.
On December 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft attacked the
U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian
Islands. The same day, other Japanese units launched
additional assaults on the Philippines and began
advancing toward the British colony of Malaya. Soon
Heavy fighting took place in Europe and North Africa.
1. Interpreting Maps Name at least six major land battles of the war in Europe. Which side, the Allies or the
Axis Powers, was more aggressive at the beginning of
the war? Summarize the changes in direction of this
side’s offensives during the first three years of the war.
2. Applying Geography Skills Using information from
the maps on pages 816 and 817, create a model of the
war’s outcome had Hitler not invaded the Soviet Union.
Your model could take the form of a map, a chart, or a
database and include such items as battles, offensives,
and casualties.
Answers:
1. Students should select sites
marked with yellow icon; Axis;
direction moved east in 1940,
west in 1941, then east in 1942.
2. Students will create models.
after, Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies
and occupied a number of islands in the Pacific Ocean.
In some cases, as on the Bataan Peninsula and the
island of Corregidor in the Philippines, resistance was
fierce. By the spring of 1942, however, almost all of
Southeast Asia and much of the western Pacific had
fallen into Japanese hands.
A triumphant Japan now declared the creation of
a community of nations. The name given to this
new “community” was the Greater East-Asia Coprosperity Sphere. The entire region would now be
under Japanese direction. Japan also announced its
intention to liberate the colonial areas of Southeast
Asia from Western colonial rule. For the moment,
however, Japan needed the resources of the region
for its war machine, and it treated the countries
under its rule as conquered lands.
CHAPTER 26
World War II
Enrich
Have students research the raw
materials Japan gained by invading French Indochina and the
Dutch East Indies. Then ask students to write an essay in which
they summarize and analyze the
political and economic impact of
Japanese imperialism on other
societies. L2 FCAT LA.A.2.4.8
817
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
At-Risk Students Have students create a visual “war map” showing one of the following conflicts
of the war: the Soviet offensive, the war in the desert, the invasion of Italy, or the war in the Pacific.
Tell students to re-create the area of conflict and then illustrate how the Allied forces took the
offensive and achieved victory. Suggest that they use markers, flags, or pictures to illustrate the
actions in the conflict. Display completed maps in the classroom and encourage students to
explain and interpret the visuals that they have created. L1 SS.B.1.4.1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
2
817
CHAPTER 26
World War II: Attack and Counterattack
Section 2, 814–822
September 1939
• Germany invades
Poland
• Great Britain and
France declare war
on Germany
Answer: most of Southeast Asia and
much of the western Pacific
1939
Answers:
2. Answers may include: the
Russian Revolution took place
during World War I, causing
Russia to withdraw from the war.
By the time of World War II,
there was a strong totalitarian
regime in power, and Russia was
industrialized.
August 1940
• Air attack
against Britain
1940
April 1940
• Blitzkrieg against
Denmark and
Norway
1. 9 months; 5 years
May 1940
• Attacks against
Netherlands,
Belgium, France
1941
December 1941
• Japan attacks
Pearl Harbor,
Philippines, and
Dutch East Indies
• United States
enters war
1942
June 1941
April 1941
• Hitler invades
• Greece and
Soviet Union
Yugoslavia
are captured
June 1940
• France
surrenders
Japanese leaders had hoped that their lightning
strike at American bases would destroy the U.S. fleet
in the Pacific. The Roosevelt administration, they
thought, would now accept Japanese domination of
the Pacific. The American people, in the eyes of
Japanese leaders, had been made soft by material
indulgence.
The Japanese miscalculated, however. The attack
on Pearl Harbor unified American opinion about
becoming involved in the war. The United States
now joined with European nations and Nationalist
China in a combined effort to defeat Japan. Believing
the American involvement in the Pacific would make
the United States ineffective in the European theater
of war, Hitler declared war on the United States four
days after Pearl Harbor. Another European conflict
had turned into a global war.
Pearl Harbor By late 1941, there
were more than 75 U.S. warships
including battleships, destroyers,
cruisers, and submarines stationed at
Pearl Harbor. During the Japanese
attack, the battleship U.S.S. Arizona
was completely destroyed, the
Nevada heavily damaged, and the
West Virginia and the California were
sunk. American losses were staggering, but Japan lost only 29 planes, 5
small submarines, and about 120
soldiers. A national memorial has
been built across the hull of the U.S.S.
Arizona at Pearl Harbor, just outside
Honolulu, Hawaii. SS.A.3.4.9
Reading Check Describing By the spring of 1942,
which territories did Japan control?
The Allies Advance
Critical Thinking
Ask students to analyze the
information on pages 818
through 822 and suggest what
they believe to be the two or
three major reasons for the war
turning in favor of the Allies.
SS.A.1.4.4
818
CHAPTER 26
1943
May 1943
• German and Italian
troops surrender in
French North Africa
May 1945
• Germany
surrenders
June 1944
• Rome falls
to Allies
• D-Day, June 6
1944
August 1944
• Paris is
liberated
July 1943
Fall 1942
• Soviets defeat
• Germans attack
Germans at
Stalingrad
Battle of Kursk
• Britain and United States
invade North Africa
1945
1946
April 1945
• Soviets enter Berlin
• Hitler and
Mussolini die
March 1945
• Germany is
invaded
August 1945
• United States
drops atomic
bombs on Japan
• Japan surrenders
The time line above traces the major events of the
war, from September 1939 to Japan’s surrender
in August 1945.
1. Identifying How much time elapsed from the
beginning of the war until France’s surrender?
From France’s surrender until Germany’s
surrender?
2. Compare and Contrast Use the time line and
your knowledge of world history to compare the
Soviet Union’s involvement in World War II to
Russia’s involvement in World War I. How do you
explain the successes and failures of the Soviet
Union and Russia in these two wars?
agreed to stress military operations and ignore political differences. At the beginning of 1943, the Allies
agreed to fight until the Axis Powers—Germany,
Italy, and Japan—surrendered unconditionally. The
unconditional surrender principle, which required
the Axis nations to surrender without any favorable
condition, cemented the Grand Alliance by making it
nearly impossible for Hitler to divide his foes.
The European Theater
Defeat was far from
Hitler’s mind at the beginning of 1942. As Japanese
forces advanced into Southeast Asia and the Pacific,
World War II
READING THE TEXT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
The entry of the United States into the war created
a new coalition, the Grand Alliance. To overcome
mutual suspicions, the three major Allies—Great
Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union—
818
February 1943
• Germans surrender
at Stalingrad
Spring 1942
• Japan controls most
of Southeast Asia
Axis attacks and victories
Allied attacks and victories
Who?What?Where?When?
Spring 1942
• United States wins
battles of Coral Sea
and Midway
2
Sequencing Information Have students prepare an annotated time line of the major milestones
in Germany’s early military offensives in World War II. Students should include the conquest of
Poland, the fall of France, the defeat of the Low Countries, the evacuation of Dunkirk, and the
Battle of Britain. In their time line “notes” the students should include a brief phrase on the
outcome of the offensive. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
Hitler and his European allies continued fighting the
war in Europe against the armies of Britain and the
Soviet Union.
Until late 1942, it appeared that the Germans
might still prevail on the battlefield. In North Africa,
the Afrika Korps, German forces under General
Erwin Rommel, broke through the British defenses in
Egypt and advanced toward Alexandria. A renewed
German offensive in the Soviet Union led to the capture of the entire Crimea in the spring of 1942. In
August, Hitler boasted:
“
As the next step, we are going to advance south
of the Caucasus and then help the rebels in Iran and
Iraq against the English. Another thrust will be
directed along the Caspian Sea toward Afghanistan
and India. Then the English will run out of oil. In two
years we’ll be on the borders of India. Twenty to
thirty elite German divisions will do. Then the British
Empire will collapse.
”
This would be Hitler’s last optimistic outburst.
By the fall of 1942, the war had turned against the
Germans.
In North Africa, British forces had stopped Rommel’s troops at El Alamein (EL A•luh•MAYN) in the
summer of 1942. The Germans then retreated back
across the desert. In November 1942, British and
American forces invaded French North Africa. They
forced the German and Italian troops there to surrender in May 1943.
On the Eastern Front, after the capture of the
Crimea, Hitler’s generals wanted him to concentrate
on the Caucasus and its oil fields. Hitler, however,
decided that Stalingrad, a major industrial center on
the Volga, should be taken first.
In perhaps the most terrible battle of the war,
between November 1942 and February 2, 1943, the
Soviets launched a counterattack. German troops
were stopped, then encircled, and supply lines were
cut off, all in frigid winter conditions. The Germans
CHAPTER 26
Section 2, 814–822
Answer: Answers should be supported
by examples and logical arguments.
Why was Stalingrad a major turning
point in World War II? (The Battle of
Stalingrad put the Germans on the
defensive on the Eastern Front and
marked the beginning of the turning
of the tide in favor of the Allies.)
Critical Thinking
Women as Spies in World War II
For thousands of years, governments have relied on
spies to gather information about their enemies. Until
the twentieth century, most spies were men. During
World War II, however, many women became active in
the world of espionage.
Yoshiko Kawashima was born in China but raised in
Japan. In 1932, she was sent to China by Japanese
authorities to gather information for the invasion of
China. Disguised as a young man, Kawashima was an
active and effective spy until her arrest by the Chinese
in 1945. The Chinese news agency announced that “a
long-sought-for beauty in male costume was arrested
today in Beijing.” She was executed soon after her
arrest.
Hekmath Fathmy was an Egyptian dancer. Her hatred
of the British, who had occupied Egypt, caused her to
become a spy for the Germans. Fathmy sang and
danced for British troops in the Kit Kat Club, a nightclub
in Cairo. After shows, she took British officers to her
houseboat on the banks of the Nile. Any information
she was able to obtain from her guests was passed on
to John Eppler, a German spy in Cairo. Eventually, she
was caught, but she served only a year in prison for her
spying activities.
Violette Szabo of French/English background became a spy
after her husband died fighting
the Germans in North Africa.
She joined Special Operations
Executive, an arm of British
Intelligence, and was sent to
France several times. In August
1944, she parachuted into
France to spy on the Germans.
Caught by Gestapo forces at
Salon La Tour, she was tortured
and then shipped to Ravensbruck, a women’s concentration
camp near Berlin. She was executed there in April 1945.
Ask students to discuss why
captured spies have often been
treated more harshly than other
enemy soldiers who were taken
prisoner. What characteristics
in enemy spies do we find particularly offensive? Why do we
glorify the exploits of our own
successful spies? L2
Writing Activity
Violette Szabo spied
for the Allies to avenge
her husband’s death.
People have different motives for becoming spies.
List several motives that might draw someone to
espionage. Do you think the motives are different in
peacetime? Investigate current espionage activities
using the Internet or library. What various methods
do governments use today to gather intelligence?
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
5 5Rome
Rome
andCHAPTER
and
the Rise
the Rise
of 26
Christianity
of Christianity
World War II
819 819819
Assign students to write the dialogue for an imaginary conversation between Winston Churchill
and Hitler in 1941 before the
United States entered the war.
In this conversation, each man
should explain to the other why
his side is certain to win the war
eventually. As part of this writing activity, ask students to analyze the influence of Churchill
and Hitler on political events of
the twentieth century. L2
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
English Learners To help students better understand terms used in Section 2, have them make a
mini-dictionary for the following words: blitzkreig, panzer, Luftwaffe, neutrality, coalition, unconditional surrender, isolationism, morale, and beachhead. Ask students to alphabetize the words, then
find them in Section 2, and either determine their meaning from context or look them up in a
dictionary or the Glossary of their textbook. Then have students write a definition for each word
and use that word in a sentence. L1 FCAT LA.A.1.4.2
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
819
CHAPTER 26
World War II in Asia and the Pacific, 1941–1945
Section 2, 814–822
1,000 miles
0
SOVIET UNION
1,000 kilometers
0
Mercator projection
4
19
5
194
5
1945
Answers:
1. nearly 4,000 miles (6,437 km)
45
19
2. Asia and the Pacific were seabased, Europe was land-based.
(Aug. 1945)
Shanghai
Major Allied air operation
PaCIFic
Ocean
JAPAN
KOREA
Nagasaki
CHINA
Japan and Japanesecontrolled area, 1942
Maximum extent of Japanese
control, 1942
Allied offensive
Kuril
Islands
MANCHUKUO
MONGOLIA
Aleutian Islands
Sakhalin
(Karafuto)
Tokyo
Major battle or attack
Conventional bombing
Hiroshima
Atomic bombing
(Aug. 1945)
30°N
5
194
4
19
INDIA
BURMA
1943
4
Hong
Kong
Formosa
THAILAND(Jan.–AprilBataan
1942)
MALAYA
Sumatra
Java Sea
(Feb. 1942)
Saipan (June–July 1944)
194
Leyte Gulf
(Oct. 1944)
Hawaiian
Islands
3
19
194
2
194
4
New Britain
(Dec. 1944)
New Guinea
DUTCH EAST INDIES
Java
1944
EQUATOR
0°
Solomon Islands
1943
1942
AUSTRALIA
120°E
194
Tarawa
(Nov. 1943)
Coral Sea
(May 1942)
indian
Ocean
90°E
2
Marshall Islands
4
Guam
(July–Aug. 1944)
(June 1944)
SARAWAK
Borneo Celebes
FCAT SC.H.3.4.6
Guadalcanal
(Aug. 1942–Feb. 1943)
Eastern Solomons (Aug. 1942)
Santa Cruz (Oct. 1942)
Coral
Sea
N
W
E
S
New
Hebrides
New
Caledonia
150°E
Fiji
TROPIC OF CAPRICORN
180°
150°W
The Asian Theater
Critical Thinking
Many difficult decisions were
made during the course of
World War II. Have students
identify a situation that requires
a similarly difficult decision.
You might suggest that students
assume roles of contemporary
political or military leaders facing a decision about how to
react to an event currently in the
news. Then ask students to use
a decision-making process to
gather information, identify
options, and predict consequences regarding their situation. Ask students to identify
what actions would be needed
to implement their decision. L2
Philippine
Islands Philippine Sea
194
Wake Island
(Dec. 1941)
Mariana Islands
44
FRENCH 1945
INDOCHINA
Technology After D-Day, Pipe-Line
Under The Ocean (PLUTO), a supply
line under the English Channel, supplied thousands of gallons of gasoline
a day for Allied trucks and tanks
advancing across Europe. Ask students to research PLUTO and other
technological innovations of the war.
You might suggest radar, jet engines,
special munitions, or Mulberry harbors.
TROPIC OF CANCER
1945
Corregidor
Hainan
Midway Island
(June 1942) Pearl Harbor
(Dec. 1941)
Iwo Jima (Feb.–March 1945)
Okinawa
(April–June 1945)
“Island hopping,” the Allied strategy in Asia and the Pacific,
focused more on the islands in the Pacific than on the mainland of Asia.
1. Interpreting Maps What was the approximate distance from Japan, in miles and kilometers, to its farthest
point of control?
2. Applying Geography Skills Compare this map to the
earlier maps in the chapter dealing with the war in
Europe. Then analyze the effects of geographic factors
on the major events in the two different theatres of war.
were forced to surrender at Stalingrad. The entire
German Sixth Army, considered the best of the German troops, was lost.
By February 1943, German forces in Russia were
back to their positions of June 1942. By the spring of
1943, even Hitler knew that the Germans would not
defeat the Soviet Union.
820
CHAPTER 26
In 1942, the tide of battle in the
East also changed dramatically. In the Battle of the
Coral Sea on May 7 and 8, 1942, American naval
forces stopped the Japanese advance and saved Australia from the threat of invasion.
The turning point of the war in Asia came on
June 4, at the Battle of Midway Island. U.S. planes
destroyed four attacking Japanese aircraft carriers.
The United States defeated the Japanese navy and
established naval superiority in the Pacific.
By the fall of 1942, Allied forces in Asia were gathering for two operations. One, commanded by U.S.
general Douglas MacArthur, would move into the
Philippines through New Guinea and the South
Pacific Islands. The other would move across the
Pacific with a combination of U.S. Army, Marine, and
Navy attacks on Japanese-held islands. The policy
was to capture some Japanese-held islands and bypass
others, “island hopping” up to Japan. After a series of
bitter engagements in the waters off the Solomon
World War II
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
820
Geography Geography is more than the study of a region’s rivers, lakes, mountains, etc. For example, the economic geography of Japan (i.e., its economic resources) was a serious limitation to the
Japanese aim to become a great power. Japan felt that it had to gain access to natural resources
for a modern industrial economy. This meant expansion toward Korea, China, Russia, and adjoining
Pacific areas. A weakness in economic geography directly led to aggression and imperialism. Today
contemporary Japan peacefully meets its demands for natural resources. Through exports Japan
can afford to buy natural resources in the world market. Ask students to create a chart that lists
Japan’s exports in one column and the natural resources it imports in a second column.
SS.D.2.4.6
Islands from August to November 1942, Japanese
fortunes were fading.
Reading Check Summarizing Why was the German
assault on Stalingrad a crushing defeat for the Germans?
CHAPTER 26
Section 2, 814–822
Winston Churchill
1874–1965
British prime minister
Winston Churchill was Great
Last Years of the War
By the beginning of 1943, the tide of battle had
turned against Germany, Italy, and Japan. Axis forces
in Tunisia surrendered on May 13, 1943. The Allies
then crossed the Mediterranean and carried the war
to Italy, an area that Winston Churchill had called
the “soft underbelly” of Europe. After taking Sicily,
Allied troops began an invasion of mainland Italy in
September.
The European Theater After the fall of Sicily, Mussolini was removed from office and placed under
arrest by Victor Emmanuel III, king of Italy. A new
Italian government offered to surrender to the Allied
forces. However, Mussolini was liberated by the Germans in a daring raid and then set up as the head of
a puppet German state in northern Italy. At the same
time, German troops moved in and occupied much
of Italy.
The Germans set up effective new defensive lines
in the hills south of Rome. The Allied advance up the
Italian Peninsula turned into a painstaking affair
with very heavy casualties. Rome did not fall to the
“Tears, Sweat, and Blood”?
Winston Churchill is renowned for the
speeches he wrote during World War II and for
the expressions he created for those speeches.
Of special fame is the “blood, toil, tears, and
sweat” phrase. Supposedly, Churchill also
coined the term “iron curtain.” In reality,
however, phrases similar to “blood, toil, tears,
and sweat” had been used by both John
Donne and Lord Byron. The term “iron curtain”
had been used by Joseph Goebbels in 1945,
and by Queen Elizabeth of Belgium in 1914.
Answer: The entire German Sixth
Army, considered to be Hitler’s best
troops, was lost.
Britain’s wartime leader. At the
beginning of the war, Churchill
had already had a long political
career. He had advocated a hard-line
policy toward Nazi Germany in the 1930s.
On May 10, 1940, he became British prime minister.
Churchill was confident that he could guide Britain to
ultimate victory. “I thought I knew a great deal about it
all,” he later wrote, “and I was sure I should not fail.”
Churchill proved to be an inspiring leader who rallied the
British people with stirring speeches: “We shall fight on
the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, in the
fields, in the streets, and in the hills. We shall never surrender.” Time magazine designated Churchill the Man of
the Year in 1940 and named him the Man of the Half
Century in 1950.
Who?What?Where?When?
Military Code In 1942, the United
States Marine Corps recruited the
Navajo to develop a military code that
the Japanese could not break. Based
on their oral language, the “Navajo
Code Talkers” created the only
unbreakable code in military history.
3 ASSESS
Allies until June 4, 1944. By that time, the Italian war
had assumed a secondary role as the Allied forces
opened their long-awaited “second front” in western
Europe.
Since the autumn of 1943, the Allies had been
planning an invasion of France from Great Britain,
across the English Channel. Finally, on June 6, 1944
(D-Day), Allied forces under U.S. general Dwight D.
Eisenhower landed on the Normandy beaches in history’s greatest naval invasion. The Allies fought their
way past underwater mines, barbed wire, and horrible machine gun fire. There was heavy German
resistance even though the Germans thought the battle was a diversion and the real invasion would occur
elsewhere. Their slow response enabled the Allied
forces to set up a beachhead. Within three months,
the Allies had landed two million men and a halfmillion vehicles. Allied forces then pushed inland
and broke through German defensive lines.
After the breakout, Allied troops moved south and
east. In Paris, resistance fighters rose up against the
occupying Germans. The Allies liberated Paris by the
end of August. In March 1945, they crossed the Rhine
River and advanced into Germany. At the end of
April 1945, Allied armies in northern Germany
moved toward the Elbe River, where they linked up
with the Soviets.
Assign Section 2 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
L2
Section Quiz 26–2
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Chapter 26
Score
Section Quiz 26-2
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. Hitler’s “lightning war,” using air-supported panzer
divisions
A. blitzkrieg
2. series of fortifications along France’s German border
C. Normandy
3. the German air force
D. Maginot Line
4. target of Japanese attack December 7, 1941
E. Pearl Harbor
B. Luftwaffe
5. site of Allies’ D-Day invasion
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. Truman wanted to avoid an invasion of Japan because he believed that
A Japan’s culture would be ruined
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 26–2
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 26, Section 2
For use with textbook pages 814–822
THE COURSE OF WORLD WAR II
KEY TERMS
CHAPTER 26
World War II
blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) the German method of warfare, based on panzer divisions supported by airplanes (page 814)
821
partisan
a resistance fighter (page 822)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
Hitler the General Contrary to the mythological picture of Hitler as a great military strategist, he
actually committed many blunders that ultimately led to his defeat. Without subduing England,
Hitler initiated an attack against the Soviet Union, creating a two-front war. He seriously underestimated the Soviet capability and paid a huge price for his mistake. Prior to D-Day, Hitler was fooled
by the Allies into thinking that the invasion of Europe would take place at Calais. When the attack
came on Normandy, he delayed the redeployment of his forces. By the time his troops became
active, it was too late; the Normandy invasion had been a success.
Have you ever heard of D-Day, V-E Day, and V-J Day? What happened on these
days?
In the last section, you read about the actions of Germany and Japan that led to the
beginning of World War II. In this section, you will read about the war itself.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
821
CHAPTER 26
Section 2, 814–822
Answer: the one launched from Normandy after D-Day
Turning Points in World History
The ABC News videotape
includes a segment on the
Holocaust and the dropping
of the atomic bomb.
Critical Thinking
Ask students to debate Truman’s
decision to use the atomic bomb
to end World War II. L2
SS.A.3.4.9
Reteaching Activity
Using a large wall map, have
students show Allied progress in
the Atlantic, Soviet Union, North
Africa, Italy, and the Pacific from
1942 to 1943. FCAT MA.D.2.4.1
4 CLOSE
Organize the class into two
groups. Have each group make
a list of ten key events from this
section in chronological order.
Combine the two lists into one
top-ten list.
The Soviets had come a long way since the Battle
of Stalingrad in 1943. In the summer of 1943, Hitler
gambled on taking the offensive using newly developed heavy tanks. German forces were soundly
defeated by the Soviets at the Battle of Kursk (July 5
to 12), the greatest tank battle of World War II.
Soviet forces now began a steady advance westward. They had reoccupied Ukraine by the end of
1943 and moved into the Baltic states by the beginning of 1944. Advancing along a northern front,
Soviet troops occupied Warsaw in January 1945 and
entered Berlin in April. Meanwhile, Soviet troops,
along a southern front, swept through Hungary,
Romania, and Bulgaria.
By January 1945, Adolf Hitler had moved into a
bunker 55 feet (almost 17 m) under the city of Berlin
to direct the final stages of the war. In his final political testament, Hitler, consistent to the end in his
anti-Semitism, blamed the Jews for the war. He
wrote, “Above all I charge the leaders of the nation
and those under them to scrupulous observance of
the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the
universal poisoner of all peoples, international
Jewry.”
Hitler committed suicide on April 30, two days after
Mussolini had been shot by Italian partisans, or resistance fighters. On May 7, 1945, German commanders
surrendered. The war in Europe was finally over.
sive and advanced, slowly at times, across the Pacific.
As Allied military power drew closer to the main
Japanese islands in the first months of 1945, Harry S
Truman, who had become president after the death
of Roosevelt in April, had a difficult decision to
make. Should he use newly developed atomic
weapons to bring the war to an end or find another
way to defeat the Japanese forces?
Using atomic weapons would, Truman hoped,
enable the United States to avoid an invasion of
Japan. The Japanese had made extensive preparations
to defend their homeland. Truman and his advisers
had become convinced that American troops would
suffer heavy casualties if they invaded Japan. At the
time, however, only two bombs were available, and
no one knew how effective they would be.
Truman decided to use the bombs. The first bomb
was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on
August 6. Three days later, a second bomb was
dropped on Nagasaki. Both cities were leveled.
Thousands of people died immediately after the
bombs were dropped. Thousands more died in later
months from radiation. Japan surrendered on
August 14.
World War II was finally over. Seventeen million
had died in battle. Perhaps twenty million civilians
had perished as well. Some estimates place total
losses at fifty million.
The Asian Theater The war in Asia continued.
Beginning in 1943, U.S. forces had gone on the offen-
Reading Check Identifying What was the “second
front” that the Allies opened in Western Europe?
Checking for Understanding
1. Define blitzkrieg, partisan.
Critical Thinking
6. Evaluate How might the Allied
demand for unconditional surrender
have helped Hitler to maintain his control over Germany?
2. Identify Franklin D. Roosevelt,
Douglas MacArthur, Winston Churchill,
Harry S Truman.
7. Sequencing Information Using a chart
like the one below, place the events of
World War II in chronological order.
3. Locate Stalingrad, Midway Island, Normandy, Hiroshima.
4. Explain Hitler’s strategy of attacking
the Soviet Union. Why did his delay in
launching the attack ultimately contribute to the Soviet victory over the
Germans?
Year
Country
Event
1939
5. List events leading to U.S. entry into
the war.
822
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
3
822
CHAPTER 26
Analyzing Visuals
8. Examine the photo on page 815 showing the destruction caused by the Luftwaffe’s bombing raids on London.
Explain how this strategy of Hitler’s
hurt, rather than helped, Germany’s
efforts.
9. Descriptive Writing Imagine you
lived in California during World
War II. Write an essay about your
expectations of a Japanese invasion
of California. You can choose to
believe that an invasion was possible
or impossible.
World War II
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Franklin D. Roosevelt (p. 815);
General Douglas MacArthur
(p. 820); Winston Churchill
(p. 821); Harry S Truman (p. 822)
3. See chapter maps.
4. Hitler believed that the Soviets had
a pitiful army and would be
defeated quickly. Their defeat
would cause Britain to fall. The
delay left the German army in Russia in winter.
5. United States denounced Germany
but remained neutral; United States
supplied resources to Britain; Japan
bombed Pearl Harbor
6. Answers will vary. It may have
caused many Germans to continue
to support Hitler because they saw
him as the only alternative to
national humiliation.
7. Students will create a sequence of
events.
8. By shifting from military targets to
bombing British cities, Hitler gave
the British an opportunity to
rebuild their air strength.
9. Answers should be supported by
logical arguments.
TEACH
A German Soldier at Stalingrad
Analyzing Primary Sources
Hitler knew that capturing Stalingrad would be a tremendous
victory for the German army. Initially the German army captured
over half the city, but Soviet
forces fought back causing a
stalemate. With most of the German army engaged in fighting in
the city, Stalin broke through the
lines of the weaker Italian and
Romanian armies, which were
defending the flanks of the
German army. Even though the
German army was completely
encircled and Hitler was advised
that the situation was serious, he
refused to allow his army to surrender. The temperature fell to
minus 30º centigrade. The men
had little to eat and began to
succumb to cold, illness, and
starvation.
THE SOVIET VICTORY AT STALINGRAD WAS A
major turning point in World War II. These words
come from the diary of a German soldier who
fought and died there.
Today, after we’d had a bath, the company com“
mander told us that if our future operations are as
successful, we’ll soon reach the Volga, take Stalingrad and then the war will inevitably soon be over.
Perhaps we’ll be home by Christmas.
July 29. The company commander says the Russian troops are completely broken, and cannot hold
out any longer. To reach the Volga and take Stalingrad is not so difficult for us. The Führer knows
where the Russians’ [Soviets’] weak point is. Victory
is not far away. . . .
September 4. We are being sent northward along
the front towards Stalingrad. . . . It’s a happy thought
that the end of the war is getting nearer.
September 8. Two days of non-stop fighting. The
Russians [Soviets] are defending themselves with
insane stubbornness.
October 10. The Russians [Soviets] are so close
to us that our planes cannot bomb them. We are
preparing for a decisive attack. The Führer has
ordered the whole of Stalingrad to be taken as
rapidly as possible. . . .
October 22. Our regiment has failed to break into
the factory. We have lost many men; every time you
move you have to jump over bodies. . . .
November 10. A letter from Elsa today. Everyone
expects us home for Christmas. In Germany everyone believes we already hold Stalingrad. How wrong
they are. If they could only see what Stalingrad has
done to our army. . . .
November 21. The Russians [Soviets] have gone
over to the offensive along the whole front. Fierce
fighting is going on. So, there it is—the Volga, victory
and soon home to our families! We shall obviously
be seeing them next in the other world.
November 29. We are encircled. It was
announced this morning that the Führer has said:
A German machine gunner endures the
freezing Stalingrad winter in January 1943.
“The army can trust me to do everything necessary
to rapidly break the encirclement.”
December 3. We are on hunger rations and waiting for the rescue that the Führer promised. . . .
December 26. The horses have already been
eaten. I would eat a cat; they say its meat is also
tasty. The soldiers look like corpses or lunatics, looking for something to put in their mouths. They no
longer take cover from Russian [Soviet] shells; they
haven’t the strength to walk, run away and hide. A
curse on this war!
—A German Soldier, On the Battle of Stalingrad
Writing Activity
Assign students to create a similar diary that might have been
written by a Soviet soldier who
was defending Stalingrad. How
many experiences would these
two men share? Would either of
them have spent much time or
thought about which side in the
battle was “right”? L2
”
Analyzing Primary Sources
1. What city was the German army trying to take?
2. How accurate was the information received
by the German soldiers prior to the attack?
3. What evidence is there of both the
effectiveness of Nazi propaganda, and
of the soldiers’ disenchantment?
823
ANSWERS TO ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES
1. The German army was trying to take Stalingrad.
2. The information received by German soldiers was not
very accurate.
3. Apparently propaganda was very effective; everyone
in Germany seems to have believed the siege of Stalingrad was going as Hitler had planned, when in fact
it was not (see November 10 entry). Hitler failed to
provide the support he had promised, leaving his soldiers to starve to death or be captured by the Soviets.
In his November 21 entry, the soldier notes that he
will next see his family “in the other world,” which
indicates his belief that the Germans were losing.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
823
CHAPTER 26
The New Order
and the Holocaust
Section 3, 824–829
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
This section describes the development of the New Order in
Europe, the Nazi Holocaust,
Japan’s expansion in Southeast
Asia and its use of forced labor.
BELLRINGER
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• Adolf Hitler’s philosophy of Aryan
superiority led to the Holocaust.
• The Japanese conquest of Southeast
Asia forced millions of native peoples
to labor for the Japanese war machine.
Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich
Compare and Contrast Using a Venn
diagram like the one below, compare and
contrast the New Order of Germany with
the New Order of Japan.
Key Terms
1. How did the Nazis carry out their Final
Solution?
2. How did the Japanese create a
dilemma for nationalists in the lands
they occupied?
Places to Locate
Poland, Auschwitz
Preview Questions
genocide, collaborator
Skillbuilder Activity
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Preview of Events
✦1940
1941
Einsatzgruppen
active in Poland
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
26–3
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
5
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 26 TRANSPARENCY 26-3
✦1941
✦1942
1942
Two million ethnic Germans
resettled in Poland
Germany
✦1943
✦1944
1943
Japan uses forced labor to
build Burma-Thailand railroad
Japan
✦1945
1944
Nazis continue Final Solution
even as they start losing the war
ANSWERS
1. She was Jewish and had to hide from the Nazis. 2. She
was tired of waiting and wanted to know what would happen to
her. 3. No; Anne claims they still loved life and remembered
nature.
The New Order and the Holocaust
1
2 Why did Anne want
Why do you think Anne
Frank had to go into hiding?
something to happen?
3
Voices from the Past
Had the people who were
hiding lost hope? Explain.
I’ve asked myself again and again whether it
wouldn’t have been better if we hadn’t gone
into hiding, if we were dead now and didn’t
have to go through this misery. …But we all
shrink from this thought. We still love life, we
haven’t yet forgotten the voice of nature, and
we keep hoping, hoping for… everything.
Let something happen soon, even an air
raid. Nothing can be more crushing than this
anxiety. Let the end come, however cruel….
Rudolf Höss, commanding officer at the Auschwitz death camp, described the
experience awaiting the Jews when they arrived there:
Yours, Anne M. Frank
“
We had two SS doctors on duty at Auschwitz to examine the incoming transports
of prisoners. The prisoners would be marched by one of the doctors who would make
spot decisions as they walked by. Those who were fit for work were sent into the
camp. Others were sent immediately to the extermination plants. Children of tender
years were invariably exterminated since by reason of their youth they were unable
to work. . . . At Auschwitz we fooled the victims into thinking that they were to go
through a delousing process. Frequently they realized our true intentions and we
sometimes had riots and difficulties due to that fact.
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: Germany:
directly annexed some occupied
lands, Final Solution; Japan: Greater
East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere,
retained power in colonies; Both:
used slave labor from occupied lands
”
—Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 6, 1946
Millions of Jews died in the Nazi death camps.
The New Order in Europe
In 1942, the Nazi regime stretched across continental Europe from the English
Channel in the west to the outskirts of Moscow in the east. Nazi-occupied Europe
was largely organized in one of two ways. Some areas, such as western Poland,
were directly annexed by Nazi Germany and made into German provinces. Most
of occupied Europe, however, was run by German military or civilian officials
with help from local people who were willing to collaborate with the Nazis.
Preteaching Vocabulary
Ask students to review the meaning
of genocide. Why is the word for “the
deliberate mass murder of a group of
people” not used to describe battlefield casualties in wartime? L2
824
CHAPTER 26
World War II
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–3
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–3
• Guided Reading Activity 26–3
• Section Quiz 26–3
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–3
824
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–3
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
CHAPTER 26
Resettlement in the East
Nazi administration in
the conquered lands to the east was especially ruthless. These lands were seen as the living space for
German expansion. They were populated, Nazis
thought, by racially inferior Slavic peoples. Hitler’s
plans for an Aryan racial empire were so important to
him that he and the Nazis began to put their racial
program into effect soon after the conquest of Poland.
Heinrich Himmler, the leader of the SS, was put in
charge of German resettlement plans in the east.
Himmler’s task was to move the Slavic peoples out
and replace them with Germans. Slavic peoples
included Czech, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene,
and Ukrainian. This policy was first applied to the
new German provinces created from the lands of
western Poland.
One million Poles were uprooted and moved to
southern Poland. Hundreds of thousands of ethnic
Germans (descendants of Germans who had migrated
years ago from Germany to different parts of southern
and eastern Europe) were brought in to colonize the
German provinces in Poland. By 1942, two million
ethnic Germans had been settled in Poland.
The invasion of the Soviet Union made the Nazis
even more excited about German colonization in the
east. Hitler spoke to his intimate circle of a colossal
project of social engineering after the war. Poles,
Ukrainians, and Russians would be removed from
their lands and become slave labor. German peasants
would settle on the abandoned lands and “germanize” them.
Himmler told a gathering of SS officers that 30 million Slavs might die in order to achieve German
plans in the east. He continued, “Whether nations
live in prosperity or starve to death interests me only
insofar as we need them as slaves for our culture.
Otherwise it is of no interest.”
Slave Labor in Germany Labor shortages in Germany led to a policy of rounding up foreign workers
for Germany. In 1942, a special office was set up to
recruit labor for German farms and industries. By the
summer of 1944, seven million European workers
were laboring in Germany. They made up 20 percent
of Germany’s labor force. Another seven million
workers were forced to labor for the Nazis in their
own countries on farms, in industries, and even in
military camps.
The use of forced labor often caused problems,
however. Sending so many workers to Germany disrupted industrial production in the occupied countries that could have helped Germany. Then, too, the
Section 3, 824–829
Anne Frank
1929–1945
Dutch Holocaust victim
2 TEACH
Anne
Frank is one of the bestknown victims of the Nazi Holocaust.
When the Nazis began to round up
Jews in the Netherlands, the Frank family, along with another family, moved into
a secret annex above a warehouse owned by the
family business. Employees of the Frank family provided
food and a lifeline to the outside world.
Anne remained hopeful. She kept a diary to while
away the time spent in hiding. On July 15, 1944, she
wrote, “In spite of everything I still believe that people
are really good at heart.”
On August 4, 1944, after the Franks had spent two
years in hiding, the Nazis found the secret annex. Anne
and her sister were sent to Bergen-Belsen, a concentration camp in Germany. There they died of typhus. Anne’s
father, Otto Frank, who survived, later found Anne’s
diary. He had it published in 1947. The Diary of Anne
Frank became an international best-seller.
Answer: Hitler’s goal was to remove
Poles, Ukrainians, and Russians from
their land, force them to become
slave laborers, and replace them
with Germans.
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 26–3
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 26, Section 3
Did You Know
?
Former Auschwitz Kommandant Höss was
arrested by the British on March 11, 1946. He was posing as a farmworker when he was arrested. After testifying at the Nuremberg
War Crimes Trials, he was executed at Auschwitz, April 16, 1947,
near Crematory I.
I.
The New Order in Europe (pages 824–825)
A. In 1942, the Nazis controlled Europe from the English Channel in the west to near
Moscow in the east. While Germany annexed some areas, most were run by military
or civilian officials with help from local citizens who supported them.
B. The Nazis were especially ruthless in Eastern Europe. The Nazis saw the Slavic peoples as racially inferior. The Nazis wanted the lands for German settlers. Soon after
they conquered Poland, they began to put their plans for an Aryan racial empire into
action
brutal way in which Germany recruited foreign
workers led more and more people to resist the Nazi
occupation forces.
Critical Thinking
Reading Check Describing What was Hitler’s vision
for the residents of eastern Europe?
Ask students to refer to the
quote on page 824 from Rudolph
Höss. Discuss the description of
the operation of death squads
described in the quoted material.
Point out to students that the
writer is matter-of-fact and that
he portrays little or no emotion.
Ask students why they think this
is. L2
The Holocaust
No aspect of the Nazi New Order was more terrifying than the deliberate attempt to exterminate the
Jews. Racial struggle was a key element in Hitler’s
world of ideas. To him, racial struggle was a clearly
defined conflict of opposites. On one side were the
Aryans, creators of human cultural development. On
the other side were the Jews, parasites, in Hitler’s
view, who were trying to destroy the Aryans.
Himmler and the SS closely shared Hitler’s racial
ideas. The SS was given responsibility for what the
Nazis called their Final Solution to the Jewish problem. The Final Solution was genocide (physical
extermination) of the Jewish people.
Connecting Across Time
The Einsatzgruppen Reinhard Heydrich, head of
the SS’s Security Service, was given the task of
administering the Final Solution. Heydrich created
CHAPTER 26
World War II
825
Unfortunately, war has often
involved the killing of innocent
civilians. Ask students to explain
what made the killing of the
Jewish people by the Nazis so
different from civilian casualties
in other wars. L2 SS.A.3.4.9
CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY
Engaging in Historical Inquiry Remind students that in recent years there have been some efforts
to prove that the Holocaust did not occur, or that the number of those who perished in Germanrun concentration camps has been greatly exaggerated. Have students explain and then apply different methods that historians use to interpret the past, including the use of primary and secondary
sources, points of view, frames of reference, and historical context to refute this claim. Have students prepare a final report by first creating research outlines. Ask students to interpret each other’s
research outlines, looking for correct format and clarity of ideas. Then have students write a final
report in which they include a bibliography, as well as databases, visuals, charts, time lines, and
maps as appropriate. L2 L3 FCAT LA.A.2.4.4
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
825
CHAPTER 26
special strike forces, called Einsatzgruppen, to carry
out Nazi plans. After the defeat of Poland, he ordered
these forces to round up all Polish Jews and put them
in ghettos set up in a number of Polish cities. Conditions in the ghettos were horrible. Families were
crowded together in unsanitary housing. The Nazis
attempted to starve residents by allowing only minimal amounts of food. Despite suffering, residents
tried to carry on and some ghettos organized resistance against the Nazis.
In June 1941, the Einsatzgruppen were given the
new job of acting as mobile killing units. These SS
death squads followed the regular army’s advance
into the Soviet Union. Their job was to round up Jews
in their villages, execute them, and bury them in
mass graves. The graves were often giant pits dug by
the victims themselves before they were shot.
Section 3, 824–829
Answers:
1. 25 concentration camps, six
death camps
2. located away from Germany,
Poland had a large Jewish
population
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 26–3
Name
Date
The leader of one of these death squads described
the mode of operation:
“
The unit selected for this task would enter a village or city and order the prominent Jewish citizens
to call together all Jews for the purpose of resettlement. They were requested to hand over their valuables to the leaders of the unit, and shortly before
the execution to surrender their outer clothing. The
men, women, and children were led to a place of
execution which in most cases was located next to
a more deeply excavated anti-tank ditch. Then they
were shot, kneeling or standing, and the corpses
thrown into the ditch.
”
The Death Camps
Probably one million Jews were
killed by the Einsatzgruppen. As appalling as that
sounds, it was too slow by Nazi standards. They
Class
Guided Reading Activity 26-3
Major Nazi Camps
The New Order and the Holocaust
DIRECTIONS: Complete the outline below as you read Section 3.
.
0°
moved Slavic people in the East and replaced them with
N
.
for
W
the Nazis.
A.
centers were built in Poland for mass executions of Jews.
C. The Germans killed between five and six
10°E
S
formed death squads to kill Jews by mass murder.
B. Six
E
of the Jewish people.
20°E
SWEDEN
a
II. The Final Solution in Hitler's Europe was
NORWAY
Se
B. By summer, 1944, seven million Europeans were laboring as
Jews.
D The mass slaughter of European civilians especially Jews is called the
UNITED
KINGDOM
Enrich
Assign small groups of students
to research one of the following
topics: Kristallnacht; the Warsaw
Ghetto; German use of slave
labor; artworks and gold stolen
by Germany from occupied
countries. Have each group present a panel discussion based on
its research. After all panels have
been presented, have the class
discuss how Hitler’s “New
Order” was carried out through
these various activities. L2
50°N
North
Sea
DENMARK
c
A.
to
ti
I. In 1942 the Nazi regime stretched from the
B
LITHUANIA
Moscow
Smolensk
EAST
Ad
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
YUGOSLAVIA
䊲
Concentration camp survivors
at
500 miles
Jasenovac
Jadovno
Sajmiste
ri
ITALY
Concentration camp
Death camp
Location of
Einsatzgruppen
International
boundary, Jan. 1938
ROMANIA
Rome
0
Valvara
Klooga
ESTONIA
LATVIA
Kaiserwald
Riga
Stutthof PRUSSIA
Neuengamme
UNION OF SOVIET
Ravensbr¨uck
Ger.
Minsk
Westerbork
BergenSachsenhausen
Koldichevo
NETH.
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
Belsen
Treblinka
Dora- GERMANY
Warsaw
POLAND
BELGIUM Mittelbau
Buchenwald Chelmno
Sobibor
Gross-Rosen
Majdanek
Plaszow
Paris
Theresienstadt
LUX.
Auschwitz- Belzec
CZ
Flossenb¨urg
Janowska
ECH
Birkenau
OSLO
VA K I A
Natzweiler
Dachau
Sered
Mauthausen
FRANCE
SWITZ.
AUSTRIA HUNGARY
San Sabba
SPAIN
al
FINLAND
ic
Se
a
ALBANIA
GREECE
FCAT LA.A.2.4.8
The Nazis devoted extensive resources to what they termed
the Final Solution.
Critical Thinking
Ask students to explain why
they believe any human being
could be involved in the type of
actions described in this section.
Do students believe this could
have happened without the
unspoken support or tacit consent of most German people? L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
826
1. Interpreting Maps How many concentration camps
are shown on the map? How many death camps?
2. Applying Geography Skills What geographical factors
do you think were involved in the Germans’ decisions
about the locations of the death camps?
826
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY
EXTENDING
THE CONTENT
Making a Presentation Organize the class into small groups to research the roots and results of
anti-Semitism. Assign each group a different area to research: 1) a history of the Hebrew people,
including the Diaspora (A.D. 70); 2) a history of the Jewish expulsion from European countries
(e.g. Spain, 1492); 3) excerpts of writings or speeches by famous people (e.g. Theodor Herzl);
4) excerpts from books or stories of the Holocaust (e.g. Night by Elie Wiesel); 5) reasons given
by Nazis for their treatment of European Jews; and 6) world reactions to Nazi treatment of the
Jews. Provide students with the materials needed for their research and ask them to present their
information to the class. L2
CHAPTER 26
decided to kill the European Jewish population in specially built death camps.
Beginning in 1942, Jews from countries
occupied by Germany (or sympathetic to
Germany) were rounded up, packed like
cattle into freight trains, and shipped to
Poland. Six extermination centers were
built in Poland for this purpose. The largest
was Auschwitz (AUSH•VIHTS).
About 30 percent of the arrivals at
Auschwitz were sent to a labor camp,
where many were starved or worked to
death. The remainder went to the gas
chambers. Some inmates were subjected to
cruel and painful “medical” experiments.
By the spring of 1942, the death camps
were in full operation. First priority was
given to the elimination of the ghettos in Jewish men, women, and children being taken by the Nazis
Poland. By the summer of 1942, however,
lives as slave laborers for Nazi Germany. Finally,
Jews were also being shipped from France, Belgium,
probably at least three million to four million Soviet
and Holland. Even as the Allies were winning the
prisoners of war were killed in captivity.
war in 1944, Jews were being shipped from Greece
This mass slaughter of European civilians, particand Hungary. Despite desperate military needs, even
ularly European Jews, is known as the Holocaust.
late in the war when Germany faced utter defeat, the
Jews in and out of the camps attempted to resist the
Final Solution had priority in using railroad cars to
Nazis. Some were aided by friends and even
ship Jews to death camps.
strangers, hidden in villages or smuggled into safe
The Death Toll The Germans killed between five
areas. Foreign diplomats would try to save Jews by
and six million Jews, over three million of them in the
issuing exit visas. The nation of Denmark saved
death camps. Virtually 90 percent of the Jewish popalmost its entire Jewish population.
ulations of Poland, the Baltic countries, and Germany
Some people did not believe the accounts of death
were killed. Overall, the Holocaust was responsible
camps because, during World War I, allies had
for the death of nearly two out of every three Eurogreatly exaggerated German atrocities to arouse
pean Jews.
enthusiasm for the war. Most often, people preThe Nazis were also responsible for the deliberate
tended not to notice what was happening. Even
death by shooting, starvation, or overwork of at least
worse, collaborators (people who assisted the
another nine to ten million non-Jewish people. The
enemy) helped the Nazis hunt down Jews. The Allies
Nazis considered the Roma (sometimes known as
were aware of the concentration camps and death
Gypsies), like the Jews, to be an alien race. The Roma
camps but chose to concentrate on ending the war.
were rounded up for mass killing. About 40 percent of
Not until after the war did they learn the full extent
Europe’s one million
of the horror and inhumanity of the Holocaust. ;
Roma were killed in
(See page 999 to read excerpts from The Holocaust—The Camp
HISTORY
the death camps.
Victims in the Primary Sources Library.)
The leading citizens of
Web Activity Visit
Children in the War Young people of all ages were
the Slavic peoples—the
the Glencoe World
also victims of World War II. Because they were
clergy, intellectuals, civil
History Web site at
unable to work, Jewish children, along with their
leaders, judges, and
wh.glencoe.com and
mothers, were the first ones selected for gas chamlawyers—were arrested
click on Chapter 26–
bers upon their arrival in the death camps of Poland.
and killed. Probably an
Student Web Activity
Young Jewish males soon learned to look as adult as
additional four million
to learn more about
possible in order to survive. Altogether, 1.2 million
Poles,
Ukrainians,
and
concentration camps.
Jewish children died in the Holocaust.
Belorussians lost their
CHAPTER 26
World War II
Section 3, 824–829
Who?What?Where?When?
Jewish Resistance There were many
acts of resistance to Nazi atrocities.
For example, several hundred prisoners assigned to Crematorium IV at
Auschwitz-Birkenau rebelled after
learning that they were going to be
killed. Jewish slave laborers in a
nearby armaments factory smuggled
explosives into the camp. On
October 7, 1944, the prisoners killed
several guards and blew up the crematorium and adjacent gas chamber.
The Germans crushed the revolt and
killed almost all of the prisoners
involved in the rebellion. The Jewish
women who had smuggled the explosives into the camp were publicly
hanged.
Writing Activity
Ask students to research the
Allied response to the Nazi persecution and killing of the Jews,
Gypsies, and others. What
actions did the Allies take to stop
it? Have students write a report
on the results of their research.
L3
Connecting Across Time
The Holocaust is one of the most
significant examples of human
rights violations in the twentieth
century. Ask students to identify
other examples of political, economic, and social oppression
and violations of human rights
that have occurred throughout
history. L2 SS.A.1.4.2
827
READING THE TEXT
Writing Free Writes Ask students to describe the changes that must have taken place in communities surrounding Auschwitz-Birkenau in Poland. Citizens must have known or suspected what
was happening nearby. What would they have thought? How could they have carried on normal
day-to-day lives? Do students believe that any of them could really not have known what was
being done? Ask students to research materials describing the reactions of people living in communities near Auschwitz and other extermination camps. Have the students imagine that they are
members of one of those communities and write first-person narratives about their responses. L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
827
CHAPTER 26
Many children were evacuated from cities during
the war in order to avoid the bombing. The Germans
created about 9,000 camps for children in the countryside. In Japan, 15,000 children were evacuated from
Hiroshima before its destruction. The British moved
about 6 million children and their mothers in 1939.
Some British parents even sent their children to
Canada and the United States. This, too, could be
dangerous. When the ocean liner Arandora Star was
hit by a German torpedo, it had 77 British children on
board. They never made it to Canada.
Children evacuated to the countryside did not
always see their parents again. Some of them, along
with many other children, became orphaned when
their parents were killed. In 1945, there were perhaps
13 million orphaned children in Europe.
In Eastern Europe, children especially suffered
under harsh German occupation policies. All secondary schools in German-occupied Eastern Europe
were closed. Their facilities and equipment were
destroyed.
Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, said of these
Slavic children that their education should consist
only “in teaching simple arithmetic up to 500, the
writing of one’s name, and that God has ordered obedience to the Germans, honesty, diligence, and politeness. I do not consider an ability to read as necessary.”
At times, young people were expected to carry the
burden of fighting the war. In the last year of the war,
Section 3, 824–829
Answer: To kill Jews as the German
army advanced.
History
Answer: They were forced to be slave
laborers in construction projects to
help the Japanese war effort.
3 ASSESS
Assign Section 3 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
L2
Section Quiz 26–3
Hitler Youth members, often only 14 or 15 years old,
could be found in the front lines. In the Soviet Union,
children as young as 13 or 14 spied on German positions and worked with the resistance movement. Some
were even given decorations for killing the enemy.
Reading Check Summarizing What was the job of
the Einsatzgruppen?
The New Order in Asia
Japanese war policy in the areas in Asia occupied
by Japan was basically defensive. Japan hoped to use
its new possessions to meet its growing need for raw
materials, such as tin, oil, and rubber. The new possessions also would be an outlet for Japanese manufactured goods. To organize these possessions,
Japanese leaders included them in the Greater EastAsia Co-prosperity Sphere. This was the economic
community supposedly designed to provide mutual
benefits to the occupied areas and the home country.
Japanese Policies The Japanese had conquered
Southeast Asia under the slogan “Asia for the Asiatics.” Japanese officials in occupied territories quickly
made contact with anticolonialists. They promised
the people that local governments would be established under Japanese control. Such governments
were eventually set up in Burma, the Dutch East
Indies, Vietnam, and the Philippines.
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
History
Score
Chapter 26
Section Quiz 26-3
American and Filipino prisoners of war were
held in the Philippines. What role did prisoners of war play in the Japanese war effort?
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. Hitler’s “Final Solution” for the Jews
A. Auschwitz
2. crowded, designated containment or holding areas within
cities for Jews
B. genocide
3. Hitler’s largest extermination center in Poland
D. ghettos
4. the mass slaughter of European civilians, especially Jews
E. Ho Chi Minh
C. Holocaust
5. French Indochinese Communist leader
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. After 1941, Germany ruled some areas like Poland through direct
i
b
f
i dE
b G
ffi i l
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 26–3
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 26, Section 3
For use with textbook pages 824–829
THE NEW ORDER AND THE HOLOCAUST
KEY TERMS
genocide
the physical extermination of a racial, political, or cultural group (page 825)
collaborator
a person who assists the enemy (page 827)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
Have you ever heard about the Holocaust? Have you ever been to the Holocaust
Museum in Washington, D.C.? What was the Holocaust? Why did it take place?
In the last two sections, you learned about events leading to World War II and the
battles of the war. In this section, you will learn about the atrocities committed by the
Nazis and the Japanese against the peoples they conquered.
ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII
, Inc.
Use the chart below to help you take notes. Describe the following policies or programs of Hitler and the Nazis.
Nazi Policy
Description
Resettlement
1.
Forced labor
2.
828
CHAPTER 26
World War II
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
828
Nanjing Chinese citizens inside the walled city and in its vicinity showed fierce defiance toward
the Japanese soldiers after the atrocities committed by the Imperial Army in 1937. Thousands of
peasants organized a “Red Spear Society” that ambushed enemy soldiers. In other acts of resistance, anti-Japan leaflets were secretly printed and distributed in schools, movie theaters, and
buses. Anti-Japan organizations inside and outside of the city received covert and overt aid from
both the Nationalist Government and the Communist Party. In some instances, armed groups
ambushed the Japanese occupying forces.
In fact, real power rested with Japanese military
authorities in each territory. In turn, the local Japanese
military command was directly subordinated to the
Army General Staff in Tokyo. The economic resources
of the colonies were used for the benefit of the Japanese war machine. The native peoples in occupied
lands were recruited to serve in local military units or
were forced to work on public works projects.
In some cases, these policies brought severe hardships to peoples living in the occupied areas. In
Vietnam, for example, local Japanese authorities
forcibly took rice and shipped it abroad. This led
directly to a food shortage that caused over a million Vietnamese to starve to death in 1944 and 1945.
Japanese Behavior At first, many Southeast Asian
nationalists took Japanese promises at face value and
agreed to cooperate with their new masters. In
Burma, for example, an independent government
was set up in 1943 and declared war on the Allies.
Eventually, the nature of Japanese occupation policies
became clear, and sentiment turned against Japan.
Japanese officials provoked such attitudes by their
arrogance and contempt for local customs. In the
Dutch East Indies, for example, Indonesians were
required to bow in the direction of Tokyo and to recognize the divinity of the Japanese emperor. In Burma,
Buddhist pagodas were used as military latrines.
Like German soldiers in occupied Europe, Japanese military forces often had little respect for the lives
of their subject peoples. After their conquest of Nanjing, China, in 1937, Japanese soldiers spent several
days killing, raping, and looting. After the conquest
Checking for Understanding
1. Define genocide, collaborator.
2. Identify Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard
Heydrich.
3. Locate Poland, Auschwitz.
4. Explain what the Nazis meant by the
Final Solution. How did Hitler’s commitment to the Final Solution hinder
Germany’s war effort?
7. Cause and Effect Create a chart giving
examples of Hitler’s actions to create a
New World Order in Europe and the
outcome of his efforts.
Outcome
5. List examples of objectionable Japanese occupation policies in Asia.
Answer: Native peoples were
recruited to serve in local military
units or forced to work on public
works projects.
Enrich
Have interested students do further research on the Nazi Holocaust by visiting the Web site of
the U.S. Holocaust Memorial
Museum. Ask these students to
report back to the class any interesting facts or stories learned at
the Web site. L1
Reteaching Activity
Have students compare the goals
and methods of Hitler’s “New
Order” with Japan’s plans to create an “Asia for Asiatics.” L2
5. forced Indonesians to recognize
emperor’s divinity; used Buddhist
pagodas as military latrines; Japanese soldiers killed, raped, and
looted Nanjing; used forced labor,
many workers died
6. Answers should be supported by
logical arguments.
7. Answers may include: Final Solu-
The following literature from the
Glencoe Literature Library may
enrich the teaching of this chapter:
Night by E. Wiesel
Analyzing Visuals
8. Examine the scene pictured on page
827. Describe, based on your reading,
the series of events that will most likely
follow.
4 CLOSE
9. Persuasive Writing Imagine you
are a member of Hitler’s inner circle
in 1941 and are alarmed about
Hitler’s Final Solution. Compose a letter to Hitler, outlining why he should
abandon plans to send Jews to the
death camps.
CHAPTER 26
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Heinrich Himmler (p. 825); Reinhard Heydrich (p. 825)
3. See chapter maps.
4. The extermination of the Jewish
people was meant to be the Final
Solution to the “Jewish problem.”
Hitler diverted resources that could
have been spent on the war.
Section 3, 824–829
Reading Check Examining How did the Japanese
treat the native peoples in occupied lands?
Critical Thinking
6. Evaluate What was the impact of the
Holocaust on history? What lessons
does the Holocaust have for us today?
Hitler’s Actions
CHAPTER 26
of Korea, almost eight hundred thousand Korean
people were sent to Japan, most of them as forced
laborers.
In construction projects to help their war effort, the
Japanese made extensive use of labor forces composed of both prisoners of war and local peoples. In
building the Burma-Thailand railway in 1943, for
example, the Japanese used 61,000 Australian, British,
and Dutch prisoners of war and almost 300,000 workers from Burma, Malaya, Thailand, and the Dutch
East Indies. An inadequate diet and appalling work
conditions in an unhealthy climate led to the death of
12,000 Allied prisoners of war and 90,000 workers by
the time the railway was completed.
Such Japanese behavior created a dilemma for
many nationalists in the occupied lands. They had
no desire to see the return of the colonial powers,
but they did not like what the Japanese were doing.
Some turned against the Japanese. Others simply
did nothing.
Indonesian patriots tried to have it both ways.
They pretended to support Japan while actually sabotaging the Japanese administration. In French
Indochina, Ho Chi Minh’s Communist Party made
contact with U.S. military units in South China. The
Communists agreed to provide information on
Japanese troop movements and to rescue downed
American fliers in the area. By the end of the war, little support remained in the region for the Japanese
“liberators.”
World War II
829
tion: millions of Jews killed;
invaded Russia: German army
defeated and weakened
8. herded up, packed into freight
trains, shipped to death camps in
Poland
9. Answers should be consistent with
material presented in this section.
Ask students to analyze the
information in this section by
comparing the treatment of
people in lands occupied by
the Nazi forces of Germany and
those of lands conquered by the
Japanese. Did either of these
powers have any apparent interest in the rights of the occupied
people? L1
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
3
829
CHAPTER 26
Home Front and the
Aftermath of the War
The
Section 4, 830–836
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
This section describes the impact
of the war on civilians and how
developments at the end of
World War II led to the Cold War.
BELLRINGER
Skillbuilder Activity
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• World War II left a lasting impression
on civilian populations.
• The end of the war created a new set
of problems for the Allies as the West
came into conflict with the Soviet Union.
Albert Speer, General Hideki Tojo
Compare and Contrast Create a chart
comparing and contrasting the impact of
World War II on the lives of civilians.
Key Terms
1. Why were the Japanese encouraged to
serve as kamikaze pilots?
2. What was the outcome of the Yalta
Conference in 1945?
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Country
Preview Questions
Impact on Lives
of Civilians
Soviet Union
United States
Japan
Germany
Preview of Events
✦1942
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
26–4
UNIT
London, Dresden, Hiroshima
mobilization, kamikaze, Cold War
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Chapter 26 TRANSPARENCY 26-4
Places to Locate
✦1943
✦1944
✦1945
1943
Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill meet in
Tehran to determine future course of war
ANSWERS
1. Atomic bombs were more powerful and left behind
radiation. 2. The destruction was so overwhelming that
Japan surrendered. 3. Answers will vary but should stress
the fear that the prospect of using atomic weapons caused,
and the power that resulted from having atomic weapons.
1945
Allies bomb
Dresden
✦1946
✦1947
1946
Churchill proclaims existence
of “iron curtain” in Europe
The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War
1
How did the effects of
the atomic bomb differ
from the effects of
other bombs?
2
How do you think the
use of atomic bombs
hastened the end of
World War II?
3
How did the use of
atomic bombs change
the world?
Voices from the Past
A German civilian described an Allied bombing raid on Hamburg in 1943:
“
As the many fires broke through the roofs of the burning buildings, a column of
heated air rose more than two and a half miles high and one and a half miles in
diameter. . . . This column was fed from its base by in-rushing cooler ground-surface
air. One and one half miles from the fires this draft increased the wind velocity from
eleven to thirty-three miles per hour. At the edge of the area the velocities must have
been much greater, as trees three feet in diameter were uprooted. In a short time the
temperature reached ignition point for all combustibles, and the entire area was
ablaze. In such fires, complete burnout occurred, that is, no trace of combustible
material remained.
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: Soviet Union:
shortages in food and housing;
United States: widespread movement
of people; Japanese Americans
removed to camps; Japan: imported
laborers from China and Korea; Germany: total mobilization of the economy near end of war closed schools,
theaters, and cafes
Preteaching Vocabulary
Ask students to look up the meaning
of the word kamikaze. Have students
explain similarities between the
divine wind that protected Japan in
1281 (Chapter 8), and the goal of
pilots in 1945. L2
”
—The Bombing of Germany, Hans Rumpf, 1963
The bombing of civilians in World War II made the home front dangerous.
The Mobilization of Peoples: Four Examples
Even more than World War I, World War II was a total war. Fighting was much
more widespread and covered most of the world. Economic mobilization (the act
of assembling and preparing for war) was more extensive; so, too, was the mobilization of women. The number of civilians killed—almost twenty million—was
far higher. Many of these victims were children.
830
CHAPTER 26
World War II
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 26–4
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 26–4
• Guided Reading Activity 26–4
• Section Quiz 26–4
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 26–4
830
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 26–4
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
World War II had an enormous impact on civilian
life in the Soviet Union, the United States, Germany,
and Japan. We consider the home fronts of those four
nations next.
The Soviet Union
The initial defeats of the Soviet
Union led to drastic emergency measures that
affected the lives of the civilian population. Leningrad, for example, experienced nine hundred days of
siege. Its inhabitants became so desperate for food
that they ate dogs, cats, and mice. Probably 1.5 million people died in the city.
As the German army made its rapid advance into
Soviet territory, Soviet workers dismantled and
shipped the factories in the western part of the Soviet
Union to the interior—to the Urals, western Siberia,
and the Volga regions. Machines were placed on the
bare ground. As laborers began their work, walls
went up around them.
Stalin called the widespread military and industrial mobilization of the nation a “battle of
machines.” The Soviets won, producing 78,000 tanks
and 98,000 artillery pieces. In 1943, 55 percent of the
Soviet national income went for war materials, compared with 15 percent in 1940. As a result of the
emphasis on military goods, Soviet citizens experienced severe shortages of both food and housing.
Soviet women played a major role in the war
effort. Women and girls worked in industries, mines,
and railroads. Overall, the number of women working in industry increased almost 60 percent. Soviet
women were also expected to dig
antitank ditches and work as air
raid wardens. In addition, the
Soviet Union was the only country in World War II to use women
in battle. Soviet women served as
snipers and also in aircrews of
bomber squadrons.
CHAPTER 26
The United States
The home front in the United
States was quite different from that of the other major
powers. The United States was not fighting the war
in its own territory. Eventually, the United States
became the arsenal of the Allied Powers; it produced
much of the military equipment the Allies needed. At
the height of war production in November 1943, the
country was building six ships a day and ninety-six
thousand planes per year.
The mobilization of the American economy
resulted in some social turmoil, however. The construction of new factories created boomtowns. Thousands came there to work but then faced a shortage
of houses and schools. Widespread movements of
people took place. Sixteen million men and women
were enrolled in the military and moved frequently.
Another sixteen million, mostly wives and girlfriends of servicemen or workers looking for jobs,
also moved around the country.
Over a million African Americans moved from the
rural South to the cities of the North and West, looking for jobs in industry. The presence of African
Americans in areas where they had not lived before
led to racial tensions and sometimes even racial riots.
In Detroit in June 1943, for example, white mobs
roamed the streets attacking African Americans.
One million African Americans enrolled in the
military. There they were segregated in their own
battle units. Angered by the way they were treated,
some became militant and prepared to fight for their
civil rights.
Section 4, 830–836
2 TEACH
History
Answer: Answers should be supported by logical arguments.
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 26–4
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 26, Section 4
Did You Know
?
President Truman said that he dropped the
atomic bomb to avoid terrible American losses in the anticipated
invasion of Japan. However, documents released under the
Freedom of Information Act indicate that Truman may have overestimated these numbers. Many think that he had another purpose,
which was to demonstrate American power to the possible new
enemy, the USSR.
I.
The Mobilization of Peoples: Four Examples (pages 830–832)
A. Even more than World War I, World War II was a total war. The war had an enormous
impact on civilian life in many parts of the world.
B. In the Soviet Union initial defeats led to drastic emergency measures. For example,
Leningrad was under siege for nine hundred days. Over a million people died there
due to food shortages. People had to eat dogs, cats, and mice.
C. Soviet workers dismantled factories in the west and shipped them to the east, out of
the way of the attacking German army. At times workers ran machines as new factory
buildings were built up around them.
D. The military and industrial mobilization of the Soviet Union produced 78,000 tanks
and 98,000 airplanes. In 1943, 55 percent of the national income went to war materials.
As a result there were severe shortages of food and housing.
E. Soviet women were an important part of the war effort. Women working in industry
increased 60 percent. They worked in industries, mines, and railroads. They dug antitank ditches and worked as air raid wardens. Some fought in battles and flew in
bombers.
F. The war did not come to the home territory of the United States. The country became
an arsenal for the Allies. The United States produced much of the military equipment
needed to fight the Axis. In 1943, the United States was building six ships a day and
ninety-six thousand planes per year.
G. The American mobilization created some social turmoil. There were widespread movements of people. For example, many women and men moved in order to find work in
war industries. Also, as the millions of men in the military moved around, often their
wives and children or girl friends moved with them.
turn
379
Connecting Across Time
Although World War I was devastating for people who lived
near the front, the homes, towns,
and places of work of most
Europeans were not damaged
by the fighting. Ask students to
compare this scenario with the
physical destruction in Europe
and Southeast Asia during
World War II. L1
History
Many Japanese American families in southern California were transported to internment camps. Would you have supported
the internment policy for Japanese
Americans during the war? Explain.
CHAPTER 26
World War II
831
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
Women at War During the war there was a severe labor shortage, since men left their jobs to join
the military and new jobs were created to meet wartime needs for munitions, food, and clothing.
From 1941 to 1945, nearly six million American women joined the workforce and filled every conceivable kind of job. Most of those women lost their jobs when men returned home after the war.
However, women had proven beyond a doubt that they were the equals of men. Since the 1960s,
when women demanded equal access to economic opportunities, the legacy of their wartime
counterparts facilitated their move into the economic mainstream.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
831
CHAPTER 26
Japanese Americans faced even more serious difficulties. On the West Coast, 110,000 Japanese Americans, 65 percent of whom had been born in the
United States, were removed to camps surrounded
by barbed wire and required to take loyalty oaths.
Public officials claimed this policy was necessary for
security reasons.
The racism in the treatment of Japanese Americans
was evident when the California governor, Culbert
Olson, said, “You know, when I look out at a group of
Americans of German or Italian descent, I can tell
whether they’re loyal or not. I can tell how they think
and even perhaps what they are thinking. But it is
impossible for me to do this with inscrutable Orientals, and particularly the Japanese.”
Section 4, 830–836
Answer: The movement of many
African Americans from the South to
cities in the North and West created
racial tensions. Segregation in the
military made some African Americans militant and prepared to fight
for their civil rights.
Who?What?Where?When?
Germany In August 1914, Germans had enthusiastically cheered their soldiers marching off to war. In
September 1939, the streets were quiet. Many
Germans did not care. Even worse for the Nazi
regime, many feared disaster.
Hitler was well aware of the importance of the
home front. He believed that the collapse of the home
front in World War I had caused Germany’s defeat. In
his determination to avoid a repetition of that experience, he adopted economic policies that may have
cost Germany the war.
To maintain the morale of the home front during
the first two years of the war, Hitler refused to cut consumer goods production or to increase the production
of armaments. After German defeats on the Russian
front and the American entry into the war, however,
the economic situation in Germany changed.
Early in 1942, Hitler finally ordered a massive
increase in armaments production and in the size of
the army. Hitler’s architect, Albert Speer, was made
minister for armaments and munitions in 1942. Speer
was able to triple the production of armaments
between 1942 and 1943, despite Allied air raids.
A total mobilization of the economy was put into
effect in July 1944. Schools, theaters, and cafes were
closed. By that time, though, total war mobilization
was too late to save Germany from defeat.
Nazi attitudes toward women changed over the
course of the war. Before the war, the Nazis had
worked to keep women out of the job market. As the
war progressed and more and more men were called
up for military service, this position no longer made
sense. Nazi magazines now proclaimed, “We see the
woman as the eternal mother of our people, but also
as the working and fighting comrade of the man.”
Japanese American Soldiers The
442nd Regimental Combat Team, a
Japanese American unit, fought in
eight major campaigns. Despite a climate of prejudice that interned thousands of Japanese Americans, the
442nd was an all-volunteer regiment
that fought bravely for the United
States. Altogether about 33,000
Japanese Americans fought for the
United States during World War II.
On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066,
which authorized the War Department
to move 120,000 Japanese American
men, women, and children from the
West Coast to crude internment camps
farther inland. These Americans lost
their constitutional rights, property,
businesses, and homes. Despite this
policy, Japanese Americans remained
loyal to the United States. None were
ever brought to trial for espionage or
sabotage. Ask students why they think
Roosevelt signed this order.
SS.A.1.4.4
832
CHAPTER 26
Kamikaze attacker being shot down in the Pacific, 1945
In spite of this change, the number of women
working in industry, agriculture, commerce, and
domestic service increased only slightly. The total
number of employed women in September 1944 was
14.9 million, compared with 14.6 million in May 1939.
Many women, especially those of the middle class,
did not want jobs, particularly in factories.
Japan Wartime Japan was a highly mobilized society. To guarantee its control over all national
resources, the government created a planning board
to control prices, wages, labor, and resources. Traditional habits of obedience and hierarchy were used to
encourage citizens to sacrifice their resources, and
sometimes their lives, for the national cause.
The calls for sacrifice reached a high point in the
final years of the war. Young Japanese were encouraged to volunteer to serve as pilots in suicide missions against U.S. fighting ships at sea. These pilots
were known as kamikaze, or “divine wind.”
Japan was extremely reluctant to mobilize women
on behalf of Japan’s war effort. General Hideki Tojo,
prime minister from 1941 to 1944, opposed female
employment. He argued that “the weakening of the
family system would be the weakening of the
nation . . . we are able to do our duties only because
we have wives and mothers at home.”
Female employment increased during the war, but
only in such areas as the textile industry and farming,
where women had traditionally worked. Instead of
using women to meet labor shortages, the Japanese
government brought in Korean and Chinese laborers.
Reading Check Evaluating How did World War II
contribute to racial tensions in the United States?
World War II
READING THE TEXT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
832
2
Taking Notes As students read this section, have them create a chart describing how each country
was affected by the war and how they coped with the necessary reconstruction. When students
have finished the section, have them trade their charts with a partner to compare information. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
CHAPTER 26
Frontline Civilians:
The Bombing of Cities
Germany
Bombing was used in World War II against a variety of targets, including military targets, enemy
troops, and civilian populations. The bombing of
civilians in World War II made the home front a dangerous place.
A few bombing raids had been conducted in the
last year of World War I. The bombing of civilian
populations had led to a public outcry. The bombings
and the reaction to them had given rise to the argument that bombing civilian populations would be an
effective way to force governments to make peace. As
a result, European air forces began to develop longrange bombers in the 1930s.
Britain The first sustained use of civilian bombing
began in early September 1940. Londoners took the
first heavy blows. For months, the German air force
bombed London nightly. Thousands of civilians were
killed or injured, and enormous damage was done.
Nevertheless, Londoners’ morale remained high.
The blitz, as the British called the German air
raids, soon became a national experience. The blitz
was carried to many other British cities and towns.
The ability of Londoners to maintain their morale set
the standard for the rest of the British population.
The theory that the bombing of civilian targets would
force peace was proved wrong.
Section 4, 830–836
The British failed to learn from their own
experience, however. Churchill and his advisers
believed that destroying German communities
would break civilian morale and bring victory. Major
bombing raids on German cities began in 1942. On
May 31, 1942, Cologne became the first German city
to be attacked by a thousand bombers.
Bombing raids added an element of terror to circumstances already made difficult by growing shortages of food, clothing, and fuel. Germans especially
feared the incendiary bombs, which created
firestorms that swept through cities. The ferocious
bombing of Dresden from February 13 to 15, 1945,
created a firestorm that may have killed as many as a
hundred thousand inhabitants and refugees.
Germany suffered enormously from the Allied
bombing raids. Millions of buildings were destroyed,
and possibly half a million civilians died. Nevertheless, it is highly unlikely that Allied bombing sapped
the morale of the German people. Instead, Germans,
whether pro-Nazi or anti-Nazi, fought on stubbornly,
often driven simply by a desire to live.
Nor did the bombing destroy Germany’s industrial capacity. Production of war materials actually
increased between 1942 and 1944, despite the bombing. Nevertheless, the widespread destruction of
transportation systems and fuel supplies made it
extremely difficult for the new materials to reach the
German military.
Then and Now
Answer: Answers may include lack
of finances, lack of able-bodied
men, lack of raw materials.
Enrich
To help students understand
how heavily German cities were
bombed by the Allies, bring in
photos of Dresden, Hamburg,
Kiel, Hanover, or other cities that
were almost totally demolished.
Point out to students that the
strategic bombing reduced German industrial capacity by less
than eight percent, but it did
necessitate a massive rebuilding
effort after the war.
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 26–4
Name
Date
Class
Guided Reading Activity 26-4
Then and Now
The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War
In 1945, as the war ended, the people of Dresden were faced
with the daunting task of rebuilding a city. List all the obstacles you can think of that confronted Dresden’s city leaders
as they planned their rebuilding efforts in 1945.
Dresden in the year 2000
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 4.
1. Even more than World War I, World War II was a
war in which
fighting was much more widespread and covered most of the world.
2. Eventually the United States became the
of the Allied powers,
producing much of the military equipment needed by the Allies.
3. Over a million
moved from the rural South in the United States,
to the cities of the North and West, looking for jobs in industry.
4. On the West Coast, 110,000
䊳
were removed to camps and required
to take loyalty oaths.
5. Hitler refused to cut
production or to increase production of
during the first two years of the war.
䊲
6. Young Japanese were encouraged to volunteer to serve as pilots or
Dresden after the bombing in 1945
in
missions against U.S. fighting ships
at sea.
7. The first sustained use of
bombing began in early September 1940
as Londoners took the first heavy blows from the German air force.
8. At the Tehran Conference, the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain agreed
to a
9.
of postwar Germany.
said, “A freely elected government in any of these East European
countries would be anti-Soviet, and that we cannot allow.”
Critical Thinking
CHAPTER 26
World War II
833
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
Reading Support Set up a chart with four columns: People, Places, Military Terms, and Other
Terms related to World War II. As you read the following words, have students identify the column
in which each word should go. Ask the students to share what they have learned about each person, place, or term. The following words should be included: People: Hitler, Franco, Mussolini,
Stalin, Roosevelt, Rommel, MacArthur, Churchill, Eisenhower, Aryans, Jews, Gypsies, Truman; Places:
Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Austria, Munich, Poland, Manchuria, Beijing, Pearl Harbor, Midway,
Auschwitz, London; Military Terms: blitzkrieg, panzer divisions, Luftwaffe, unconditional surrender,
Einsatzgruppen, blitz; Other Terms: New Order, Final Solution, Cold War, Nazism, appeasement,
Allies, führer, Holocaust, crematoriums. L1 FCAT LA.A.1.4.2
Some people have compared
Allied bombing of German
cities and the American use
of the atomic bomb against
Hiroshima and Nagasaki with
the Nazi death camps. Ask students to discuss this proposition. Do they believe it has
merit? What reasons can they
give to support their points of
view? L2 SS.A.3.4.9
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
833
Co
10. In March 1946, the former British prime minister Winston Churchill declared that
CHAPTER 26
Section 4, 830–836
The Atomic Bomb
Answer: Answers will vary but
should be supported by logical arguments. Students might argue that it
was quite different. It was a much
more controversial decision, since a
single atomic bomb caused such devastating damage and loss of life, as
well as the lingering effects of
radioactivity.
Answer: It was believed that bombing civilians would be an effective
way to force governments to make
peace.
S
cientists at the beginning of the twentieth century discovered that
atoms contained an enormous amount of energy. The discovery gave rise to the idea that releasing this energy by splitting the
atom might create a devastating weapon.
Ura-
The idea was not taken seriously until World War II. Then, the fear that
the Germans might make an atomic bomb convinced the U.S. government
to try to develop one first. In 1942, the United States set in motion the Manhattan Project.
The Manhattan Project was a code name for the enormous industrial
and technical enterprise that produced the first atomic bomb. It cost 2 billion
dollars and employed the efforts of 600,000 people. U.S. Army Brigadier
General Leslie Groves had overall supervision. The physicist J. Robert
Oppenheimer was director of the Los Alamos, New Mexico, center where
the bomb was actually built.
Atomic bomb
Radar
A successful test explosion on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, meant that the bomb was ready. The war in Europe had ended, but the
bomb could be used against the Japanese. A committee had already chosen
the city of Hiroshima as the first target.
3 ASSESS
The bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945, by a U.S. B-29 bomber nicknamed Enola Gay. The destruction was incredible. An area of about 5
square miles (13 sq km) was turned to ashes. Of the 76,000 buildings in
Hiroshima, 70,000 were flattened. Of the city’s 350,000 inhabitants, 140,000
had died by the end of 1945. By the end of 1950, another 50,000 had died
from the effects of radiation. A second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki on
August 9. The world had entered the Nuclear Age.
Assign Section 4 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Evaluating Was the decision to use the atomic bomb in Japan any
different from Allied decisions to bomb civilian population centers in
Europe? Why or why not?
Hiroshima after atomic bomb dropped,
August 1945
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
Japan In Japan, the bombing of civilians reached a
new level with the use of the first atomic bomb. Japan
was open to air raids toward the end of the war
because its air force had almost been destroyed.
Moreover, its crowded cities were built of flimsy
materials that were especially vulnerable to fire.
Attacks on Japanese cities by the new U.S. B-29
Superfortresses, the biggest bombers of the war, had
begun on November 24, 1944. By the summer of 1945,
many of Japan’s industries had been destroyed,
along with one-fourth of its dwellings.
The Japanese government decreed the mobilization of all people between the ages of 13 and 60
into a People’s Volunteer Corps. Fearing high U.S.
L2
Section Quiz 26–4
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Chapter 26
Score
Section Quiz 26-4
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. assembling and preparing for war
A. mobilization
2. “divine wind”
B. blitz
3. British name for German air raids
C. Potsdam
4. postwar ideological conflict between the U.S. and the
U.S.S.R.
D. kamikaze
E. Cold War
5. site of Truman’s demands for free elections in Eastern
Europe
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6 Ch
hill
ll d
S
i
li
i E
E
h
834
CHAPTER 26
casualties in a land invasion of Japan, President Truman and his advisers decided to drop the atomic
bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945.
Reading Check Explaining Why were civilian populations targeted in bombing raids?
Peace and a New War
The total victory of the Allies in World War II was
followed not by a real peace but by a period of political tensions, known as the Cold War. Primarily an
ideological conflict between the United States and
the Soviet Union, the Cold War was to dominate
world affairs until the end of the 1980s.
World War II
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
834
Facilitating a Discussion To help students experience the complex decision-making process that
led to the dropping of atomic bombs on Japan, assign students one of the following roles: member of U.S. Congress today, member of U.S. Congress in 1945, U.S. civilian in 1945, Japanese civilian in 1945, U.S. military officer in 1945, U.S. soldier in 1945, and a human rights activist today.
Have students present their different views to the class as represented by the roles they are playing. Have the class discuss Truman’s decision; then each student should vote for or against the use
of atomic bombs. Students should use evidence and logical arguments to support their point of
view on this social studies event. L2 SS.A.3.4.9
CHAPTER 26
Section 4, 830–836
Europe after World War II
60
°N
NORWAY
W
E
S
RT
UG
AL
Atlantic
Ocean
PO
40°
N
BELGIUM
LUX.
a
Ba
l
EAST
GERMANY
SOVIET UNION
Berlin
POLAND
CZ
EC
HOS
LOVAK
IA
SWITZ. AUSTRIA
HUNGARY
FRANCE
ITALY
SPAIN
10°W
cS
e
DENMARK
NETHERLANDS
Area of Soviet influence
Area of Western influence
ti
IRELAND UNITED
KINGDOM
WEST
GERMA
NY
50
°N
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal
Equal-Area projection
SWEDEN
North
Sea
500 miles
0
FINLAND
N
Me d i t
YU
GO
ROMANIA
SL
Black Sea
AV
IA BULGARIA
ALBANIA
erra
0°
nea
10°E
GREECE
TURKEY
nS
ea
20°E
The Tehran Conference
Stalin, Roosevelt, and
Churchill were the leaders of what was called the Big
Three (the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great
Britain) of the Grand Alliance. They met at Tehran in
November 1943 to decide the future course of the war.
Their major tactical decision had concerned the final
assault on Germany. Stalin and Roosevelt had argued
successfully for an American-British invasion through
France. This was scheduled for the spring of 1944.
The acceptance of this plan had important consequences. It meant that Soviet and British-American
forces would meet in defeated Germany along a
north-south dividing line. Most likely, Eastern
Europe would be liberated by Soviet forces. The
Allies also agreed to a partition of postwar Germany.
The Yalta Conference
C
as
Se p i a
a n
The Big Three powers met
again at Yalta in southern Russia in February 1945. By
then, the defeat of Germany was obvious. The Western powers, which had once believed that the Soviets
were in a weak position, were now faced with the
reality of eleven million Soviet soldiers taking possession of Eastern and much of Central Europe.
Stalin was deeply suspicious of the Western powers. He wanted a buffer to protect the Soviet Union
from possible future Western aggression. This would
mean establishing pro-Soviet governments along the
border of the Soviet Union.
Roosevelt, however, favored the idea of selfdetermination for Europe. This involved a pledge to
30°E
40°E
Answers:
1. Students will note changes in
borders and influence.
The political map of Europe
changed dramatically as a
result of World War II.
1. Interpreting Maps
Compare the map on
page 753 to this map
and identify the political
changes in Europe from
the 1920s to 1945.
2. Applying Geography
Skills Create a chart
that shows how Europe
was divided according
to Soviet and Western
influence.
2. Students will create a chart
showing the division of Europe.
How did the American use of the
atomic bomb affect future world
events? (For the first time, the atomic
bomb was used in warfare, forcing
Japan’s surrender. It opened the
atomic age, in which nuclear
weapons would play a role in global
rivalry.)
help liberated Europe in the creation of “democratic
institutions of their own choice.” Liberated countries
would hold free elections to determine their political
systems.
At Yalta, Roosevelt sought Soviet military help
against Japan. (At that time, the atomic bomb was not
yet a certainty.) Roosevelt therefore agreed to Stalin’s
price for military aid against Japan: possession of
Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, which were ruled by
Japan, as well as two warm-water ports and railroad
rights in Manchuria.
The creation of the United Nations was a major
American concern at Yalta. Roosevelt wanted the Big
Three powers to pledge to be part of such an international organization before difficult issues divided
them into hostile camps. Both Churchill and Stalin
accepted Roosevelt’s plans for the establishment of a
United Nations organization and set the first meeting
for San Francisco in April 1945.
The issues of Germany and Eastern Europe were
treated less decisively. The Big Three reaffirmed that
Germany must surrender unconditionally. It would
be divided into four zones, which would be occupied
and governed by the military forces of the United
States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. A
compromise was also worked out in regard to
Poland. Stalin agreed to free elections in the future to
determine a new government in that country.
The issue of free elections in Eastern Europe
caused a serious split between the Soviets and the
CHAPTER 26
World War II
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 26–4
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 26, Section 4
For use with textbook pages 830–836
THE HOME FRONT AND THE AFTERMATH OF THE WAR
KEY TERMS
mobilization
the act of assembling and preparing for war (page 830)
kamikaze (“divine wind”) Japanese pilots who performed suicide missions against U.S. fighting
ships (page 832)
Cold War the period of political tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union from
the end of World War II until the end of the 1980s (page 834)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
Have you heard of the “iron curtain”? What does this describe? Who first used this
term?
In the last three sections, you learned about events before and during World War II.
In this section, you will learn about events immediately following the war. You will also
learn how the war affected civilians in Europe, the United States, and Japan.
ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII
G
Use the chart below to help you take notes. Describe how the populations of
J
th S i t U i
d th U it d St t
bili d f
Who?What?Where?When?
835
CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY
Writing a Biography Ask students to prepare a biography of either Franklin Roosevelt or Winston
Churchill, using both primary and secondary sources and the Internet. How did each man develop
the qualities he needed to serve as a wartime leader? Students should examine factors such as
education, military experience, personality traits, charisma, oratory skills, and ideals. Select volunteers to present their reports aloud to the class. Compile on the board a list of leadership qualities
shared by Roosevelt and Churchill. L1 FCAT LA.A.2.4.4
Veto Power At Yalta, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin agreed that each of
the five permanent members of the
United Nations Security Council would
have veto power over matters brought
before the Council. During the early
years of the United Nations, the Soviet
Union often used its veto to prevent
UN responses to Soviet actions in Eastern Europe. SS.A.3.4.9
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
835
CHAPTER 26
ment in any of these East European countries would
be anti-Soviet, and that we cannot allow.”
The Soviets had lost more people than any other
country, and Stalin sought absolute security. In his
view, Eastern Europe had to be under Communist
control, and free elections would threaten that goal.
By mid-1945, only an invasion by Western forces
would have been able to undo developments in Eastern Europe. At the end of such a destructive conflict
very few supported such a policy.
The Allies did agree that trials should be held of
leaders who had committed crimes against humanity
during the war. In 1945 and 1946, Nazi leaders were
tried and condemned at trials in Nuremberg, Germany. Trials were also held in Japan and Italy.
Section 4, 830–836
Answer: He wanted absolute security, which could be gained only by
the presence of Communist states in
Eastern Europe.
Reteaching Activity
After they have read the chapter,
ask students to identify and
explain the causes and effects of
World War II. L1
Critical Thinking
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at Yalta
Ask students to discuss the likelihood of achieving the American
objective of providing Europeans
with “democratic institutions of
their own choice” in light of the
military and political situations
at the end of World War II. L3
Americans. Eastern European governments were to
be freely elected, but it was clear that Stalin might
not honor this provision. This attempt to reconcile
two irreconcilable goals was doomed, as soon
became evident at the next conference of the Big
Three at Potsdam, Germany.
The Potsdam Conference
The Potsdam conference of July 1945 began under a cloud of mistrust.
Roosevelt had died on April 12 and had been succeeded as president by Harry Truman. At Potsdam,
Truman demanded free elections throughout Eastern
Europe. Stalin responded, “A freely elected govern-
4 CLOSE
Ask students how the gains
made by Stalin at Yalta were
similar to those made by Hitler
at the Munich conference. (Both
men got what they wanted in
exchange for promises they did not
keep: Hitler got the Sudetenland
and then took over the rest of
Czechoslovakia; Stalin got Poland,
but instead of holding elections,
made Poland a Communist state.)
Checking for Understanding
1. Define mobilization, kamikaze.
A New Struggle As the war slowly receded into the
past, a new struggle was already beginning. Many in
the West thought Soviet policy was part of a worldwide Communist conspiracy. The Soviets viewed
Western, and especially American, policy as nothing
less than global capitalist expansionism.
In March 1946, in a speech to an American audience, the former British prime minister Winston
Churchill declared that “an iron curtain” had
“descended across the continent,” dividing Europe
into two hostile camps. Stalin branded Churchill’s
speech a “call to war with the Soviet Union.” Only
months after the world’s most devastating conflict
had ended, the world seemed to be bitterly divided
once again.
Reading Check Identifying Why did Stalin want to
control Eastern Europe after World War II?
Critical Thinking
6. Explain Why did General Hideki Tojo
oppose female employment in Japan?
2. Identify Albert Speer, General Hideki
Tojo, Cold War.
7. Organizing Information Create a
chart listing countries where bombing
of heavily populated cities took place.
3. Locate London, Dresden, Hiroshima.
4. Explain how Hitler’s bombing of civilians in England backfired. What strategy do you think Hitler should have
pursued instead?
Country
City
9. Persuasive Writing Truman concluded that dropping the atomic
bomb on Japan was a justifiable way
to end the war. Write an essay condemning or agreeing with Truman’s
decision.
5. List examples of Japan’s vulnerability
to Allied air attack in late 1944. What
type of U.S. aircraft was used for the
heaviest bombing of Japanese targets?
836
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
836
2
CHAPTER 26
Analyzing Visuals
8. Analyze the photo at the top of this
page. How might the seating arrangement for the three leaders be significant? Which of the three leaders do
you think came away from the meeting
most pleased with the results?
World War II
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Albert Speer (p. 832); General
Hideki Tojo (p. 832); Cold War
(p. 834)
3. See chapter maps.
4. They failed to demoralize the
British, allowed British to rebuild
their air strength; bomb military
targets.
5. air force almost destroyed;
crowded cities built of flimsy materials that were vulnerable to fire;
B29s
6. He felt women in the workforce
would weaken the family unit,
which in turn would weaken the
nation.
7. England: London, many other cities
and towns; Germany: Berlin, Dresden, Cologne, other cities; Japan:
Hiroshima, Nagasaki, other cities
8. Answers should be supported by
the text.
9. Student essays should be written
logically with supporting proof.
TEACH
Synthesizing Information
Synthesizing Information Ask
students to write detailed directions from your classroom to the
principal’s office or to the cafeteria. Have students exchange
directions with a classmate. Then
pass out copies of a school map.
Have students compare the written directions with the map. How
do the two differ? (The written
directions are more personal; the map
gives options of other routes.) Does
the information from each source
lead to the same location? (yes)
Tell students that when they prepare material for reports, they
must first synthesize, or combine,
information from several sources.
Why Learn This Skill?
Consider what it would be like to get funding for
a new after-school club. In order to present your
case, you would need to talk to other students and
to school administrators, and to read reports and
articles. Once you had gathered all the information you needed, you would synthesize—or put
together—the most important points that could
help you achieve your objective.
Synthesizing information involves combining
information from two or more sources. The ability
to synthesize information is important because
information gained from one source often sheds new
light upon other information. It is like putting the
pieces of a puzzle together to form a complete picture. Being able to synthesize information will help
you read and write more effectively.
Learning the Skill
To write a research report, you study several
sources—encyclopedias, books, and articles. Once
you have gathered information, you synthesize it
into a report.
Before synthesizing information, analyze each
source separately. Determine the value and reliability of each source. Then, look for connections and
relationships among the different sources.
Practicing the Skill
Study the passage and the photo on this page.
Bombing was used in World War II against a variety
of targets, including military targets, enemy troops,
and civilian populations. The bombing of civilians in
World War II made the home front a dangerous
place. A few bombing raids had been conducted in
the last year of World War I. The bombings and the
reaction to them had given rise to the argument that
bombing civilian populations would be an effective
way to force governments to make peace.
Beginning in early September 1940, the German air
force bombed London and many other British cities
Scottish city bombed in 1941
and towns nightly. The Blitz, as the British called the
German air raids, became a national experience.
Londoners took the first heavy blows. Their ability to
maintain their morale set the standard for the rest of
the British population.
1 What is the main idea of the passage?
2 What does the photo tell you about this topic?
Additional Practice
3 By synthesizing the two sources, what information do you have about the bombing of Britain?
L1
Skills Reinforcement
Activity 26
Applying the Skill
Name
✎
Find two sources of information about a current event
and write a short report. For your report, try to use a
primary and a secondary source, if possible. Answer
these questions: What are the main ideas from these
sources? How does each source add to your understanding of the topic? Do the sources support or contradict each other? If there are contradictions, how
would you include the conflicting information in your
report?
Class
Synthesizing Information
When you synthesize information, you
combine information you have obtained
from several sources. In doing research,
you should not rely on only one source.
It is better to find a variety of sources, even
ones that show opposing points of view, in
order to see all sides of an issue.
DIRECTIONS: Read the two excerpts below regarding the use of the atomic bomb by the
United States in 1945. Then answer the questions below on a separate sheet of paper.
From the Interim Committee on
Military Use of the Atomic Bomb, 1945
It was pointed out that one atomic bomb
on an arsenal would not be much different
from the effect caused by any Air Corps
strike of present dimensions. However, Dr.
Oppenheimer stated that the visual effect of
an atomic bombing would be tremendous.
From the Franck Committee on a
Noncombat Atomic Demonstration,
1945
Thus, from the “optimistic” point of
view—looking forward to an international
agreement on prevention of nuclear warfare—the military advantages and the saving of American lives, achieved by the
Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,
Level 2, provides instruction and practice in key
social studies skills.
CD-ROM
Glencoe Skillbuilder
Interactive Workbook
CD-ROM, Level 2
837
ANSWERS TO PRACTICING THE SKILL
1. Bombing of civilian populations made the home front
a dangerous place but failed to destroy morale.
2. It appears to show a family making their way through
the rubble with a few salvaged possessions.
3. Even though their cities were devastated, the British
maintained their morale.
Date
Skills Reinforcement Activity 26
This interactive CD-ROM reinforces
student mastery of essential social
studies skills.
Applying the Skill: Students will write reports synthesizing information from two sources.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
837
CHAPTER 26
Assessment and Activities
MJ
Using Key Terms
MindJogger Videoquiz
Use the MindJogger Videoquiz to
review Chapter 26 content.
Available in VHS.
Using Key Terms
1. appeasement 2. blitzkrieg
3. demilitarized 4. sanctions
5. partisans 6. genocide 7. kamikaze
8. collaborators
Reviewing Key Facts
Reviewing Key Facts
1. The policy of giving in to Hitler’s demands before World
War II has been called
.
2. The German style of attack that called for rapidly overrunning the positions of opposing forces was called a
.
3. Because the Rhineland was
, Germany was not
permitted to have weapons or fortifications there.
4. The United States threatened economic
unless Japan
returned to its borders of 1931.
5. Civilians in occupied countries who joined resistance movements were often called
.
6. What the Nazis called the Final Solution was actually
of the Jewish people.
7. Japanese pilots who volunteered for suicide missions were
known as
.
8. People who assisted the Nazis in carrying out atrocities
against Jewish people were known as
.
9. Geography Where was the Sudetenland located? Why was
it important to Hitler?
10. Science and Technology What did the British develop to
prepare for German air attack?
11. History What significant military action occurred at Midway
Island in 1942?
12. Government Why did the Allied agreement to fight until the
Axis Powers surrendered unconditionally possibly prolong
the war?
13. Citizenship In what way were Japanese Americans treated
differently than German Americans and Italian Americans?
14. Citizenship What percentage of the Jewish populations of
Poland, the Baltic countries, and Germany were killed during
the Holocaust?
15. Government What event triggered the entry of the United
States into the war?
9. northwestern Czechoslovakia; it
was inhabited largely by Germans
10. an effective radar system that gave
them early warning of German air
attacks
11. U.S. planes destroyed four attacking
Japanese aircraft carriers, defeating
the Japanese navy and establishing
American naval superiority in the
Pacific.
12. The agreement made it impossible
for Hitler to divide his foes.
13. Japanese Americans were rounded
up and placed in camps for the
duration of the war, while German
Americans and Italian Americans
were left alone.
World War II was the most devastating total war in human history. Events engaged four continents, involved countless people
and resources, and changed subsequent history. The chart below summarizes some of the themes and developments.
Country
Movement
Cooperation
Conflict
United States
• Retakes Japanese positions
in Southeast Asia
• Relaxes neutrality acts
• Meets with Allies at Tehran,
Yalta, and Potsdam
• Leads war effort
• Conducts island-hopping counterattacks
• Drops atomic bombs on Japan
Great Britain
• Makes huge troop movements
at Dunkirk and Normandy
• Meets with Allies at Tehran,
Yalta, and Potsdam
• Stops Rommel at El Alamein
• Withstands heavy German bombing
Soviet Union
• Occupies Kuril and Sakhalin
Islands
• Takes control of much of
Eastern Europe
• Meets with Allies at Tehran,
Yalta, and Potsdam
• Defeats Germany at Stalingrad
• Forces Germany to fight war
on two fronts
Germany
• Takes over Austria, Poland,
and Sudetenland
• Forms Rome-Berlin Axis
• Signs Anti-Comintern Pact
• Uses blitzkrieg tactics
• Conducts genocide of Jews and others
• Besieges Leningrad
Italy
• Invades Ethiopia
• Forms Rome-Berlin Axis
• Becomes German puppet state
(northern Italy)
Japan
• Seizes Manchuria and
renames it Manchukuo
• Invades China
• Signs Anti-Comintern Pact
• Attacks Pearl Harbor
• Conquers Southeast Asia from
Indochina to Philippines
14. 90 percent
15. Japan’s attack on the U.S. naval base
at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
Critical Thinking
16. He wanted to avoid having to invade
Japan, which he was convinced
would cause heavy American
casualties.
17. By the end of World War II, the balance of power had shifted away
from Europe. The United States and
the Soviet Union became world
powers.
Writing About History
18. Answers will vary but should be
838
838
supported by examples.
Analyzing Sources
19. As far as he was concerned, their only value was as
slaves for the Germans.
20. Both the Germans and the Japanese were attempting
to rid their lands of foreign elements. The Japanese
used the slogan “Asia for the Asiatics” to get the support of anticolonialists in overthrowing Western colonial rule, but they turned out to be even worse
colonialists than the Europeans they replaced. The
Nazis wanted to get rid of the “contaminating” influences of the Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, and other groups by
exterminating them. Both countries obtained slave
labor from the lands they conquered and had little
regard for the lives of the people they conquered.
CHAPTER 26
Assessment and Activities
HISTORY
Self-Check Quiz
Visit the Glencoe World History Web site at
wh.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 26–Self-Check
Quiz to prepare for the Chapter Test.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Refer to the map on page 820 to answer the following questions.
23. Why did the Allies not retake every Japanese-held island?
24. How far is it from Pearl Harbor to Japan?
Have students visit the Web site at
wh.glencoe.com to review Chapter
26 and take the Self-Check Quiz.
Critical Thinking
16. Cause and Effect What factors caused President Truman to
order the dropping of atomic bombs in Japan?
17. Drawing Conclusions How did World War II affect the
world balance of power? What nations emerged from the
conflict as world powers?
Writing About History
Standardized
Test Practice
Directions: Use the map and your knowledge of world history to answer the following question.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
23. They did not need to, by island
hopping they could cut off Japaneseheld islands from supply lines.
German-Controlled Territory, 1943
FINLAND
NORWAY
ESTONIA
ESTONIA
North
Sea
DENMARK
DENMARK
UNITED
KINGDOM
Analyzing Sources
ea
SWEDEN
cS
18. Informative Writing Write an essay comparing how
Europe ruled Asian colonies before the war with how Japan
did so during World War II. Be sure to include information
about key people, places, and events from each of the two
periods in history.
t
B al
NETH.
BELG.
24. more than 4,000 miles (6,640 km)
LATVIA
i
LITH.
GER.
RUSSIA
el
English C
Heinrich Himmler, head of the German SS, argued:
n
han
HISTORY
POLAND
GERMANY
LUX.
“
Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to
death interests me only insofar as we need them as
slaves for our culture. Otherwise it is of no interest.
FRANCE
AUSTRIA
S
ALP
”
19. Describe Heinrich Himmler’s opinion of the people that
Germany conquered.
20. Compare the Nazi philosophy of creating a New Order with
the Japanese philosophy of Asia for the Asiatics.
SLOVAKIA
SWITZ.
SPAIN
Standardized
Test Practice
HUNGARY
ROMANIA
ITALY
Answer: J
Answer Explanation: All answers
include influential factors.
YUGOSLAVIA
BULGARIA
ALBANIA
ALBANIA
Mediterranean Sea
GREECE
Making Decisions
What geographic factors influenced German military
advances?
F German troops had to cover long distances.
G Colder climates created problems that the German military could not overcome.
H The blitzkrieg relied on tanks that were most effective on
flatter terrain.
J All of the above.
22. Some historians believe that President Truman dropped
atomic weapons on Japan not to end the war in the Pacific,
but to impress the Soviet Union with U.S. military power.
Write a position paper evaluating this hypothesis in light of
what you have learned about Stalin and the United States.
What were Truman’s other options? Do you think a leader
today would make the same decision?
Test-Taking Tip: To answer this question about how geography affected history, look at the map carefully. Notice
which areas the German military did not occupy. Use these
clues to make an inference about how geography affected
the German army.
Applying Technology Skills
21. Using the Internet Use the Internet to research the daily
life of a Japanese American citizen in a U.S. internment
camp. Compare and contrast the treatment of Japanese
Americans to that of German Americans and Italian Americans during this time.
CHAPTER 26
Applying Technology Skills
21. Answers will vary but should be supported by examples and logical arguments.
Making Decisions
22. Answers will vary. Stalin had made clear his desire to
surround the Soviet Union with other Communist
countries to serve as a buffer. The fact that the United
World War II
839
States had atomic weapons and the Soviet Union did
not might have deterred him from making further
demands. The Allies could have used conventional
bombing raids or an actual invasion, but either might
have taken months longer and cost many more lives.
Today, many countries have nuclear capabilities, and it
is hard to imagine any leader making a similar decision because of the fear of a full-scale nuclear war.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
2
4
839
Team Teaching
This excerpt from A Room of One’s
Own may be presented in a teamteaching context, in conjunction with
English or Language Arts.
from A
Room of
One’s Own
Virginia Woolf
A Room of
One’s Own
Historical Connection
Virginia Woolf’s writing reveals
her concern over the limited
opportunities available to
women throughout much of
Britain’s history.
Virginia Woolf, who was born in 1882 in
London, is considered one of the most significant modernist writers of our time. Her work
changed the ways the novel was perceived
and written. She developed a technique
known as stream of consciousness in which
the writer portrays the inner lives and
thoughts of multiple characters. Additionally,
she is known for her feminist writings. One of
the most famous of these is A Room of One’s
Own. The title of this work is based on her
assertion that a woman “must have money
and a room of her own” in order to write.
Background Information
Besides novels, Virginia Woolf
also wrote many works of nonfiction, including two important
essays exploring the roles of
women in history and society:
A Room of One’s Own (1929) and
Three Guineas (1938). Woolf was
convinced that in order to produce creative work, an artist
requires a private space in which
to work (“A room of one’s own”)
and enough money for basic survival (“three guineas”). She
argues that the absence of one or
both of these two basic requirements has made the development of women artists
extraordinarily difficult, if not
impossible (as it was for “Shakespeare’s sister”).
. . . Let me imagine, since facts are so hard to come
by, what would have happened had Shakespeare had a
wonderfully gifted sister, called Judith, let us say.
Shakespeare himself went, very probably—his mother
was an heiress—to the grammar school, where he may
have learnt Latin—Ovid, Virgil and Horace—and the
elements of grammar and logic. He was, it is well
known, a wild boy who poached rabbits, perhaps shot
a deer, and had, rather sooner than he should have
done, to marry a woman in the neighbourhood, who
bore him a child rather quicker than was right. That
escapade sent him to seek his fortune in London. He
had, it seemed, a taste for the theatre; he began by
holding horses at the stage door. Very soon he got
work in the theatre, became a successful actor, and
lived at the hub of the universe, meeting everybody,
knowing everybody, practising his art on the boards,
exercising his wits in the street, and even getting access
Read to Discover
How does Virginia Woolf express her belief
that gender influences the development of
talent? Do you think Woolf is being fair in
her assessment? Does her analysis of the differences between treatment of men and
women apply today?
䊴 Many of William
Shakespeare’s plays
were performed at
the Globe theater in
London, shown left.
Reader’s Dictionary
agog: full of intense interest or excitement
moon: to dream
840
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Virginia Woolf, British novelist, essayist, and critic, was born
Adeline Virginia Stephen in London. She was educated at
home by her father and became a central figure in the creation of the modern novel. In 1917, Woolf, along with her
husband, Leonard, founded Hogarth Press, which published the early works of authors such as E.M. Forster,
840
Katherine Mansfield, and T. S. Eliot, and introduced the
works of Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, to
English readers. Except for the first printing of Woolf’s first
novel, The Voyage Out (1915), Hogarth Press also published all of her works.
to the palace of the queen. Meanwhile his extraordinarily gifted sister, let us suppose, remained at
home. She was as adventurous, as imaginative, as
agog to see the world as he was. But she was not
sent to school. She had no chance of learning grammar and logic, let alone of reading Horace and Virgil. She picked up a book now and then, one of her
brother’s perhaps, and read a few pages. But then
her parents came in and told her to mend the
stockings or mind the stew and not moon about
with books and papers. They would have spoken
sharply but kindly, for they were substantial people
who knew the conditions of life for a woman and
loved their daughter—indeed, more likely than not
she was the apple of her father’s eye. Perhaps she
scribbled some pages up in an apple loft on the sly,
but was careful to hide them or set fire to them.
Soon, however, before she was out of her teens, she
was to be betrothed to the son of a neighbouring
wool-stapler. She cried out that marriage was hateful to her, and for that she was severely beaten by
her father. Then he ceased to scold her. He begged
her instead not to hurt him, not to shame him in
this matter of her marriage. He would give her a
chain of beads or a fine petticoat, he said; and there
were tears in his eyes. How could she disobey him?
How could she break his heart? The force of her
own gift alone drove her to it. She made up a small
parcel of her belongings, let herself down by a rope
one summer’s night and took the road to London.
She was not seventeen. The birds that sang in the
hedge were not more musical than she was. She had
the quickest fancy, a gift like her brother’s, for the
tune of words. Like him, she had a taste for the theatre. She stood at the stage door; she wanted to act,
she said. Men laughed in her face. The manager—
a fat, loose-lipped man—guffawed. He bellowed
something about poodles dancing and women acting—no woman, he said could possibly be an
actress. He hinted—you can imagine what. She
could get no training in her craft. Could she even
seek her dinner in a tavern or roam the streets at
midnight? Yet her genius was for fiction . . . At
FOCUS
Ask students to name other
groups of people for whom
social, political, and economic
circumstances would have prevented the expression of individual genius. (slaves in this country,
women under the Taliban in
Afghanistan, etc.)
䊱
TEACH
Virginia Woolf was a fervent
William Shakespeare
supporter of women’s rights.
In A Room of One’s Own (1929),
Woolf responds to those who
would question the capabilities
of women because there was no
“female Shakespeare.” By speculating about the fate of Shakespeare’s brilliantly talented,
imaginary sister, she is able to
outline the difficulties of the
woman artist in a world that
denies her access to an education
and the freedom to exercise her
gift.
last—for she was very young, oddly like Shakespeare the poet in her face, with the same grey
eyes and rounded brows—at last Nick Greene
the actor-manager took pity on her; [but] she . . .
killed herself one winter’s night and lies buried at
some cross-roads where the omnibuses now stop
outside the Elephant and Castle. That, more or
less, is how the story would run, I think, if a
woman in Shakespeare’s day had had Shakespeare’s genius.
1. What were “the conditions of life for a woman”
that made Judith’s parents scold her for attempting
to read and write?
Interpretation
Ask students why “Shakespeare’s sister” might have
“scribbled some pages up in an
apple loft on the sly, but was careful
to hide them or set fire to them.”
2. Why does Judith’s father beat her?
3. What is Woolf’s conclusion about the possibility of
a woman becoming Shakespeare?
4. CRITICAL THINKING Why does Virginia Woolf
have Shakespeare marry, but Shakespeare’s sister
run away from marriage?
Applications Activity
What does a person today need to succeed as a writer
or artist? Write a descriptive account to illustrate your
argument.
841
ANSWERS TO INTERPRETING WORLD LITERATURE
1. Women were supposed to marry and be good housewives and mothers. Reading and writing would not
benefit them at all.
2. He believes that marriage is the only choice for a
woman and that she must obey her father’s wishes.
3. It could not have happened. Writing and acting were
the province of men, and women were not allowed.
4. to prove that marriage was confining to a woman,
but not to a man
Applications Activity: Answers should be supported
by logical arguments.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
841