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Name:___________________________________ Chapter 4: The Industrial Age of America Study Guide People to Know: Know each person or group’s significance or description. Cornelius Vanderbilt Henry Bessemer Edwin Drake George Pullman Elijah McCoy Thomas Edison Alexander Graham Bell The Wright Brothers George Westinghouse Henry Ford John D. Rockefeller Andrew Carnegie Mary Harris Jones Samuel Gompers Terence V. Powderly Know the significance of each item below. Second Industrial Revolution The consolidation of railroads New railroad technology Inventions/transportation Inventions/communication Key Terms: consolidation rebate assembly line mass production patent corporation stocks stockholder Bessemer Process The factors of production Captains of Industry Robber Barons Sherman Antitrust Act horizontal integration vertical integration merger monopoly trust Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor (AFL) Factories/working conditions Haymarket Riot Homestead Strike Pullman Strike labor union strike collective bargaining philanthropist Essential Questions: What was the Second Industrial Revolution and what spurred the industrial growth of the late 1800s? What improvements to the railroad affected the economy and transportation in the U.S.? How did steel processing change in the 1850s and how did this affect the United States? What advances in transportation and communication played an important role in the Second Industrial Revolution? How did the rise of corporations lead to the growth of big business? How did the rise of big business affect consumers in the United States? How did Andrew Carnegie use vertical integration? How did Rockefeller use horizontal integration? How did concerns about trusts lead to the Sherman Antitrust Act? What were the working conditions that led to the violent strikes of the late 1800s? How did labor unions attempt to improve working conditions in the United States? How did the Knights of Labor and the AFL differ? What major labor strikes took place in the late 1800s? Possible Essay Questions: All: How did the steel industry spur industrial growth in the United States? Choose one of the following: • What inventions created great change and industrial growth in the United States? • How did the development of large corporations bring both benefits and problems? • Explain the rise of labor unions and how they tried to improve working conditions in the United States.