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Chapter 4: The Industrial Age of America Study Guide
People to Know: Know each person or group’s significance or description.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Henry Bessemer
Edwin Drake
George Pullman
Elijah McCoy
Thomas Edison
Alexander Graham Bell
The Wright Brothers
George Westinghouse
Henry Ford
John D. Rockefeller
Andrew Carnegie
Mary Harris Jones
Samuel Gompers
Terence V. Powderly
Know the significance of each item below.
Second Industrial Revolution
The consolidation of railroads
New railroad technology
Key Terms:
assembly line
mass production
Bessemer Process
The factors of production
Captains of Industry
Robber Barons
Sherman Antitrust Act
horizontal integration
vertical integration
Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Factories/working conditions
Haymarket Riot
Homestead Strike
Pullman Strike
labor union
collective bargaining
Essential Questions:
 What was the Second Industrial Revolution and what spurred the industrial growth of the late 1800s?
 What improvements to the railroad affected the economy and transportation in the U.S.?
 How did steel processing change in the 1850s and how did this affect the United States?
 What advances in transportation and communication played an important role in the Second Industrial
 How did the rise of corporations lead to the growth of big business?
 How did the rise of big business affect consumers in the United States?
 How did Andrew Carnegie use vertical integration? How did Rockefeller use horizontal integration?
 How did concerns about trusts lead to the Sherman Antitrust Act?
 What were the working conditions that led to the violent strikes of the late 1800s?
 How did labor unions attempt to improve working conditions in the United States?
 How did the Knights of Labor and the AFL differ?
 What major labor strikes took place in the late 1800s?
Possible Essay Questions:
How did the steel industry spur industrial growth in the United States?
Choose one of the following:
• What inventions created great change and industrial growth in the United States?
• How did the development of large corporations bring both benefits and problems?
• Explain the rise of labor unions and how they tried to improve working conditions in the United States.