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Psyc230: Exam 1 Review Exam Date: Sec 1 – Monday, Jan 29th, Sec 2 – Tues, Jan 30th Exam 1 will be worth 80 points. The exam will be multiple-choice and matching (80%). You will have approximately 50 min to complete the exam. Study Tips: Your first exam will cover chapters 1-3, lectures, and additional in-class material discussed. Recommended study tips would be to: (a) first go over lecture notes to be sure they are complete with study outline and (b) re-read chapters 1-3 to supplement related class notes, and Study Outline Tenets of Lifespan Developmental Psychology • Be VERY familiar with each of the six tenets of lifespan development. • Be able to come up with examples of each tenet as they relate to human development. • What is the difference between stability and change in human development? Can you provide an example? • What is the difference between continuity and discontinuity in human development? • Which human development theories are best represented by continuity? Discontinuity? • What does the ‘wave’ view of human development say? Conceptions of Age • Why is chronological age not necessarily the best way to conceptualize age? • What are some different ways of conceptualizing age beyond chronological age? Be able to identify the different ways. • Be able to recognize examples or identify different ways of conceptualizing age. Theories on Human Development • Be able to identify the other types of theories on human development discussed in class. Be able to determine how the theories are similar or different to lifespan developmental psychology theory • Be extra familiar with Vygotsky and Bronfrenbrenner’s theories on development • Be able to identify or provide examples of the different levels of Bronfrenbrenner’s Ecological Model. Research Designs in Lifespan Developmental Psychology • What are the different types of data that are collected in developmental psychology? Can you provide examples of these different collection methods? • What do we know about heterogeneity within age groups for younger vs. older adults? • Be able to identify, explain or provide examples of the 3 factors influencing within group differences • Be able to identify and explain the 3 fundamental effects in life span research in the context of the 4 different research designs. • 4 developmental study designs – be able to identify each design, which of the fundamental effects are or are not controlled for and why, and the advantages and disadvantages of each design • Experimental Study Designs – be able to identify an example. Why is it difficult to study the ‘effect of age on….?” in experimental research? Nature v. Nurture • What is nature and nurture? Can you provide an example of each? Genetics • According to Baltes, how important is evolution v. culture as we age? Explain. • What is phenotype v. genotype? How does it relate to dominant v. recessive inheritance? What about homozygous vs. heterozygous genes? What is an allele? What is a chromosome, how many do we have? What is DNA? • What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis? • What is a gamete? What is a zygote? • What is codominance? Can you provide an example? • Be able to identify and describe autosomal and X-linked chromosomal abnormalities Prenatal development • Be able to list and discuss the different stages of prenatal development (i.e., zygote, embryonic, and fetus)..what distinguishes them from each other • What time of prenatal development signifies a ‘sensitive period’ and why? • What are teratogens? Be able to identify and provide examples of teratogens and potential harmful effects. • methods of child birth delivery – what are some different and preferred methods of child birth delivery. What are some advantages and disadvantages of the different types of childbirth? • assessing a newborn – APGAR – now what each assessment item is and what it ultimately measures Longevity • What is the difference between life expectancy, life span, and maximum life span? • Why are individuals in the US living longer than previous generations? Consider socio-culturalhistorical factors. • Why are we a ‘graying’ society? What is keeping the U.S. ‘younger’ than other graying countries, such as European countries? • What are some genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors that might contribute or demote life expectancy? Physical Growth Trends • How do we grow in infancy? Cephaloclaudal & proximodistal • What is growth hormone deficiency? What are some possible causes of growth hormone deficiency? • What is puberty? When does it usually occur in childhood/adolescence? • What are some causes of the onset of puberty? • Be able to discuss the role of the different hormones in puberty. Be able to discuss gender differences in hormone production during puberty. • How does puberty relate to body image in adolescence? Be able to discuss gender differences in body image and psychosocial adjustment during puberty. • What are some physical growth trends that occur during middle age? The Brain • Be able to identify and discuss the structure and function of the major lobes of the brain. • Be able to identify the major parts of the neuron and ‘what’ the different parts of the neuron do. Be able to discuss what a neurotransmitter does. • What is lateralization? What contributes to communication between the two parts of the brain? • Consider the role of environment in infant brain growth. • What parts of the brain are important in adolescence? Why? • What are some brain changes that occur in mid-to late-adulthood? • What do we know about plasticity and the brain in research (e.g., Project ADEPT and the Nun Study). • Be familiar with the Nun Study. What does it tell us about the brain?