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Classical and Romantic Eras
Chapter 18, page 408
Classical Era
• Era of intellectual enlightenment with
great strides in the science and arts
• Rise of a new influential middle class
• First public concerts as a demand for a
music of and for the masses
• Concertos and sonatas were ways for
people to showcase their technique
• Music reflected the scientific thinking of the
• Music was more simple and direct than
Baroque and was more accessible to listeners
• Music was written for specific occasions
(weddings, funerals, coronations, and
opening of new opera houses)
• Many classical composers worked in royal
courts to compose music under contract
• Classical composers also worked in churches
and in schools
• Composers would write music specifically
for people that paid for it
• Music publishing flourished and provided
more money for composers
• Music became a cultural force
• Concertos
– Fast, Slow, Fast
– Large Orchestra (strings, woodwinds, trumpets,
horns, and timpani)
– Blended solo parts and contained fully developed
– Continual changes in dynamics and instrumental
Piano Concerto No. 21 in C Major, II
W. A. Mozart
• Symphonies
– An extended work for orchestra with several
contrasting movements
– Fast, Slow, Minuet, Fast
– Franz Joseph Haydn is credited with pioneering
the form
Symphony No. 101 in D
Franz Joseph Haydn
• Sonata Allegro Form
– 1st movement of a symphony; 3 parts (ABA)
• Exposition-(A Section) presentation of the main
musical ideas; usually has 2 themest that run
throughout the movement
• Development-(B Section) an elaboration of one or
both themes; may be accomplished through key
change or other ideas; motives based on one or both
themes are central to the development
• Recapitulation-(A Section) a restatement or
repetition of the main theme material; often makes
dynamic adjustments for dramatic effects
• May have a C section called a Coda
Symphony No. 40 in G Minor I(Excerpt)
W.A. Mozart
• Rondo Form
– A composition consisting of a recurring them
alternating with contrasting sections
Rondo all’Ongarese Trio No. 1 in G Major, Hob XV XV:25I
F.J. Haydn
Displayed genius early
At 18, moved to Vienna
where his talents were
At 25, his first collection of
works was published with
immediate success
Works followed the rules of
classical music but as they
matured, were more dramatic
and dreamy in quality
• Sonatas
– 4 parts/Movements
Ludwig van Beethoven Listening
•Piano Sonata in C Minor (Pathetique) I, II, III (excerpts)
•Symphony No. 5, I
•Symphony No. 9, IV
• Era of dramatic, expressive and
emotional art forms
• Romantic music rejected classical attempt
to place laws on nature and became
based on emotional rule
• Goal of romantic music was to
emancipate human feelings and
• Began to die out in the years before
World War I
• Poetry and music are intimately fused in the
art song-composers would interpret poems
and translate into their music
The Erlking
Franz Schubert
(Art Song)
• Program music attempted to convey specific
ideas without using lyrics
• Program symphonies attempted to convey
specific descriptions and ideas in several
musical movements
March to the Scaffold from Symphonie Fantastique
Hector Berlioz
• Towards the end, composers began to
compose music to display their nationalistic
Nationalism in Music
•The Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
•The Great Gate of Kiev from Pictures of an Exhibition (excerpts)
Modest Mussorgsky
•Sigfried’s Funeral March
Richard Wagner
Chapter 18 Vocabulary
Sonata allegro form
Romantic period
Art song
Program music
Program symphony
Idee fixe
Tone poem
Important Composers
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Franz Joseph Haydn
Ludvig van Beethoven
Franz Shubert
Franz Liszt
Hector Berlioz
Richard Wagner