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Processes of Life – Topic Review
You can now ‘Traffic light’ how well you understand this topic.
Colour a box for each statement in the table
RED - if you do not understand
AMBER (orange) - if you are unsure of anything.
GREEN - if you understand.
I know that living things are made up of
I can list the parts of a plant and animal
cell and describe what they do.
I can explain what puberty is, and how it
affects the development of boys and girls.
I can name both human sex cells and
describe what happens during fertilisation.
I can describe the changes which take
place during the development of a
fertilised egg.
I can name both plant sex cells and explain
what happens during pollination and
I can explain how a seed is formed and the
conditions needed for germination.
Processes of Life Summary
All living things are made of cells. All cells have a nucleus (control centre), cell
membrane (thin skin) and cytoplasm (jelly-like filling). A plant cell will also have
a cell wall (rigid outer covering), and chloroplasts which contain the green
chemical chlorophyll.
Some time between the ages of about 9 and 15, girls start to grow into young
women and boys start to grow into young men. During this time, called puberty,
changes take place in our bodies. These changes do not happen all at once.
Changes in girls:
Body sweats more
Hair grows between legs and under
Breasts grow larger
Menstruation (periods) begin
Hips grow wider
Growth spurt
Changes in boys:
Body sweats more
Hair grows on face, chest, under arms
and around the base of the penis
Penis gradually grows larger
Sperm begin to be produced in the
Voice becomes deeper
Growth spurt
All the changes that take place during puberty are often accompanied by new
and strong feelings about how their bodies look, feel and act.
Human Reproduction
When a couple decide they want to have a baby, they will have sexual
intercourse (make love). The man’s penis is slipped into the woman’s vagina
where sperm cells are released. If one of the sperms meets the egg then
fertilisation can take place (the egg and sperm join up). The fertilized egg
travels to the uterus (womb) where it develops into a baby. It is kept warm and
protected inside the mother, cushioned by a watery liquid. Food and oxygen
cross from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood, at the placenta. After about
nine months of growth, the baby is ready to be born. The muscles in the womb
contract, pushing the baby out of the womb through the vagina, into the world
Plant Reproduction
Flowers are the reproductive parts of a plant. Pollen grains, the male sex cells,
are produced by the stamens. The pollen must be carried by the wind or insects
to the female part of the flower. The pollen lands first on the stigma and then
must travel to join up with the female sex cell in the ovules. The ovules grow in
the ovary. After the ovules have been fertilised (the male and female sex cells
join) the ovules grow into seeds. The seeds are scattered by the wind, by
animals or by “explosion”, to give the new plants more room to grow. The seeds
lie in the ground until there is enough water, warmth and oxygen for