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Processes of Life – Topic Review You can now ‘Traffic light’ how well you understand this topic. Colour a box for each statement in the table RED - if you do not understand AMBER (orange) - if you are unsure of anything. GREEN - if you understand. THE PROCESSES OF LIFE I know that living things are made up of cells. I can list the parts of a plant and animal cell and describe what they do. I can explain what puberty is, and how it affects the development of boys and girls. I can name both human sex cells and describe what happens during fertilisation. I can describe the changes which take place during the development of a fertilised egg. I can name both plant sex cells and explain what happens during pollination and fertilisation. I can explain how a seed is formed and the conditions needed for germination. RED AMBER GREEN Processes of Life Summary Cells All living things are made of cells. All cells have a nucleus (control centre), cell membrane (thin skin) and cytoplasm (jelly-like filling). A plant cell will also have a cell wall (rigid outer covering), and chloroplasts which contain the green chemical chlorophyll. Puberty Some time between the ages of about 9 and 15, girls start to grow into young women and boys start to grow into young men. During this time, called puberty, changes take place in our bodies. These changes do not happen all at once. Changes in girls: Body sweats more Hair grows between legs and under arms Breasts grow larger Menstruation (periods) begin Hips grow wider Growth spurt Changes in boys: Body sweats more Hair grows on face, chest, under arms and around the base of the penis Penis gradually grows larger Sperm begin to be produced in the testes Voice becomes deeper Growth spurt All the changes that take place during puberty are often accompanied by new and strong feelings about how their bodies look, feel and act. Human Reproduction When a couple decide they want to have a baby, they will have sexual intercourse (make love). The man’s penis is slipped into the woman’s vagina where sperm cells are released. If one of the sperms meets the egg then fertilisation can take place (the egg and sperm join up). The fertilized egg travels to the uterus (womb) where it develops into a baby. It is kept warm and protected inside the mother, cushioned by a watery liquid. Food and oxygen cross from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood, at the placenta. After about nine months of growth, the baby is ready to be born. The muscles in the womb contract, pushing the baby out of the womb through the vagina, into the world outside. Plant Reproduction Flowers are the reproductive parts of a plant. Pollen grains, the male sex cells, are produced by the stamens. The pollen must be carried by the wind or insects to the female part of the flower. The pollen lands first on the stigma and then must travel to join up with the female sex cell in the ovules. The ovules grow in the ovary. After the ovules have been fertilised (the male and female sex cells join) the ovules grow into seeds. The seeds are scattered by the wind, by animals or by “explosion”, to give the new plants more room to grow. The seeds lie in the ground until there is enough water, warmth and oxygen for germination.