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Intro to Anthropology,
Psychology and SociologyIAPS (HSP3U)
Ms. Boylan
Challenge yourself, your views, your
Challenge others (theorists, ideas,
classmates, teacher) DO NOT
Always recognize and acknowledge your
Be respectful of others and their views.
Think critically. Think out of the box.
Social Sciences
science that explores human
societies and social relationships.
Examples: History, Civics,
Economics, Politics, Anthropology,
Psychology, Sociology, etc…
Who are we? Why do we do what we do?
What is the impact of our decision?
The study of social science allows insight
into these and other questions that shape
human nature.
Social science is the organized study of
people and their activities and their
customs in relation to others.
Enter the ‘ologies’
During this course you are going to become
intimately familiar with three branches of
social science: anthropology, psychology,
and sociology.
‘Ology’ is a Latin phrase that translates to
‘study of ’, but in a logical manner. Not
surprisingly, the purpose of these three areas
is to study humanity so that we can better
understand ourselves.
Now you see me, now you see me
Like a prism, the 3 ‘ologies’ can examine
the same aspect but end up casting a
different light on the issue – this filter
allow for a closer examination of the
given topic
 We look at different issues through
different ‘lenses’
Is the scientific study of humans as a
species and as members of different
2 Branches of Anthropology
Physical Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
Physical Anthropology
Explores humans as a
species today and in
 Looks at the evolution of
humans over millions of
 Archeology is a subgroup
of physical anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
Explores humanity through various
cultures’ similarities and differences.
 This discipline contains multiple
subgroups (often centered on cultural
issues), all of which attempt to
understand how and why cultures exist,
survive, and thrive.
Some Key Contributors:
Jane Goodall
Margaret Mead
Franz Boas
Louis Leakey
Alfred Kroeber
Is the study of an individual’s mental
processes and behaviour.
 It is the systematic study of people’s
thoughts, feelings and behaviour, with
on the human
explores humanity through
mental processes.
 This discipline contains
multiple subgroups (often
associated with the idea’s
originator e.g. Freud’s
psychoanalysis), all of which
attempt to understand how
and why people think and
Freud’s Psychoanalysis
Some Key Contributors:
Sigmund Freud
Ivan Pavlov
B.F. Skinner
Jean Piaget
Is the scientific study
of people in groups.
 It is the development,
structure, and
functioning of human
societies with
particular attention to
human groups.
explores humanity through
the interactions of people in
a specific society.
This discipline contains
numerous subgroups (often
a blend of the originator and
social structure), all of which
attempt to understand how
and why people interact.
Some Key Contributors:
Karl Marx
George Herbert Mead
Irving Goffman
Talcott Parsons
Criticisms - … “some do, some don’t”
Many of the social sciences are deemed
“soft sciences” since they do not always
rely on strict scientific methodology or
rigorous, repeated data.
Criticisms - … “some do, some don’t”
Think back to a time when a friend with a
problem came to you for advice, and then
later on, another friend came to with you
the same problem. Did you give the same
◦ Well, maybe so, maybe not…it probably
depended on the friend right?
◦ Most social scientists would argue that
humans (and their problems) are too complex
to boil down to a single, simple solution, and
so variation is necessary.
Criticisms - … “some do, some don’t”
Another criticism is that the social
sciences are more heavily influenced by
of-the-moment political agendas and
societal pressures and influences
Social science attempts to understand
 As with any theory, sometimes there is
success, oftentimes there is not, and
occasionally the search yields
unconsidered questions.
So, perhaps it was Adlai E. Stevenson who
inadvertently described the social
sciences best:
◦ “If we value the pursuit of knowledge, we
must be free to follow wherever that search
may lead us. The free mind is not a barking
dog, to be tethered on a ten-foot chain.”
Avoid Intellectual Icebergs!
Unfortunately, a lot of people don’t give social
science questions and ideas the time and effort
they require. Instead, they rely on social science
quotes to explain these complex ideas. But, like an
iceberg, the quote is just the tip of the idea.
Hidden underneath lies the vast majority of the
concept. Like the Titanic, many an unwary social
scientist-to-be has had their arguments sunk by a
lack of research and preparation…
Consider famed psychologist Carl Jung’s
statement that “[e]very form of addiction is bad,
no matter whether the narcotic be alcohol,
morphine, or idealism.” On the surface, this seems
pretty clear BUT beneath this simple seeming
stance lies a bevy of anthropological,
psychological, and sociological ideas. And just to
prove further that summary quotations can’t
always capture a concept, consider this: love too
is (by some) considered an addiction…does that
mean it is bad