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Transcript
Empiric Treatment:
Pneumonia
Overview of Pneumonia
• http://www.virtualrespiratorycentre.com/
diseases.asp?did=38
What is pneumonia?
• Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of
the lung. Frequently, it is described as
lung parenchyma/alveolar (microscopic
air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for
absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere)
inflammation and (abnormal) alveolar
filling with fluid.
What Causes Pneumonia?
• Pneumonia can result from a variety of
causes, including infection with bacteria,
viruses, fungi, or parasites, and
chemical or physical injury to the lungs.
Pneumonia
• The alveoli are tiny air sacs within the
lungs where the exchange of oxygen
and carbon dioxide takes place.
Bronchiole
• Bronchiole: A tiny tube in the air conduit
system within the lungs that is a
continuation of the bronchi and connects
to the alveoli (the air sacs) where oxygen
exchange occurs. Bronchiole is the
diminutive of bronchus, from the word
bronchos by which the Greeks referred to
the conduits to the lungs.
Symptoms of Pneumonia
•
•
•
•
Fever
Chills
Cough
Pleurisy: inflamed membranes around
the lungs
• Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing;
shortness of breath
Diagnosis of Pneumonia
• Pneumonia usually produces distinctive
sounds; these abnormal sounds are
caused by narrowing of airways or filling
of the normally air-filled parts of the lung
with inflammatory cells and fluid, a
process called consolidation.
Diagnosis of Pneumonia
• In most cases, the diagnosis of pneumonia is
confirmed with a chest x-ray. For most bacterial
pneumonias, the involved tissue of the lung
appears on the x-ray as a dense white patch
(because the x-ray beam does not get through),
compared with nearby healthy lung tissue that
appears black (because the x-rays get through
easily, exposing the film). Viral pneumonias
typically produce faint, widely scattered white
streaks or patches.
Two Types of Pneumonia
• Community-Acquired Pneumonia
(CAP): individual residing in their homes
• Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP):
individuals residing in hospitals
Community-Acquired
Pneumonia
• Typical: Sudden onset of fever, chills,
pleuritic chest pain, productive cough
– Streptococcus pneumoniae
– Haemophilus influenzae
• Atypical: often preceeded by mild respiratory
illness
– Legionella spp.
– Mycoplasma pneumoniae
– Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Bacterial Causes of CAP
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Legionella spp
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Other aerobic Gram-neg
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Staphylococcus aureus
16-60%
3-38%
2-30%
1-20%
7-18%
6-12%
2-5%
Treatment of CAP
Treatment of CAP
• Mild
–
–
–
–
Macrolide (azithromycin, clarithromycin)
Macrolide + -lactam
Doxycycline
Quinolone (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin,
gemifloxacin)
• Severe
 -lactam + macrolide
 -lactam + quinolone
Treatment of CAP
• Severe
 -lactam + macrolide
 -lactam + quinolone
HAP is also divided into two
classes:
• Early onset HAP: occurs within first five
days of hospitalization
• Late onset HAP: occurs after 5 days of
hospitalization
Bacterial Causes of
Early Onset HAP
•
•
•
•
Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
Haemophilus influenzae
Enterobacteriaceae
Streptococcus pneumoniae
29-35%
23-33%
5-25%
7-23%
Bacterial Causes of Late
Onset HAP
•
•
•
•
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acinetobacter spp.
Enterobacteriaceae
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus
39-64%
6-26%
16-31%
0-2%
Treatment of Early Onset HAP
Treatment of Early Onset HAP
• Ceftriaxone
• Quinolone (Levofloxacin, Moxiflocacin,
Ciprofloxacin)
• Ampicillin/sulbactam
• Ertapenem
Treatment of Late Onset HAP
Treatment of Late Onset HAP
Use a combination regimen from the first and second
categories below:
• Antipseudomonal cephalosporin: ceftazidime,
cefepime
• Or Carbapenem: Imipenem, Meropenem
• Or Extended spectrum penicillin/-lactamase
inhibitor: piperacillin/tazobactam
++++
• Quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin)
• Or Aminoglycoside (gentamicin, tobramycin,
amikacin)
• If MRSA is suspected, add: Vancomycin or
Linezolid
Urinary Tract Infections
• http://www.virtualrenalcentre.com/disea
ses.asp?did=281
Urinary System
Mild and Severe UTI’s
• Mild
– Involve only the urethra and bladder
– Referred to as “acute cystitis”
– Symptoms include
• dysuria (painful urination)
• urinary frequency
• hematuria (blood in urine)
Mild and Severe UTI’s
• Severe
– Infection of the upper urinary tract involves the
spread of bacteria to the kidney
– Symptoms include fever, chills, nausea,
vomiting and flank pain
– Called “pyelonephritis”
‘Complicated’ and
‘Uncomplicated’ UTI’s
• Uncomplicated: occur in young,
healthy, nonpregnant women
• Complicated: All other UTI’s
Bacterial Causes of
Uncomplicated UTI’s
•
•
•
•
•
Escherichia coli
Proteus mirabilis
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Klebsiella spp.
Other Enterobacteriaceae
53-79%
4-5%
3%
2-3%
3%
Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Cystitis
Treatment of Uncomplicated
Acute Cystitis
• Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
• Oral quinolones (ciprofloxacin,
levofloxacin)
Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Pyelonephritis
Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Pyelonephritis
• Quinolones: Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin
• Third generation cephalosporins: Ceftriaxone,
cefotaxime, ceftizoxime
• If Gram positive organisms seen in urine:
– Aminopenicillin (amoxicillin)
– Aminopenicillin + -lactamase inhibitor:
(amoxicillin + clavulanate)
– Aminopenicillin + aminoglycoside (ampicillin +
gentamicin)
Treatment of Complicated
Urinary Tract Infections
Treatment of Complicated
Urinary Tract Infections
• Fourth generation cephalosporins
(cefepime)
• Quinolones: Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin
• If Gram-positive bacteria seen in urine:
– Aminopenicillin + aminoglycoside:
Ampicillin + gentamicin
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
• http://www.virtualendocrinecentre.com/d
iseases.asp?did=791
Female Reproductive Organs
PID is the general term for an infection that
has traveled through the vagina, to the
uterus, and then to other parts of the pelvis
Symptoms of PID
•
•
•
•
•
•
Abnormal bleeding
Dyspareunia (pain during sexual intercourse)
Vaginal discharge
Lower abdominal pain
Fever
chills
Bacterial Causes of PID
• Neisseria gonorrhoeae
27-56%
• Chlamydia trachomatis
22-31%
• Anaerobic and facultative bacteria
(Bacteria that can live under aerobic or
anaerobic conditions)
20-78%
Treatment of PID
Treatment of PID
• Mild to Moderate Disease
– Oral quinolone: Levofloxacin, ofloxacin
+ oral metronidazole
– Single IM dose of cephalosporin
+ oral doxycycline
+ oral metronidazole
Treatment of PID
Those that are severely ill should be admitted to the
hospital and treated initially with intravenous agents.
• Severe Disease (regimen 1)
– Cephalosporin with anaerobic activity (cefotetan,
cefoxitin)
+ doxycycline (active against atypical C. trachomatis)
• Severe Disease (regimen 2)
– Clindamycin (active against C. trachomatis and against
many anaerobes)
+ Gentamicin (effective against Gram-negative N. gonorrhoeae)
Meningitis
• http://www.virtualneurocentre.com/disea
ses.asp?did=162
• http://www.nmaus.org/about_meningitis/
index.htm
Meningitis
• Meningitis is the inflammation of the
protective membranes covering the central
nervous system, known collectively as the
meninges. Meningitis may develop in
response to a number of causes, most
prominently bacteria, viruses and other
infectious agents, but also physical injury,
cancer, or certain drugs.
• Meninges: the membranes that envelope
the brain and the spinal cord.
Symptoms of Meningitis
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Headache
Fever
Neck stiffness
Altered mental status
Photophobia
Nausea
Vomiting
Seizures
Diagnosis of Meningitis
• The most important test used to
diagnose meningitis is the lumbar
puncture (commonly called a spinal
tap). Lumbar puncture (LP) involves the
insertion of a thin needle into a space
between the vertebrae in the lower back
and the withdrawal of a small amount of
CSF.
Lumbar puncture
• http://antbits.net/first_consult/lumbar_pu
ncture.swf?random=0.8897603
• http://www.virtualcancercentre.com/inve
stigations.asp?sid=13
Diagnosis of Meningitis
• The CSF is then examined under a microscope to
look for bacteria or fungi. Normal CSF contains
set percentages of glucose and protein. These
percentages will vary with bacterial, viral, or other
causes of meningitis. For example, bacterial
meningitis causes a greatly lower than normal
percentage of glucose to be present in CSF, as
the bacteria are essentially "eating" the host's
glucose, and using it for their own nutrition and
energy production.
Diagnosis of Meningitis
• Normal CSF should contain no infection-fighting
cells (white blood cells), so the presence of white
blood cells in CSF is another indication of
meningitis. Some of the withdrawn CSF is also
put into special lab dishes to allow growth of the
infecting organism, which can then be identified
more easily. Special immunologic and serologic
tests may also be used to help identify the
infectious agent.
Bacterial Causes of Acute
Bacterial Meningitis
• 0 - 3 months:
– Streptococcus agalactiae
– Escherichia coli
– Listeria monocytogenes
• 3 month - 6 yrs:
– Neisseria meningitidis
– Streptococcus pneumoniae
– Haemophilus influenzae
Bacterial Causes of Acute
Bacterial Meningitis
• 16 yrs - 50 yrs
– Streptococcus pneumoniae
– Neisseria meningitidis
• > 50 yrs
– Streptococcus pneumoniae
– Listeria monocytogenes
– Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli
Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis
Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis
• Third-generation cephalosporins: cefotaxime,
ceftriaxone
+ Vancomycin (coverage against resistant
Streptococcus pneumoniae)
• If patient < 3 months or > 50 years
Same as above, but also
Add ampicillin to provide coverage of L.
monocytogenes and S. agalactiae.
Cellulitis
Cellulitis is an inflammation of the connective tissue
underlying the skin, that can be caused by a bacterial
infection.
Cellulitis
Bacterial Causes of Cellulitis
• Staphylococcus aureus
• Streptococcus pyogenes
• Other streptococci
13-37%
4-17%
1-18%
Treatment of Cellulitis
Treatment of Cellulitis
• Mild Disease (oral formulations)
– Antistaphylococcal penicillins (Dicloxacillin)
– First Generation Cephalosporins (Cephalexin,
Cefadroxil)
– Clindamycin
– Macrolides (Erythromycin, azithromycin,
clarithromycin)
• Severe Disease (intravenous formulations)
– Antistaphylococcal penicillins (Nafcillin, oxacillin)
– First-generation cephalosporins (cefazolin)
– Clindamycin
Treatment of Cellulitis
• If MRSA is suspected
– Vancomycin
– Linezolid
– Daptomycin
– Tetracyclines (Tigecycline, doxycycline)
– Sulfa drugs (Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole)
– Clindamycin
Otitis Media
• http://www.virtualrespiratorycentre.com/
diseases.asp?did=879
Symptoms of Otitis Media
• Otalgia (ear pain)
• Hearing Loss
• Irritability
• Anorexia
• Apathy
• Fever
• Swelling around the ear
• Otorrhea (discharge from the affected ear)
Bacterial Causes of Acute
Otitis Media
• Streptococcus pneumoniae
• Haemophilus influenzae
• Moraxella catarrhalis
25-50%
15-30%
3-20%
Treatment of Acute Otitis Media
Treatment of Acute Otitis
Media
• First Line Therapy
– High Dose Amoxicillin
• If Mild Allergy to Penicillin
– Cefdinir, Cefpodoxime, Cefuroxime axetil
• If Type 1 Hypersensitivity Allergic
Reaction
– Macrolide (Azithromycin, Clarithromycin,
Erythromycin with sulfisoxazole)
Sulfisoxazole
Sulfmethoxazole
Used in combination
with Erythromycin
Used in combination with
Trimethoprim
(co-trimoxazole)
Infective Endocarditis
Causes of Endocarditis
• There are many ways that bacteria can
enter the bloodstream and cause
endocarditis. Even a small cut can
enable bacteria that normally live on the
skin to enter the bloodstream. In some
cases, this occurs during a dental or
surgical procedure. In many cases,
however, it is not clear how the bacteria
first got into the bloodstream.
Symptoms of Endocarditis
• Symptoms are non-specific, making
endocarditis difficult to diagnose:
• Fatigue
• Malaise
• Weakness
• Weight loss
• Fever
• Chills
• Dyspnea on exertion (shortness of breath)
Bacterial Causes of
Endocarditis
•
•
•
•
•
Viridans group streptococci
18-48%
Staphylococcus aureus
22-32%
Enterococci
7-11%
Coagulase-negative staphylococci 7-11%
HACEK organisms
2-7%
Viridans Group streptococci
• Viridans streptococcus are alphahemolytic, normal flora of the oral,
respiratory tract, and GI mucosa. They
are the major cause of bacterial
endocarditis in people with damaged
heart valves. They may enter the blood
stream after dental procedures.
HACEK Organisms
• A HACEK organism is one of a set of slow-growing
Gram negative bacteria that form a normal part of
the human flora. They are a frequent cause of
endocarditis in children.
• The name is formed from their initials:
• Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus
parainfluenzae and Haemophilus paraphrophilus
• Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
• Cardiobacterium hominis
• Eikenella corrodens
• Kingella kingae
Empiric Therapy for Infective
Endocarditis
• Vancomycin + Gentamicin
– Vancomycin is effective against S. aureus and
viridans group streptococci
– When used in combination with Gentamicin,
activity is extended to the majority of enterococcal
strains
• Even intensive therapy may not be sufficient,
and surgical intervention is often required
• Despite intensive antibiotic therapy, mortality
remains high: 20-25%.
Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis
• Many cases of endocarditis are
associated with prosthetic valves in the
heart
• Sometimes these infections occur within
two months after the valve is installed
and are thus thought to be hospital
acquired
• Sometimes they occur 6-20 month after
surgery and are thus thought to be
community acquired
Treatment of Prosthetic Valve
Endocarditis
• Vancomycin + Gentamicin + Rifampin
– With or without cefepime or ceftriaxone
Intravascular-Related
Catheter Infections
• http://www.skinisthesource.org/
• 200,000 catheter-related infections
occur each year in the U.S.
• Should be suspected in anyone with an
intravascular catheter and a fever of
unclear etiology.
• Diagnosis may involve:
– Removal and culture of the catheter
– Growth of bacteria from blood cultures
What type of bacteria cause
catheter-related infections?
• Skin flora, including:
– Staphylococcus epidermidis 32-41%
– Staphylococcus aureus 5-14%
– Enteric Gram-negative bacilli 5-11%
– Psuedomonas aeruginosa 4-7%
Treatment of Intravascular
Catheter-related Infections
Treatment of Catheter Related
Infections
• Hospital setting where MRSA is uncommon
– Antistaphylocccal penicillin: Nafcillin, Oxacillin
• Hospital setting where MRSA is common
– Vancomycin
• Immunocompromised or severely ill patient
– Add cephalosporin to initial antibiotic regimen
– Ceftazidime, cefepime
Intra-Abdominal Infections
Causes of Intra-abdominal
infections
• Usually caused by contamination of the
usually sterile abdomen with microbial
flora of the bowel
• Can be quite severe, leading to sepsis
and death
Bacterial Causes of Intraabdominal Infections
• Gram-negative bacilli
– Escherichia coli 32-61%
– Enterobacter spp. 8-26%
– Klebsiella spp.
6-26%
– Proteus spp.4-23%
Bacterial Causes of Intraabdominal Infections
• Gram-positive cocci
– Enterococci 18-24%
– Streptococci 6-55%
– Staphylococci 6-16%
Bacterial Causes of Intraabdominal Infections
• Anaerobic bacteria
– Bacteroides spp.
– Clostridium spp.
Treatment of Intra-abdominal
Infections
• Due to their polymicrobial nature, the
antibiotic regimen must be very broad
spectrum, including Gram-negative
bacilli, Gram-positive cocci, and
anaerobic bacteria
Treatment of Intra-Abdominal
Infections
 B-Lactam/-lactamase inhibitor
combinations (piperacillin/tazobactam)
• Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem)
• Aminoglycoside (gentamicin,
tobramycin, amikacin)
+ metronidazole
• Ciprofloxacin + metronidazole
Treatment of Intra-abdominal
Infections