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Stellar Astronomy Unit 2 Key Terms and Matching Definitions _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ accretion disk black hole brown dwarf Cepheid variable Chandrasekhar limit Doppler shift General Theory of Relativity giant molecular cloud (GMC) gravitational lensing gravitational waves gravity helium flash Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram hydrogen main sequence neutrino neutron star pulsar shell hydrogen burning supermassive black hole supernova thermonuclear fusion 1. The process in which smaller atoms combine to form a large atom. In the process, energy is released. 2. A disk of gas orbiting a star or black hole. 3. The most common element in the universe and the major component of stars. 4. The bending of light from a distance star or galaxy by the gravity of a closer star, galaxy or galaxy cluster. 5. Large black holes found at the center of most galaxies. 6. The oscillations of space caused the rapid movement of matter, such as a supernova or orbiting black holes. 7. An object whose gravity is so strong that the escape speed exceeds the speed of light. 8. A type of yellow supergiant pulsating star. 9. A starlike object that is not massive enough to ignite hydrogen fusion in its core. 10. A plot of the luminosity (or absolute magnitude) of stars versus their surface temp (or spectral type). 11. A very compact dense star composed almost entirely of neutrons. 12. The force with which all matter attracts all other matter. 13. A large cloud of interstellar gas and dust in which temperatures are low enough and densities are high enough for atoms to form into molecules. This is the birth place of new stars. 14. A rapidly rotating neutron star that emits a radio beam that sweeps by us many times a second. 15. The grouping of stars on a H-R diagram extending diagonally across the graph. Stars will spend most of their lives on this diagonal. 16. A subatomic particle with no electric charge that is produced in the core of the Sun and trillions pass through us undetected each second. 17. The nearly explosive beginning of helium fusion in the dense core of a solar-mass size red giant star. 18. A massive stellar explosion at the end of a large star’s life as a result of the core collapsing 19. Einstein’s theory of gravity which explains how matter warps spacetime. 20. The maximum mass of a white dwarf … around 1.4 solar masses. 21. The thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen in a shell surrounding the star’s core that occurs during the red giant phase when helium and heavier elements are fusing in the core. 22. The apparent change in wavelength of light due to the relative motion between the source and the observer along the line of sight.