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Chapter 1 Study Guide
Define the following terms:
1. sociological perspective - the influence of the social context on people’s behavior
2. society – group of people who share a culture and a territory
3. social location - group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job and income,
4. social integration – people’s ties to society, key factor in Durkheim’s theories about suicide – degree
to which people feel attached to their social groups
5. anomie – people become detached from society, loose from the norms that usually guide their
Know the following information:
6. the three factors that led to the formation of sociology as a science – Industrial revolution,
Imperialism, Scientific method
7. Herbert Spencer – fixed laws; “survival of the fittest”; social Darwinism; barbarians evolve to form
sophisticated humans
8. Auguste Comte – positivism; coined the term “sociology”; social dynamics
9. Karl Marx – conflict theory; classless society; basis of communism
10. Emile Durkheim – studied suicide rates; resolved that single, male protestants had higher suicide
rates due to lower social integration – connection to soceity
11. Durkheim’s theory on suicide – see previous
12. verstehen and how it relates to sociology – verstehen = to understand; Weber says that to
understand behavior you need someone who has been there and experienced the feelings and
emotions of the situation
13. symbolic interactionism – people evaluate their behavior by comparing themselves with others;
people attach meaning to symbols, w/o symbols we could not communicate
14. functional analysis – society as a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together; like
biological organism has interrelated tissues and organs that function together
15. conflict theory – Marx; class conflict key to all human history; small group that controls a large
group that has no power; constant struggle to determine who has the authority over things
16. applied sociology w/ example – use of sociology to solve problems at both the micro and macro
levels; solve problems in the work place; Investigate social problems
17. clinical sociology w/example – direct involvement of sociologist bringing about social change;
counseling, drug addicts
18. Briefly explain Durkheim’s argument on why Protestant, unmarried males have a higher suicide
rates. All about social integration. Single, male, protestants have lesser social ties to their communities - no
companion; male = more independent; Protestant = more freedom in church community.
19. Besides the Industrial Revolution, what two factors contributed to the emergence of sociology as a
Imperialism – encountering new cultures; had to learn to be empathetic and understand their way of life
Scientific Method – way to test questions about society