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61. George Washington’s service as president of the U.S. was an example
of civil duty. He accepted the presidency because he felt it was his
duty to serve the people, rather than retire to his plantation.
62. Alexander Hamilton: a leader of the Federalists, first Treasurer of the
United States, and creator of the Bank of the U.S. - killed in a duel by
the V. P. of the U. S. ELASTIC CLAUSE
63. The following Supreme Court cases, ruled by Chief Justice John
Marshall, helped to strengthen the power of the federal government
over the states.
• McCulloch v. Maryland(1819) Use of the elastic clause
• Gibbons v. Ogden(1824) Federal government regulates interstate
64. Free Enterprise is an economic system where citizens are free to
choose how to make a living, with very little government intrusion.
65. President Washington demonstrated the increased power of the
federal government by sending the army to stop the Whiskey Rebellion.
66. The first political parties were formed as a result of disagreements over
the power of the federal government between Hamilton and
67. George Washington’s Farewell Address advised the United States to
stay “neutral in its relations with other nations” and to avoid
“entangling alliances”.
68. President Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from
France in 1803.
69. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, became
the 3rd President of the United States and purchased the Louisiana
territory, doubling the size of the United States.
70. Marbury v. Madison was the 1803 Court decision that gave the
Supreme Court the power of judicial review - the right to determine
whether a law violates the Constitution. John Marshall’s ruling
established judicial review.
71. British impressment (forcing people to serve in a foreign country’s army
or navy) resulted in the Embargo Act, which banned trade with all
foreign countries and hurt the U.S. economy.
72. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and England.
Causes of the war included impressment, seizing of American ships,
and British encouragement of Indian attacks.
73. Andrew Jackson was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans during the
War of 1812, and later became the 7th president of the United States .
74. James Monroe: 5th President & author of the Monroe Doctrine, which
shut down the western hemisphere to European expansion or
75. Industrial Revolution: industry changed from the production of goods
at home (cottage industry) to factory production using powered
76. Robert Fulton’s steamboat improved transportation of goods and
people during the Industrial Revolution.
77. The telegraph, invented in 1835 by Samuel Morse (Morse Code), made
communication more efficient across great distances. It would
become an important tool in the North, during the Civil War.
78. Textile Mills - Thief: Samuel Slater
Importance: Led to large-scale
factory production of cloth through the use of power looms. Provided
new job opportunities for young women.
79. Interchangeable Parts
Inventor: Eli Whitney Importance: Allowed
factories to make products faster & cheaper. Parts could be replaced
easily if broken.
80. Cotton Gin – 1793 Inventor: Eli Whitney Importance: Allowed for fast
separation of cotton from seeds, greatly increasing profitability of
cotton. This made the use of slavery on plantations essential to cotton
farmers in the South.
81. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 made slavery illegal North of the 36°
30’ line. From 1820 to 1850, newly admitted states above the line
would be free states, while new states below the line would be slave
82. John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams, was the 6th president of the
United States, and the only one to serve in Congress after being
president. He was best known for opposing the spread of slavery.
83. Andrew Jackson was a self-made man & founder of the modern
Democratic Party. He was responsible for the Trail of Tears and he
supported the Union during the Nullification Crisis
84. Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828 as president led to increased
suffrage for white men in the United States.
85. Trail of Tears also known as the Indian Removal Act, forced the Indians
in the southeastern U.S. to move west of the Mississippi River.
86. Nullification is the idea of a state declaring a federal law
unconstitutional or not in force in that state.
87. Daniel Webster - a Massachusetts Congressman and Senator who
spoke for the North and the preservation of the Union.
88. John C. Calhoun was a South Carolina Congressman and Senator who
spoke for the South before and during the Civil War.
89. Henry Clay , nicknamed the Great Compromiser, was a powerful
Kentucky Congressman and Senator who proposed the Compromise
of 1850, and the American System.
90. Popular Sovereignty - the practice of having the authority to make
decisions for oneself.
91. Manifest Destiny is the belief that the United States should own all of
the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
92. Westward Expansion - Label the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Mormon
Trail, and California Trail.
93. Transcontinental Railroad
- sped up the process of Westward
Expansion as settlements and towns grew along the railroads.
94. Erie Canal - man made waterway that allowed for more efficient
movement of manufactured goods and raw materials from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.
95. The annexation of Texas created tension between the U.S. and
Mexico, resulting in the Mexican War. The U.S. victory resulted in the
acquisition of land known as the Mexican Cession.
96. Public education promotes knowledge and skills that open the doors
to opportunity. Horace Mann
97. Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention,
creating the Women’s Rights Movement in the United States.
98. The Temperance Movement was a campaign against the sale or
drinking of alcohol.
99. An abolitionist was a person who wanted to end slavery in the United
States. Abolish - to get rid of.
100. The Compromise of 1850 would try to solve the divisions between
free and slave states or territories.