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Transcript
```RL-series circuits
Math 2410
Spring 2011
Consider the RL-series circuit shown in the figure below, which contains a counterclockwise
current I = I(t), a resistance R, and inductance L, and a generator that supplies a voltage V (t)
when the switch is closed. Kirchhoff’s voltage law satates that, “the algebraic sum of all voltage
R
V (t)
I = I(t)
L
drops around an electric circuit is zero.” Applied to this RL-series circuit, the statement translates
to the fact that the current I = I(t) in the circuit satisfies the first-order linear differential equation
LI˙ + RI = V (t),
where I˙ denotes the derivative of I with respect to t. Substituting
obtain our usual form of a first-order nonhomogeneous equation:
dI
dt
for I˙ and dividing by L, we
R
1
dI
+ I = V (t).
dt
L
L
For convenience, we present an index of units and symbols commonly used in this theory.
Quantity
Unit
Symbol
Resistance
ohm
R
Inductance
Capacitance
henry
L
C
Voltage
volt
V
Current
ampere
I
Charge
coulomb
Q
Time
seconds
sec
Table 1: Table of Units
Battery
Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor
Switch
Table 2: Symbols of Circuit Elements
Exercises
1. Use the method of integration factors to calculate what the general solution is for this
differential equation.
2. In an RL-series circuit, L = 4 henries, R = 5 ohms, V = 8 volts, and I(0) = 0 amperes.
Find the current at the end of 0.1 seconds. What will the current be after a very long time?
3. Assume that the voltage V (t) is given by V0 sin(ωt), where V0 and ω are given constants.
Find the solution of the differential equation above subject to the initial condition I(0) = I0 .
4. Given that L = 3 henries, R = 6 ohms, V (t) = 3 sin(t), and I(0) = 10 amperes, compute
the value of the current at any time t.
References
[1] N. Finizio and G. Ladas, Ordinary Differential Equations with Modern Applications, 3rd
edition, Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing, Boston, 1999.
```
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