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Transcript
UCL INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY
ARCLG222: THEMES IN URBAN ARCHAEOLOGY
COURSE HANDBOOK: 30 credits (2012-2013)
Co-ordinators: Dominic Perring &Tim Williams
Rooms:
Email:
Tel:
413 & 602
[email protected]
[email protected]
DP - 020 7679 4778
TW - 020 7679 4722
CONTENTS
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1
Aims, objectives and outcomes of the course ........................................................................ 1
Background .......................................................................................................................... 1
Aims ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Objectives ............................................................................................................................. 1
Learning outcomes ............................................................................................................... 1
Programme structure ............................................................................................................. 2
Teaching schedule ................................................................................................................ 2
Workload .............................................................................................................................. 2
Prerequisites ......................................................................................................................... 2
Week-by-week summary ........................................................................................................ 3
Assessment .............................................................................................................................. 4
Methods of assessment ..................................................................................................... 4
Submission ....................................................................................................................... 4
Grading ............................................................................................................................. 5
Timescale for return of marked coursework to students ................................................... 5
Word-length ..................................................................................................................... 5
Re-submission of coursework........................................................................................... 6
Return of coursework ....................................................................................................... 6
General information & Resources......................................................................................... 7
Basic introductory texts ........................................................................................................ 7
Online resources ................................................................................................................... 8
Moodle ............................................................................................................................. 8
UCL World Archaeology Research Group ....................................................................... 8
Detailed syllabus ..................................................................................................................... 9
TERM I ................................................................................................................................ 9
Session 1 (lecture): Approaches to urban archaeology (Dominic Perring & Tim
Williams) ...................................................................................................................... 9
Session 2 (seminar): Definitions (Dominic Perring) ................................................... 10
Session 3 (lecture): New theories on urban origins – the Mesopotamian city (Mark
Altaweel) .................................................................................................................... 11
Session 4 (seminar): Complex Systems as Urban Systems (Mark Altaweel) .............. 12
Session 5 (lecture): Rise and fall of Harappan Civilisation (Dorian Fuller) ................ 13
Session 6 (lecture): Case study: The Knossos Urban Landscape Project (Todd
Whitelaw) ................................................................................................................... 14
Session 7 (lecture): Current research on the Greek polis (John Bintliff) ..................... 16
Session 8 (lecture): Urbanisation and Colonisation in the Mediterranean in the early
first millennium BC (Corinna Riva) ........................................................................... 17
Session 9 (lecture): Buddhism and the development of the city in the sub-continent
(Julia Shaw) ................................................................................................................ 19
Session 10 (lecture): Case study: Urban archaeology in China (Wang Tao) ............... 20
Session 11 (lecture): Urbanisation and empire: the case-study of Rome (Dominic
Perring) ....................................................................................................................... 21
Session 12 (seminar): Power and patronage in the Roman city (Dominic Perring) ..... 23
Session 13 (lecture): Town planning (Stephen Marshall) ........................................... 24
Session 14 (lecture): Case study: Late-Saxon towns of Wessex (Andrew Reynolds) . 25
Session 15 (lecture): Navigating the Roman city: studies in urban design, connectivity
and movement (Dominic Perring)............................................................................... 25
Session 16 (seminar): The foundation of Rome (Corinna Riva & Dominic Perring) .. 27
Session 17 (lecture) Case study: Feeding the town (Mark Maltby)............................. 29
Session 18 (student led seminar): The topography and society of Pompeii ................ 30
Urban Archaeology
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Session 19 (lecture): The archaeology of urban houses and households (Dominic
Perring) ....................................................................................................................... 31
Session 20 (student led seminar): Houses of Roman Pompeii .................................... 33
TERM II ............................................................................................................................. 34
Session 21 (lecture): Town walls and the urban fortress (Tim Williams) ................... 34
Session 22 (Student led seminar): Public space and building in the ancient city ........ 36
Session 23 (lecture): The urban economy (Dominic Perring) ..................................... 39
Session 24 (lecture): Case Study: A biography of Roman and early medieval London
(Dominic Perring) ....................................................................................................... 41
Session 25 (lecture): Town and Country in Roman Britain and beyond (Dominic
Perring) ....................................................................................................................... 43
Session 26 (student led seminar): The archaeology of the port of London ................. 44
Session 27 (lecture): The archaeology of suburbs (Andrew Reynolds) ....................... 45
Session 28 (student led seminar): Industry and trade in London ................................. 46
Session 29 (lecture): The urban infrastructure (Tim Williams) ................................... 48
Session 30 (lecture): Case study - Urban populations as consumers (Martin Pitts)..... 52
Session 31 (lecture): Populating the city - the study of urban mortality and population
movement (Natasha Powers) ...................................................................................... 53
Session 32 (seminar): Death and the city (Dominic Perring) ...................................... 53
Session 33 (lecture): Christianity and the City (Dominic Perring) .............................. 54
Session 34 (lecture): Case study - Green cities? Environment and urbanism in the
humid neotropics (Elizabeth Graham) ........................................................................ 56
Session 35 (lecture): Continuity and Discontinuity - cities between late antiquity and
the early medieval world (Dominic Perring) ............................................................... 57
Session 36 (lecture): Early Urbanism, Capitals and Semi-Autonomous Cities in Arid
West Africa: the Middle Niger (Kevin Macdonald) .................................................... 59
Session 37 (lecture): Identities and communities - the representation of identity,
ethnicities & neighbourhoods in the Islamic city (Tim Williams) .............................. 60
Session 38 (lecture): Case study - Changing and Changed Communities in 19th century
cities (Hanna Steyne) .................................................................................................. 63
Session 39 (lecture): Urban archaeology and the contemporary city (Tim Williams) . 64
Session 40 (seminar): Archaeology and conflict (Dominic Perring & Tim Williams) 66
Assessment tasks ................................................................................................................... 69
Assignment One: Submission deadline: 30th November, 2012 .......................................... 69
Assignment Two: Submission deadline: 22nd March, 2013 ............................................... 69
Essays .................................................................................................................................... 69
Suggested topics: ................................................................................................................ 69
Examples of period and/or geographically framed topics: .................................................. 70
Additional information ........................................................................................................ 71
Communication .................................................................................................................. 71
Attendance .......................................................................................................................... 71
Libraries and other resources .............................................................................................. 71
Information for intercollegiate and interdepartmental students .......................................... 71
Health and Safety ............................................................................................................... 71
Feedback ............................................................................................................................ 71
Urban Archaeology
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INTRODUCTION
This is the course handbook for ARCGL222 Themes in Urban Archaeology. It outlines the
aims and objectives, structure and content of the course. It is also available on the Institute
web-site.
This Handbook should be used alongside the MA/MSc Handbook (also available on the
Institute web-site), which contains information about all MA and MSc degrees, and options
within them, being taught this year. The MA/MSc Handbook gives essential information on a
range of topics, from enrolment to guidance on the dissertation, so students should ensure that
they read it carefully. Distributed along with the MA/MSc Handbook are maps of the College
precinct and surrounding area of London, the complete MA/MSc teaching timetable and the
list of Personal Tutors to MA and MSc students. Students should consult this list to find out
who is to be their Personal Tutor for the year, and students should make contact with them
soon after their arrival to arrange a meeting.
If students have queries about the organisation, objectives, structure, content or assessment of
the course, they should consult the Course Co-ordinator.
AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES OF THE COURSE
Background
The course will cover approaches to the archaeology of urbanism, from its genesis to the
medieval period. Emphasis will be on important theoretical issues, including identities and
institutions; cities and empires; the architecture of power; town planning and urban
morphology; urban economies; and the relevance of urban archaeology to 21st century
communities.
Aims



Provide a detailed introduction to theories of urbanism.
Appreciate the significance of the urbanism in the development of human society,
from its genesis to the medieval period.
Consider, in thematic and synthetic ways, major issues of human society in urban
centres, including identities and institutions; cities and empire; the architecture of
power; town planning and urban morphology; urban economies.
Objectives
On successful completion of this course a student should:



Have a sound grasp of theories of urbanism.
Appreciate the importance of critical approaches to archaeological and textual
sources within the context of urban archaeology.
Be able to organize and conduct research in urban archaeology
Learning outcomes
By the end of the course students should be able to demonstrate:


Understanding and critical awareness of a range of primary and secondary sources.
Written and oral skills in analysis and presentation.
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
Appreciation of, and ability to apply, methods and theories of archaeological and
historical analysis.
PROGRAMME STRUCTURE
Teaching schedule
This course is timetabled in the first two terms, although assessed work is scheduled for
submission in the third term.
The course is taught through lectures and seminars. In addition, at a number of fieldtrips will
be arranged to give students greater familiarity with the methods and techniques covered in
the course.
Seminars have weekly recommended reading, which students will be expected to have done,
to be able fully to follow and to actively contribute to discussion.
Lectures will be held on Mondays: 2.00-4.00pm in Room 410 (Institute of Archaeology).
Seminars and discussion sessions will take place on Thursdays in Room 209 (Institute of
Archaeology), 4.00-6.00pm.
You will be asked to prepare one seminar discussion during each term. Further details will be
announced.
Site visits will be undertaken during terms, depending upon the availability of suitable
excavations, etc. The arrangements for these will be discussed with the class.
Except in the case of illness, the 70% minimum attendance requirement applies to lectures
and seminars on the course. Field trips are optional.
Workload
There will be 80 hours of seminars and lectures, as well as site visits. Students will be
expected to undertake background reading for the course, plus preparing for and producing
assessed work.
Prerequisites
This course does not have any prerequisites.
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WEEK-BY-WEEK SUMMARY
Students should check their e-mail frequently as any changes to arrangements and other
messages will be communicated by this means.
White = Lecture
Green = Student presentations
Blue = Discussions
Orange = Case studies
Contributors (UCL, Institute of Archaeology unless otherwise indicated)
AR = Prof. Andrew Reynolds
CR = Dr Corinna Riva
DF = Dr Dorian Fuller
DP = Dr Dominic Perring
EG = Prof. Elizabeth Graham
JB = Prof. John Bintliff (Univ. of Leiden)
JS = Dr Julia Shaw
HS = Hanna Steyne (Wessex Archaeology)
KM = Prof. Kevin MacDonald
MA = Dr Mark Altaweel
MM = Dr Mark Maltby (Bournemouth Univ.)
MP = Dr Martin Pitts (Univ. of Exeter)
NP = Natasha Powers (Museum of London)
SM = Dr Stephen Marshall (UCL Bartlett)
TDW = Tim Williams
TW = Prof. Todd Whitelaw
WT = Dr WANG, Tao (Sothebys, New York)
TERM I: 24th September - 14th December, 2012
3. New theories on urban origins: the
Mesopotamian city (MA – 8/10)
4. Complex Systems as Urban Systems (MA –
11/10)
5. Rise and fall of Harappan Civilisation
(DF – 15/10)
6. The Knossos Urban Landscape Project (TW
– 18/10)
7. Current research on the Greek polis
(JB – 22/10)
8. Urbanisation and Colonisation in the
Mediterranean in the early first millennium BC
(CR – 25/10)
9. Buddhism and the development of
the city in the sub-continent (JS –
29/10)
10.Urban archaeology in China (WT – 1/11)
Date to be confirmed
Urban systems
2. Definitions: describing cities (DP – 4/10)
The idea of
the city
1. Approaches to urban archaeology
(DP/TDW – 1/10)
READING WEEK
12. Power, patronage and urban institutions
(DP 15/11)
13. Town planning (SM – 19/11)
14. Late-Saxon towns of Wessex (AR – 22/11)
15. Navigating the Roman city: studies
in urban transportation, connectivity,
procession and movement (DP 26/11)
16. The foundation of Rome (DP & CR – 29/11)
17. Feeding the town (MM 3/12)
18. The topography and society of Roman
Pompeii (6/12)
19. The archaeology of urban
households (DP – 10/12)
20. Houses of Roman Pompeii (13/12)
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The urban fabric
11. Urbanisation and empire: the casestudy of Rome (DP – 12/11)
TERM II: 7th January – 22nd March, 2013
22. Public architecture in the ancient city
(10/1)
23. The urban economy (DP – 14/1)
24. An archaeological biography of Roman
and early medieval London (DP 17/1)
25. Town and Country (DP – 21/1)
26. The port of London (28/1)
27. The archaeology of suburbs (AR –
28/1)
28. Industry and production in London (31/1)
29. The urban infrastructure (TDW –
25/12)
30. Urban populations as consumers (MP –
7/2)
People in the city
21. Town walls and the urban fortress
(TDW – 7/1/13)
READING WEEK
32. Death and the city (DP - 21/2)
33. Christianity and the city (DP - 4/2)
34. Green cities? Environment and urbanism
in the humid neotropics (EG – 28/2)
35. Continuity and Discontinuity (DP –
11/3)
36. Early Urbanism, Capitals and SemiAutonomous Cities in Arid West Africa: the
Middle Niger (KM - 7/3)
37. Identities and communities in the
Islamic city (TDW – 4/3)
38. Changing and Changed Communities in
19th century cities (HS – 14/3)
39. Urban archaeology and the
contemporary city (TDW – 18/3)
40. Archaeology and conflict in the city
(DP/TDW - 21/3)
ASSESSMENT
Methods of assessment
The course is assessed by means of two pieces of coursework, each of 4,000 words: each
piece contributes 50% to the final grade for this course unit.
The topics and deadlines for each assessment are specified below. If students are unclear
about the nature of an assignment, they should contact the Course Co-ordinator. The Course
Co-ordinator will be willing to discuss an outline of their approach to the assessment,
provided this is planned suitably in advance of the submission date.
The course comprises 30 credits towards your total degree.
Submission
Students are required to submit hard copy of all coursework to the course co-ordinator’s
pigeon hole via the Red Essay Box at Reception by the appropriate deadline. The coursework
must be stapled to a completed blue coversheet (available from the web, from outside Room
411A or from the INST ARCH library).
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Changing identities
31. Populating the city (NP – 18/2)
Please note that new, stringent penalties for late submission were introduced UCL-wide from
2010-11. Late submission will be penalized in accordance with these regulations unless
permission has been granted and an Extension Request Form (ERF) completed.
Date-stamping is via ‘Turnitin’ (see below), so in addition to submitting hard copy, students
must also submit their work to Turnitin by midnight on the day of the deadline for each piece
of work.
It is essential that students upload all parts of their coursework to Turnitin (ie including the
bibliography and images). This ensures that a complete electronic copy of all work is
available in case an essay goes astray. Please be assured that markers will not include these
additional elements when checking word counts.
Students who encounter technical problems submitting their work to Turnitin should email
the nature of the problem to [email protected] in advance of the deadline in order that
the Turnitin Advisers can notify the Course Co-ordinator that it may be appropriate to waive
the late submission penalty.
If there is any other unexpected crisis on the submission day, students should telephone or
(preferably) e-mail the Course Co-ordinator, and follow this up with a completed ERF
The penalties for late submission without permission are outlined below:



The full allocated mark will be reduced by 5 percentage points for the first working day
after the deadline for the submission of the coursework or dissertation.
The mark will be reduced by a further 10 percentage points if the coursework or
dissertation is submitted during the following six calendar days.
Providing the coursework is submitted by the last day of Term 3, but had not been
submitted within seven days of the deadline for the submission of the coursework, it will
be recorded as zero but the assessment will be considered to be complete.
Students should note that these regulations will in most cases result in failing this element and
thus potentially failing the whole degree if a single item of assessed work is submitted more
than 7 days late.
Grading
The grading system for coursework is set out in the MA/MSc Handbook . The mark given by
the initial examiner (prior to return) is a provisional assessment for the student's guidance, and
may be modified after assessment by the second internal examiner or by the External
Examiner.
Timescale for return of marked coursework to students
You can expect to receive your marked work within four calendar weeks of the official
submission deadline. If you do not receive your work within this period, or a written
explanation from the marker, you should notify the INST ARCH’s Academic Administrator,
Judy Medrington.
Word-length
Strict new regulations with regard to word-length were introduced UCL-wide with effect
from the 2010-11 session. If your work is found to be between 10% and 20% longer than the
official limit you mark will be reduced by 10%, subject to a minimum mark of a minimum
Urban Archaeology
Page 5
pass, assuming that the work merited a pass. If your work is more than 20% over-length, a
mark of zero will be recorded.
The following should not be included in the word-count: bibliography, appendices, and
tables, graphs and illustrations and their captions.
Re-submission of coursework
Students are not normally permitted to re-write and re-submit essays in order to try to
improve their marks. However, in exceptional circumstances and with the approval of their
Course Co-ordinator, they may if they wish, submit an additional piece of coursework (on a
new topic) to substitute for the first piece of written coursework submitted for their course.
Return of coursework
All marked coursework must be returned to the Course Co-ordinator within two weeks of its
return to students, so that it can be second-marked, and is available to the Board of
Examiners. Because assessed work forms part of the student's permanent academic record, it
needs to be retained until well after the completion of the degree. If work is not returned to
the Course Co-ordinator, the student will be deemed not to have completed the course.
Students are strongly advised always to keep a copy of all work, and to make a copy for
retention of all work after it has been assessed and commented upon by the first examiner, if
they wish to make future reference to the comments on the work.
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GENERAL INFORMATION & RESOURCES
All books in this general list are in UCL holdings: some in the main library (usually under
History and Ancient History), some in the Bartlett, most in the Institute of Archaeology.
Whilst most works cited in the detailed syllabus are also in UCL holdings, some listed under
further reading may still be on order for the library (and/or are available on-line).
Please note that the bibliographies have been heavily weighted towards English language
texts. Additional readings can be recommended for those students interested in pursuing the
foreign language literature on the subject.
Basic introductory texts
There are no specific “text books” on urban archaeology. As a preliminary reading list, we
would suggest some good general books are:
Carver, M O H (1993) Arguments in stone: archaeological research and the European town
in the First Millennium. Oxford: Oxbow
Laurence, R, Esmonde Cleary, S, & Sears, G (2011) The City in the Roman West, c.250 BCc.AD 250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
To explore a range of issues, perspectives and chronologies, try:
Allison, P M (ed) (1999) The archaeology of household activities. London: Routledge
Bennison, A K and Gascoigne, A (eds) (2007) Cities in the pre-modern Islamic world: the
urban impact of religion, state and society. London: Routledge
Clark, J, Cotton, J, Hall, J, Sherris, R, and Swain, H (eds) (2008) Londinium and beyond:
essays on Roman London and its hinterland for Harvey Sheldon. York: CBA
Research Report 156
Laurence, R (2007) Roman Pompeii: space and society. (2nd edition) London: Routledge
Marcus, J and Sabloff, J A (eds) (2008) The Ancient City: New Perspectives on Urbanism in
the Old and New World. Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research press
Mieroop, M van de, 1999 The Ancient Mesopotamian City (2nd edn). Oxford: Oxford
University Press
Nevett, L C (2010) Domestic Space in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press
Owen, S and Preston, L (eds) (2009) Inside the City in the Greek World. Oxbow Books
Parkins, H (ed) (1997) Roman urbanism: beyond the consumer city. London: Routledge
Parkins, H and Smith, C (eds) (1998) Trade, traders and the ancient city. London: Routledge
Rykwert, J (1976) The Idea of a Town: The Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and
the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Sit, V F S (2010) Chinese City and Urbanism: Evolution and Development. Singapore: World
Scientific Publishing
Wallace-Hadrill, A (1994) Houses and society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Princeton:
Princeton UP
Wallace-Hadrill, A (2011) Herculaneum: Past and Future. Frances Lincoln
Of broader interest, and using urban archaeological data to develop a narrative:
Beard, M (2008) Pompeii: the life of a Roman town. London: Profile Books
Urban Archaeology
Page 7
On the methodological/approaches side, look at:
Carver, M O H (2009) Archaeological Investigation. London: Routledge
Roskams, S (2001) Excavation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Online resources
Moodle
Access via http://moodle.ucl.ac.uk/
The Moodle MAS pages are currently under development – more information as the course
progresses.
UCL World Archaeology Research Group
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/research/world
The Institute of Archaeology is home to unparalleled global expertise, which builds upon over
70 years of agenda-setting activity. The Institute's World Archaeology section provides a
vibrant and progressive teaching and research environment for social and cultural
archaeological studies situated at the cutting edge of contemporary social science. As well as
providing a forum for the cross-fertilization of ideas and collaborative activities between
academic staff, post-doctoral scholars, research students, and an extensive honorary
membership comprising scholars and professionals from around the globe, the World
Archaeology section hosts an unmatched range of seminar series and conferences, and a
steady stream of visiting scholars.
World-class scholars engage in research and outreach activity that seeks to address
fundamental issues relating to the development of human societies. Archaeology is uniquely
placed to investigate human behaviour in long-term perspective in its many guises, situations,
periods and places, and the Institute of Archaeology is at the forefront of the contemporary
development of the discipline. The World Archaeology section aims to consolidate its impact
and breadth by attracting world-class teachers, researchers and students in its mission to place
the long-term study of human societies at the forefront of social science.
Over 30 full-time academic staff in the section engage in field, network-based and individual
research which contributes to many aspects of knowledge of the human past ranging from
human origins, the development of empires, the uniqueness of local societies and the
emergence of the modern world. Broad comparative approaches cover deep time and all
subsequent periods and aspects of the human past. Research activity takes place across the
globe, in the UK and mainland Europe, Africa, Central and South-west Asia, the Middle East,
the Far East, Pacific, North, Central and South America and elsewhere.
Academic staff, post-doctoral scholars and research students are engaged in research clusters
pursuing the understanding of topics of global significance including rural and urban
sustainability, wellbeing, social organisation and developing perceptions of local, regional
and global environments. Considerations of important issues of art, material culture, social
landscapes, literacy and social theory are addressed in order to provide critical understandings
of pattern and process in human cultures in long-term perspective.
Urban Archaeology
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DETAILED SYLLABUS
The following is an outline for the course as a whole, and identifies essential and
supplementary readings relevant to each session. Information is provided as to where in the
UCL library system individual readings are available (Institute of Archaeology library unless
otherwise stated); their location and Teaching Collection (TC) number, and status (whether
out on loan) can also be accessed on the eUCLid computer catalogue system. Copies of
individual articles and chapters identified as essential reading are in the Teaching Collection
in the Institute Library (where permitted by copyright).
Supplementary reading is intended as wider guidance on the topic, if you become interested in
it, use it for essays or dissertations, or after you leave the Institute. You are not expected to
read all of this, but personal initiative is expected to supplement the essential reading. Where
seminar topics follow on from the preceding week’s lecture additional reading suggestions do
not appear. Where they explore a different issue, additional suggested reading may be listed.
TERM I
Session 1 (lecture): Approaches to urban archaeology (Dominic Perring & Tim
Williams)
Synopsis: This session sets boundaries to the subject of our study, asking the key question:
what do we mean by urban archaeology? Is it a subject of academic study, or an area of
professional practice? And what is the relationship between archaeological study of the city
and other fields of urban study (involving geographers, historians, sociologists, architects, arthistorians, etc.)? What are the research implications of considering cities and their
archaeology apart from their wider cultural and historical circumstances? This session will
introduce some of the ideas and sources that have framed recent archaeological study of the
city, based on a brisk and partial historiography of the subject. This will in turn help us to
define some of the key topics and themes with which we wish to engage as the course
progresses, looking at both theoretical and methodological perspectives. We will also provide
an overview of how the course has been structured, explaining some of the particular areas of
strength and weakness introduced by the research interests of those contributing to the course.
Key reading:
Carver, M O H (1993) Arguments in Stone: Archaeological Research and the European Town
in the First Millenium, Oxbow Monograph 29: Oxford [INST ARCH DA CAR]
Horden, P and Purcell, N (2000) The corrupting sea: a study of Mediterranean history.
Oxford, see Chapter 4: Ecology and the Larger Settlement, 89-122 [INST ARCH
DAG 200 HOR; Issue Desk IOA HOR 6; Main HISTORY 82c HOR]
Laurence, R (1997) ‘Writing the Roman metropolis’, in H M Parkins (ed) Roman Urbanism,
beyond the consumer city. Routledge: London and New York, 1-20 [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 64 PAR]
Further reading:
Abrams, P and Wrigley, E A (eds) (1978) Towns in Societies, Essays in Economic History
and Historical Sociology. Cambridge (especially introduction by Abrams) [Main
HISTORY 82bf ABR; SSEES Misc XXII TOW]
Braudel, F (1981-4) Civilization and Capitalism (3 vols). London [SSEES Misc.IX.d.1 BRA]
Calvino, I (1997) Invisible Cities (transl. W Weaver) [Main LITERATURE F13L 200 CAL;
Bartlett ARCHITECTURE A 20 CAL]
Urban Archaeology
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Cunliffe, B and Osborne R (eds) (2005) Mediterranean Urbanization 800–600 BC.
Proceedings of the British Academy 126 [INST ARCH: Issue Desk & DAG 100
OSB]
Carver, M O H (1987)Underneath English Towns. London [INST ARCH DAA 100 CAR]
Castells, M (1977) The Urban Question: A Marxist Approach. London [Science
GEOGRAPHY H 48 CAS; Bartlett TOWN PLANNING G 5 CAS];
Favro, D (1999) ‘Meaning and Experience: Urban History from Antiquity to the Early
Modern Period’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 58.3, 364-373
Gottdiener, M and Budd, L (2005) Key concepts in urban studies. Sage: London [Science
GEOGRAPHY H 48 GOT; Bartlett TOWN PLANNING A 30 GOT]
Grant, E (ed.) (1986) Central Places, Archaeology and History. Sheffield [INST ARCH DAA
100 Qto GRA]
LeGates, RT and Stout, F (2003) The City Reader (3rd edition), Routledge [Science
GEOGRAPHY H 48 LEG; Bartlett TOWN PLANNING A 30 LEG]
Rykwert, J (2000) The Seduction of Place: The History and Future of the City. Oxford
University Press: Oxford [Science GEOGRAPHY H 48 RYK]
Weber, M (1958) The City, Glencoe, Ill. (transl. of 1921 Die Stadt) [Science
ANTHROPOLOGY D 10 WEB; Bartlett TOWN PLANNING A 30 WEB]
Session 2 (seminar): Definitions (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: The issue of how to define and describe urban settlement has attracted considerable
attention. Are there functions and features that are exclusively urban, and that can be used to
define and describe urban status? In many societies urban status is essentially a legal matter,
conferring rights and privileges. Historical sources can be used to both identify and classify
such cities. Scale and density of population is another defining criteria, and where the data
exist allows us to describe rank-order and hierarchies of urban settlement. The economic
functions of towns can also be used to similar ends: based on the presence of mints, market
places and specialist industrial production. Cities can also be described from characteristic
architectural features (usually the product of legal and political institutions): such as
cathedrals, town walls, market buildings (fora and agora), and so on. Although this is now
something of a tired and inconclusive debate (since towns mean different things to different
people at different times, and there is no universally applicable set of defining criteria), a
review of key texts on the subject gives us the opportunity to explore different perceptions on
the subject of what it means to be urban.
Key reading:
Smith M L (2003) ‘Introduction: The Social Construction of Ancient Cities’ in M L Smith
(ed), The Social Construction of Ancient Cities. Routledge, 1-36 [INST ARCH BC
100 SMI]
Carter H (1983) An Introduction to Urban Historical Geography. London, 3-9 [Science
GEOGRAPHY H 48 CAR]
Gates, C (2003) Ancient Cities: The archaeology of urban life in the ancient near east and
Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge. Chapter 1 [INST ARCH DBA 100 GAT]
Hansen M H (2000) ‘Introduction. The Concepts of City-State and City-State Culture’ in M
H Hansen (ed) A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures. Copenhagen, 1134 [INST ARCH BC 100 Qto HAN; Main ANCIENT HISTORY QUARTOS A 72
HAN]
Mumford, L (1961) The city in history: its origins, its transformations and its prospects.
Harmondsworth [Science GEOGRAPHY H 48 MUM; Bartlett TOWN PLANNING
E 5 MUM]
Urban Archaeology
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Further reading:
Biddle, M (1976) ‘The Towns’, in D Wilson (ed.), The Archaeology of Anglo Saxon England.
London, 99-150 [Issue Desk IOA WIL 11]
Brandes, W (1999) ‘Byzantine Cities in the Seventh and Eighth centuries – different sources,
different histories?’, in G P Brogiolo and B Ward-Perkins, The Idea and Ideal of the
Town between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Brill: Leiden, 25-57 [INST
ARCH DA 180 BRO]
Childe V G (1950) ‘The Urban Revolution’, Town Planning Review 21, 3-17. Reprinted in R
T Le Gates and F Stout 2003 The City Reader (3rd edition), Routledge [Science
GEOGRAPHY H 48 LEG; Bartlett TOWN PLANNING A 30 LEG]
Emberling G (2003) ‘Urban Social Transformations and the Problem of the “First City”’, in
M L Smith The Social Construction of Ancient Cities. Routledge, 254ff [INST ARCH
BC 100 SMI]
Giles, K and Dyer, C (2007) 'Introduction', in K Giles & C Dyer (eds). Town and country in
the Middle Age: contrasts, contacts and interconnects 1100-1500. Leeds: Maney, 1-5
[INST ARCH DAA 190 GIL]
Mieroop, M van de (1999) The Ancient Mesopotamian City (2nd edn). Oxford University
Press: Oxford. Chapter 1 City and Society, 1-22 [INST ARCH DBB 200 MIE;
ANCIENT HISTORY D 5 MIE]
Mumford, L (1938) The culture of cities. New York/London [Bartlett TOWN PLANNING E
5 MUM; Science GEOGRAPHY H 48 MUM]
Perring, D (ed) (2002) Town and country in England: frameworks for archaeological
research. York: CBA 1-32 [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 134]
Russo, D G (1998) Town origins and development in early England, c.400-950 AD. London:
Greenwood [INST ARCH DAA 180 RUS]
Session 3 (lecture): New theories on urban origins – the Mesopotamian city
(Mark Altaweel)
Synopsis: In this lecture we will examine some of the earliest developments of urban life in
the Near East, specifically in northern and southern Mesopotamia, during the Uruk period.
The lecture will cover how cities in these different regions grew rapidly, while also affecting
the surrounding urban landscapes. We will investigate some of the reasons scholars have
given for the rise of these early cities and what may have motivated people and societies to
aggregate into larger settlements. We also examine debates concerning where and how urban
systems first arose in Mesopotamia.
Key reading:
Adams, R M and Nissen, H J (1972) The Uruk Countryside: The Natural Setting of Urban
Societies. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago [INST ARCH ADA 10]
Adams, R M (1981) Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the
Central Floodplain of the Euphrates. University of Chicago Press: Chicago [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY QUARTOS D 58 ADA]
Algaze, G (2008) Ancient Mesopotamia at the Dawn of Civilization: The Evolution of an
Urban Landscape. The University of Chicago Press, London. [INST ARCH DBA
100 ALG]
Falconer, S and Savage, S (1995) ‘Heartlands and hinterlands: Alternative trajectories of early
urbanization in Mesopotamia and the Southern Levant’, American Antiquity 60(1),
37-58
Oates, J. and Oates, D (1997) ‘An open gate: Cities of the fourth millennium BC (Tell Brak
1997)’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 7.2, 287-307
Urban Archaeology
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Oates, J. et al. (2007) ‘Early Mesopotamian urbanism: a new view from the North’, Antiquity
81(313), 585-600.
Stein, G (1999) Rethinking World-Systems: Diasporas, Colonies, and Interaction in Uruk
Mesopotamia. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson [INST ARCH DBB 100
STE]
Further reading:
Aqrawi, A A M (2001) ‘Strategraphic signatures of climatic change during the Holocene
evolution of the Tigris-Euphrates Delta, Lower Mesopotamia’, Global and Planetary
Change 28, 267-283
Finkbeiner, U (1991) Uruk: Kampagne 35-37, 1982-1984: Die archäologische
Oberfldchenuntersuchung. Ausgrabungenin Uruk-Warka 4. P. von Zabern: Mainz
[INST ARCH DBB Qto Series URU END 4]
Hole, F (1994) ‘Environmental instabilities and urban origins’, in G Stein and M S Rothman,
(eds.) Chiefdoms and Early States in the Near East, Prehistory Press: Madison, 121–
152 [Issue Desk IOA STE 6]
Pollock, S (2001) ‘The Uruk period in Southern Mesopotamia’, in M Rothman (ed.) Uruk
Mesopotamia and Its Neighbors. SAR Press: Santa Fe, 191-232 [INST ARCH DBB
100 ROT; Issue Desk IOA ROT]
Pournelle, J (2003) Marshland of Cities: Deltaic Landscape and the Evolution of Early
Mesopotamian Civilization. PhD. Dissertation. University of California: San Diego.
[www.environ.sc.edu/sites/default/files/.../dissertation_pournelle.pdf]
Session 4 (seminar): Complex Systems as Urban Systems (Mark Altaweel)
Synopsis: This session will look at complex systems theory and how it is being used today in
research on urban systems. Both traditional and new ideas are being applied within this
theoretical approach in order to understand why urban growth and decline occur in given
regions. We examine the Uruk period as well as modern cities as examples of how this theory
can be applied to better understand urban transformations.
Key reading:
Adams, R M (2001) ‘Complexity in archaic states’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
20, 345-360
Algaze, G (2001) ‘Initial social complexity in Southwester Asia’ Current Anthropology 42.2,
199-233.
Batty, M (2005) Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, AgentBased Models, and Fractals. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA [TOWN PLANNING A 10
BAT]
Bentley, R A, Maschner, H D G (2008) ‘Complexity theory’, in R A Bentley and H D G
Maschner (eds.) Handbook of Archaeological Theories, AltiMira Press: Lanham,
245-272 [INST ARCH AG BEN]
Dearden, J and Wilson, A G (2012) ‘The relationship of dynamic entropy maximising and
agent-based approaches in urban modelling’, in A Heppenstall, A T Crooks, L See
and M Batty (eds.) Agent-Based Models of Geographic Systems. Springer, London,
705-720 [ http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/ABM.pdf]
Wilson, A G (2012) ‘Geographic modeling for archaeology and history: Two case studies’
Advances in Complex Systems 15(1-2). DOI: 10.1142/S0219525911003384.
Urban Archaeology
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Further reading:
Chandler, T (1987) Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. Edward
Mellon, Lampeter, UK. [UCL libraries only hold 1974 edition of 3000 Years of
Urban Growth = Main GEOGRAPHY H 48 CHA]
Harris, B and Wilson, A G (1978) ‘Equilibrium values and dynamics of attractiveness terms
in production-constrained spatial interaction models’, Environment and Planning A
10, 371-388
McNeil, W H (2000) ‘Information and transportation nets in world history’, in R A
Denemark, J Friedman, B K Gills and G Modelski (eds.) World System History: The
Social Science of Long-Term Change. Routledge, London, 201-215 [INST ARCH BC
100 DEN]
Wilson, A G (1967) ‘A statistical theory of spatial distribution models’, Transportation
Research 1, 253-269
Wilson, A G (1970) Entropy in Urban and Regional Modelling. Pion: London. [Science
ENGINEERING CP 23 WIL & GEOGRAPHY H 49 WIL]
Wilson, A G (2008) ‘Boltzmann, Lotka and Volterra and spatial structural evolution: an
integrated methodology for some dynamical systems’ Journal of the Royal Society
Interface 8, 865-871
Wright, H (2006) ‘State dynamics as political experiment’, Journal of Anthropological
Research 62.3, 305-319
Session 5 (lecture): Rise and fall of Harappan Civilisation (Dorian Fuller)
Synopsis: This lecture will introduce the geographically extensive Indus or Harappan
civilization, in which archaeology alone has led to its discovery and interpretation due to its
undeciphered “script”. We will consider the settlement evidence for the rise of urbanism, the
organization of smaller and larger sites, both often with upper and lower towns, and
arguments about the nature of social complexity in the Indus and whether a state or states or
no state was involved. We will also touch on the evidence for trade within and beyond the
Indus. Finally we will consider ongoing debates about the role of environmental and climate
change in the collapse of the Harappan civilization.
Key reading:
Possehl, G L (1998) ‘Sociocultural complexity without the state: the Indus Civilization’, in G
M Feinman and J Marcus (eds.) Archaic States. School of American Research Press:
Santa Fe, 261–292 [INST ARCH BD FEI; IOA Issue Desk FEI 3]
Lawler A (2008) ‘Unmasking the Indus’ Science 320, 1276–1285
Tosi, M (1993) ‘The Harappan Civilization beyond the Indian subcontinent’, in G L Possehl
(ed.) Harappan Civilization, a recent perspective (2nd edition). New Delhi: Oxford
and IBH, 365-377 [ISSUE DESK IOA POS 4]
Kenoyer, J M (2007) ‘Indus and Mesopotamian trade networks: New insights from shell and
carnelian artifacts’, in E Olijdam & R H Spoor (eds.) Intercultural relations between
South and Southwest Asia. Studies in Commemoration of E.C. L. During-Caspers
(1934–1996) (Vol. S1826, pp. 19–28). Oxford: Archaeopress [INST ARCH DB Qto
O]
Jansen, M (2001) ‘Settlement networks of the Indus Civilization’ in S Settar and R Korisettar
(eds.) Indian Archaeology in Retrospect, Volume II. Protohistory. Publications of the
Indian Council for Historical Research. New Dehli: Manohar, 105-128 [ISSUE
DESK IoA SET 4]
Goisan. L, Clift P D, Macklin M G, Fuller D Q, Constantinescu S, Durcan J A, Stevens T,
Duller G, Tabrez A, Gangal K, Adhikari R, Alizai A, Filipe F, Van Laningham S and
Urban Archaeology
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Syvitski J (2012) ‘Fluvial landscapes of the Harappan civilization’, PNAS 109,
10138-10139; E1688-E1694
Further reading:
Boivin, N and Fuller, D Q (2009) ‘Shell Middens, Ships and Seeds: Exploring Coastal Sub
sistence, Maritime Trade and the Dispersal of Domesticates in and Around the
Ancient Arabian Peninsula’ Journal of World Prehistory 22(2), 113-180
[published online]
Fuller, D and Boivin, N (2002) ‘Beyond Description and Diffusion: A History of Processual
Theory in the Archaeology of South Asia’ in S Settar and R Korisettar
(eds.) Indian Archaeology in Retrospect, Volume IV. History, Theory and Method,
Publications of the Indian Council for Historical Research. New Dehli: Manohar,
159-190 [ISSUE DESK IoA SET 4]
Fuller, D Q and Madella, M (2001) ‘Issues in Harappan Archaeobotany: Retrospect and
Prospect’ in S Settar and R Korisettar (eds.) Indian Archaeology in Retrospect,
Volume II. Protohistory Publications of the Indian Council for Historical
Research. New Dehli: Manohar, 317-390 [ISSUE DESK IoA SET 4]
Kenoyer, J M (1998) Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press:
Karachi [INST ARCH DBMA 12 KEN]
Law, R W (2008) Occasional Paper 11: Linguistics, Archaeology and the Human Past
Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Nakanishi Printing Co. Ltd: Kyoto
[INST ARCH DBM Qto OS]
Madella, M and Fuller, D Q (2006) ‘Palaeoecology and the Harappan Civilisation of South
Asia: a reconsideration’ Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 1283-1301
McIntosh, J R (2008) The Ancient Indus Valley. New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO, Oxford
[INST ARCH DBMA 12 MCI]
Possehl, G L (1999) Indus Age. The Beginnings. University of Pennsylvania Press:
Philadelphia [INST ARCH DBMA 100 POS]
Possehl, G L (2002) The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. Altamira Press:
Lanham [INST ARCH DBMA 12 POS]
Ratnagarm, S (2001) Understanding Harappa. Civilization in the Greater Indus Valley.
Tulika Books: Delhi [INST ARCH DBMA 100 RAT]
Wright, R P (2010) The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press [INST ARCH DBMA 12 WRI]
Session 6 (lecture): Case study: The Knossos Urban Landscape Project (Todd
Whitelaw)
Synopsis: Founded as one of the earliest Neolithic villages in Europe, Knossos became
urban ca. 2000 BC, serving as the administrative centre for the principal prehistoric
state on Crete. Declining at the end of the Bronze Age, it redeveloped early in the
first millennium BC as one of the principal urban centres of the Greek world. It was
incorporated into the Roman empire and remained a major centre until ca. 700 AD. It
has been investigated intensively for over a century, with most attention being
focused on its Prehistoric phase. In 2005, an intensive surface survey was initiated, to
study the site comprehensively, and provide a framework for integrating the wealth of
major research and minor rescue excavations. This session will consider large-scale
urban surface survey, some strategic considerations involved in the design and
implementation of such surveys, and some of the analytical and interpretive problems
which arise in dealing with very large quantities of relatively low-quality data.
Urban Archaeology
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Key reading:
Whitelaw, T (in press) ‘Collecting cities: some problems and prospects’, in M Millett and P
Johnson (eds.) Archaeological Survey and the City. Cambridge Monographs in
Classical Archaeology: Cambridge [A pdf will be made available on the course
Moodle site and via e-mail]
Bintliff, J and Snodgrass A (1988) ‘Mediterranean survey and the city’, Antiquity 62, 57–71
Bintliff, J (2012) ‘Contemporary issues in surveying complex urban sites in the
Mediterranean region: the example of the city of Thespiai (Boeotia, central Greece)’,
in F Vermeulen, G-J Burgers, S Keay and C Corsi (eds) Urban landscape survey in
Italy and the Mediterranean. Oxbow Books: Oxford, 44-52 [INST ARCH DAG 100
Qto VER]
Stone, E (2007) ‘The Mesopotamian urban experience’, in E Stone (ed.) Settlement and
society. Essays dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams. Cotsen Institute: Los
Angeles, 213-34 [INST ARCH DBA 100 STD]
Cowgill, G (2007) ‘The urban organization of Teotihuacan, Mexico’, in E. Stone (ed.)
Settlement and society. Essays dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams. Cotsen
Institute of Archaeology: Los Angeles, 261–95 [INST ARCH DBA 100 STD]
Further reading:
Knossos:
Hood, S and Smyth D (1981) Archaeological survey of the Knossos area (2nd ed.) (British
School at Athens, Supplementary volume 14). British School at Athens: London
[INST ARCH DAG 14 Qto HOO; YATES QUARTOS E 12 KNO]
Evely, D, Hughes-Brock, H and Momigliano N (eds) (1994) Knossos: a labyrinth of history.
Papers presented in honour of Sinclair Hood. British School at Athens: London
[INST ARCH DAG 14 HOO]
Cadogan, G, Hatzaki, E and Vasilakis A (eds) (2004) Knossos: palace, city, state (British
School at Athens Studies 12). British School at Athens: London. [INST ARCH DAG
14 Qto CAD]
Whitelaw,T, Bredaki,M and Vasilakis, A (2007) ‘The Knossos Urban Landscape Project:
investigating the long-term dynamics of an urban landscape’ Archaeology
International 2006/7(10), 28-31
Whitelaw, T, (2001) ‘From sites to communities: defining the human dimensions of Minoan
urbanism’, in K Branigan (ed) Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age. Sheffield Studies
in Aegean Archaeology, 15-37. TC 2771 [INST ARCH DAE 100 BRA; Issue Desk
BRA 7]
Whitelaw, T, (2004) ‘Estimating the population of Neopalatial Knossos’, in G Cadogan and E
Hatzaki (eds) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London: British School at Athens, 147-58
[INST ARCH DAG 14 Qto CAD; TC 2975]
Mediterranean urban survey:
Keay, S J, Creighton and Jordan, D (1991) ‘Sampling ancient towns’ Oxford Journal of
Archaeology 10, 371–83
Lolos, Y, Gourley, B and Stewart, D (2007) ‘The Sikyon survey project: a blueprint for urban
survey?’ Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 20, 267–96
Mattingly, D (2000) ‘Methods of collection, recording and quantification’in R Francovich and
H Patterson (eds) Extracting meaning from ploughsoil assemblages (The archaeology
of Mediterranean landscapes 5). Oxbow Books: Oxford, 5–15 [INST ARCH DAG
100 Qto BAR]
Martens, F, Music, B, Poblome J and Waelkens, M (2012) ‘The integrated urban survey at
Sagalassos’, in F Vermeulen, G-J Burgers, S Keay and C Corsi (eds) Urban
Urban Archaeology
Page 15
landscape survey in Italy and the Mediterranean. Oxbow Books :Oxford, 84-93
[INST ARCH DAG 100 Qto VER]
Vermeulen, F, Burgers, G-J, Keay, S and Corsi, C (eds) (2012) Urban landscape survey in
Italy and the Mediterranean. Oxbow Books: Oxford [INST ARCH DAG 100 Qto
VER]
Analytical case studies of urban surveys (a sample):
Mattingly, D, Stone, D, Stirling, L and Ben Lazreg, N (2000) ‘Leptiminus (Tunisia). A
'producer' city?’, in D Mattingly and J Salmon (eds) Economies beyond agriculture in
the Classical world. Routledge: London, 66-89 [MAIN Ancient History M 64 FIN]
Ur, J, Karsgaard, P and Oates, J (2011) ‘The spatial dimensions of early Mesopotamian
urbanism: the Tell Brak suburban survey, 2003-2006’, Iraq 73, 1–19
Kenoyer, M and Miller H (2007) ‘Multiple crafts and socioeconomic associations in the Indus
civilization: new perspectives from Harappa, Pakistan’, in I Shimada (ed.) Craft
production in complex societies. Multi-craft and producer perspectives. University of
Utah Press: Salt Lake City, 152–83 [INST ARCH K SHI]
Charlton, T, Otis Charlton C, Nichols, D and Neff, H (2007) ‘Aztec Otumba, AD 1200-1600.
Patterns of production, distribution and consumption of ceramic products’, in C Pool
and G Bey III (eds) Pottery economics in Mesoamerica. University of Arizona Press:
Tucson, 237-66 [INST ARCH DF 100 POO]
Clark, J (1986) ‘From mountains to molehills: a critical review of Teotihuacan's obsidian
industry’, in B Isaac (ed.) Economic aspects of Prehispanic highland Mexico
(Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 2). JAI Press: Greenwich, 23–74
[INST ARCH DFB 100 ISA]
Garrity, C (2006) ‘Aztec Teotihuacan: political processes at a Postclassic and early colonial
city-state in the Basin of Mexico’, Latin American Antiquity 17, 363–87
Hirth, K (2008) ‘The economy of supply: modeling obsidian procurement and craft
provisioning at a central Mexican urban center’, Latin American Antiquity 19, 43557
Pool, C (2008) ‘Architectural plans, factionalism, and the Proto-Classic-Classic transition at
Tres Zapotes’, in P Arnold III and C Pool (eds) Classic period cultural currents in
southern and central Veracruz. Dumbarton Oaks: Washington D.C., 121–57 [INST
ARCH DFA 100 ARN]
Robertson, I (1999) ‘Spatial and multivariate analysis, random sampling error and analytical
noise: empirical Bayesian methods at Teotihuacan, Mexico’, American Antiquity 64,
137–52
Santley, R and Kneebone R (1993) ‘Craft specialization, refuse disposal and the creation of
spatial archaeological records in Prehispanic Mesoamerica’ in R Santley and K Hirth
(eds) Prehispanic domestic units in western Mesoamerica. CRC Press: London, 3763 [INST ARCH DFA 100 SAN]
Smyth, M (1998) ‘Surface archaeology and site organization: new methods for studying urban
Maya communities’, in A Sullivan III (ed.) Surface Archaeology. University of New
Mexico Press: Albuquerque, 43-60 [INST ARCH AL 10 SUL]
Sullivan, K (2006) ‘Specialized production of San Martin Orange Ware at Teotihuacan,
Mexico’, Latin American Antiquity 17, 23–53
Session 7 (lecture): Current research on the Greek polis (John Bintliff)
Synopsis: This lecture will deal with the origins and nature of the ancient Greek city-state or
polis, of which at least 1000 have been recorded in a recent survey, both within Greece and as
colonies around the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It will also cover the contrasted
megalopolis form of Greek city, and the differences to areas of the Greek world where the
polis was absent, the ethne (traditionally termed ‘tribal states’). We shall examine town and
Urban Archaeology
Page 16
house plans and in particular how they reflect the changing nature of Greek society from
Early Iron Age times up to the era of Roman Greece.
Key reading:
Ault, B A and Nevett, L C, (eds.) (2005) Ancient Greek Houses and Households. University
of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia (Chs. by Lang and Cahill) [INST ARCH YATES
K 71 AUL]
Bintliff, J L (2010) ‘Classical Greek urbanism: a social darwinian view’, in R M Rosen and I
Sluiter (eds)Valuing Others in Classical Antiquity. Brill: Leiden, 15-41 [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY M 72 ROS]
Bintliff, J L (2012) The Complete Archaeology of Greece, from Hunter-Gatherers to the
Twentieth Century AD. Blackwell-Wiley: Oxford-New York (Chs. 8-14) [INST
ARCH – in cataloguing as of Sept. 2012]
Jameson, M H (1990) ‘Domestic space in the Greek city-state’ in S Kent (ed) Domestic
Architecture and the Use of Space. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 92-113
[INST ARCH KO KEN; ISSUE DESK IOA KEN 8; Science ANTHROPOLOGY
QUARTOS E 75 KEN; Bartlett ARCHITECTURE G 98 KEN]
Westgate, R C (2007) ‘House and society in Classical and Hellenistic Crete’ American
Journal of Archaeology 111, 423-457
Session 8 (lecture): Urbanisation and Colonisation in the Mediterranean in the
early first millennium BC (Corinna Riva)
Synopsis: In the early first millennium BC, the formation of urban centres throughout the
Mediterranean basin goes hand in hand with a heightened human mobility across the basin
that followed the end of the Bronze Age. As a result of this mobility, new settlements, mainly
along the coastal regions of the Mediterranean, were established by Phoenicians and Greek,
and these were accompanied by other indigenous forms of urban formation. We
conventionally call these new settlements ‘colonies’ and their establishment and development
‘colonization’. While for a long time these terms were accepted without any controversy, in
the last two decades or so, scholars have begun to question the semantic implications that
such terms carry for the early 1st millennium BC to the extent that some (e.g. Osborne 1998)
advocate the debunking of these term alltogether for early 1st-millennium BC Mediterranean,
engendering a debate that is still ongoing (cf. Greco 2011).
In this lecture, we shall consider the origins, terms and features of this debate, and, in so
doing, think about the relationship between urbanisation and colonisation and all its related
aspects and problems (e.g. Phoenician trading urban centre vs. the Greek apoikia; the
formation of the Greek polis). Ultimately, the question is whether we can talk about
colonisation and if so how, and what is there to be gained by an analysis of Greek and
Phoenician (and other) early 1st millennium BC urban centres, which too often remain
anchored to and studied by distinct sub-fields of Mediterranean archaeology.
Key reading:
Greco, E (2011) ‘On the origins of the Western Greek poleis’, Ancient West & East 10, 233242 [online]
Osborne, R (1998) ‘Early Greek colonisation? The nature of Greek settlement in the West’, in
N Fisher & H van Wees (eds) Archaic Greece: New Approaches and New Evidence.
Duckworth: London, 251–69 [Main: ANCIENT HISTORY P 12 FIS]
Osborne, R (2005) ‘Urban sprawl: what is urbanization and why does it matter?’, in B
Cunliffe and R Osborne (eds), Mediterranean Urbanisation 800–600 BC Proceedings
of the British Academy 126, 1-16 [INST ARCH: Issue Desk & DAG 100 OSB]
Urban Archaeology
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Purcell, N (1991) ‘Mobility and the polis’, in O Murray and S Price (eds) The Greek City
from Homer to Alexander. Clarendon Press: Oxford, 29-58 [Main: ANCIENT
HISTORY P 61 MUR; TC 570]
van Dommelen, P (2005) ‘Urban foundations? Colonial settlement and urbanization in the
western Mediterranean’ in B. Cunliffe and R. Osborne (eds.) Mediterranean
Urbanisation 800–600 BC. Proceedings of the British Academy: London, 143-167
[INST ARCH DAG 100 OSB, MAIN ARTS PERS]
Morgan, C (2003) Early Greek states beyond the polis. Routledge: London, Introduction, 144 [INST ARCH: TC: 3619; Main: ANCIENT HISTORY P 55 MOR]
Further reading:
Malkin, I (2003) ‘Networks and the emergence of Greek identity’, in Mediterranean
Historical Review 18.2, 56-74 [Main: History Pers and online]
Aubet, ME (2001) The Phoenicians and the West. Politics, Colonies and Trade. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, chapters 3, 4, 7-8 [INST ARCH: DAG 100 AUB; Issue
Desk: AUB]
Aubet, M E (1995) ‘From trading post to town in the Phoenician-Punic world in Iberia’, in B
Cunliffe and S Keay (eds), Social complexity and the development of towns in Iberia.
From the Copper Age to the second century AD (Proceedings of the British Academy
86). Oxford University Press: Oxford, 47-65 [INST ARCH: DAP CUN; TC: 3621;
Main: HUMANITIES Pers]
Aubet, M E (2006) ‘On the organization of the Phoenician colonial system in Iberia’, in C
Riva and N Vella (eds.) Debating Orientalization: Multidisciplinary Approaches to
Change in the Ancient Mediterranean. Equinox: London, 94-109 [INST ARCH:
DAG 100 RIV; Issue Desk: RIV1]
Antonaccio, C (2005) ‘Excavating Colonization’, in H Hurst and S Owen (eds) Ancient
colonisations. Analogy, similarity and difference. Duckworth: London, 97-113 [INST
ARCH: AH HUR]
Carter J C (2006) Discovering the Greek countryside at Metaponto. University of
Michigan: Ann Arbor [INST ARCH: YATES E 22 MET]
González de Canales F, Serrano L and Llompart J (2006) ‘The Pre-colonial Phoenician
Emporium of Huelva ca 900-770 BC’, Bulletin Antieke Beschaving 81, 13-29 [ICS:
ST 6]
Gosden, C (2004) Archaeology and Colonialism: Cultural Contact from 5000 BC to the
Present. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [INST ARCH : AH GOS]
Hansen M H (2006) Polis. An introduction to the ancient Greek city-state. Oxford
University Press: Oxford [Main: ANCIENT HISTORY P 60 HAN]
Hodos T (2006) Local responses to colonization in the Iron Age Mediterranean.
Routledge: London [INST ARCH: DAG 100 HOD]
Morris I (1987) Burial and Ancient Society. The Rise of the Greek City-state. Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge [INST ARCH: Issue Desk; YATES A22 MOR]
Niemeyer H G (2006) ‘The Phoenicians in the Mediterranean. Between expansion and
colonisation: a non-Greek model of overseas settlement and presence’, in G
R.Tsetskhladze (ed.) Greek colonisation. An account of Greek colonies and other
settlements overseas. 143-168 [Main: ANCIENT HISTORY P 61 TSE]
Owen, S (2005) ‘Analogy, Archaeology and Archaic Greek Colonization’, in H Hurst and
Owen (eds) Ancient colonisations. Analogy, similarity and difference. Duckworth:
London, 5-22 [INST ARCH: AH HUR]
de Polignac F (1995) Cults, territory, and the origins of the Greek city-state. The University
of Chicago Press: Chicago and London [Main: ANCIENT HISTORY P 60 POL]
de Polignac F (2005) ‘Forms and processes: some thoughts on the meaning of urbanization in
early Archaic Greece’, in B Cunliffe and R Osborne (eds), Mediterranean
Urbanisation 800–600 BC, 45-69. [INST ARCH: Issue Desk & DAG 100 OSB]
Urban Archaeology
Page 18
Purcell, N (2005) ‘Colonization and Mediterranean History’, in H Hurst and S Owen (eds)
Ancient colonisations. Analogy, similarity and difference. Duckworth: London, 115139 [INST ARCH AH HUR; TC: 3617]
Ridgway D (1992) The First Western Greeks. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [INST
ARCH: DAF 10 RID; Main: ANCIENT HISTORY P 43 RID]
Tsetskhladze G and Hargrave J (2011) ‘Colonisation from Antiquity to Modern Times.
Comparisons and Contrasts’, in Ancient West and East 10, 161-182 [online]
van Dommelen P (1997) ‘Colonial constructs: colonialism and archaeology in the
Mediterranean’, in C Gosden (ed) Culture contact and colonialism World
Archaeology 28.3, 305-323 [Ioa Pers and online]
Van Dommelen P (2006) ‘Colonial matters. Material culture and post-colonial theory in
colonial situation’, in C Tilley, W Keane, S Kuechler, M Rowlands and P Spyer (eds)
Handbook of material culture. Sage: London, 104-124 [INST ARCH: AH TIL]
Vlassopoulos K (2007) ‘Between East and West: The Greek Poleis as Part of a WorldSystem’, in Ancient West and East 6, 91–111 [INST ARCH Pers]
Vlassopoulos K (2007) ‘Beyond and Below the Polis: Networks, Associations, and the
Writing of Greek History’, in Mediterranean Historical Review 22:1,11-22 [Main:
HISTORY Pers and online]
Session 9 (lecture): Buddhism and the development of the city in the subcontinent (Julia Shaw)
Synopsis: This lecture will introduce the developments which led to the rise of urbanism and
monarchical state formation across the Indian subcontinent from the mid’ first millennium
BC. Drawing on excavation and survey data, together with epigraphical, art-historical and
textual evidence, we will examine theories that have sought to explain the shift from earlier
tribal based economies to the appearance of towns and cities and ultimately the rise and
spread of empire during the 3rd century BC. Whilst theories relating to expanding trading
networks and metallurgical developments (in particular iron) have figured prominently in
such debates, other major factors include the rise of Buddhism and other heterodox religions
as well as new movements within Orthodox Brahmanical traditions. The history and
archaeology of Buddhism, with its emphasis on social and personal ‘well-being’ is
particularly instructive for understanding the entwined relationship between religion,
economics and the state in ancient India.
Key reading:
Allchin, F R (1995) 'The Mauryan State and Empire', in F.R Allchin and G Erdosy (eds.), The
archaeology of early historic South Asia: the emergence of cities and states.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 187-221 [INST ARCH DBM ALL or Issue
Desk IOA ALL 5]
Coningham, R (2001) ‘The Archaeology of Buddhism’, in T Insoll (ed.), Archaeology and
World Religion. Routledge: London, 60-95 [INST ARCH FA INS; TC 3337]
Erdosy, G (1995) ‘City States of North India and Pakistan at the time of the Buddha’ in F R
Allchin 1995, 99-122 [INST ARCH DBM ALL (1 week), or Issue Desk: INST
ARCH ALL 5 (1 hour)]
Fogelin, L (2006) Archaeology of Early Buddhism. Altamira Press: New York (especially,
chapter 3: ‘Buddhism in early-historic period South Asia’). [INST ARCH DBMA 17
FOG(1 week; standard)]
Shaw, J (2007) Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi hill and archaeologies of
religious and social change, c. 3rd century BC to 5th century AD. British Association
for South Asian Studies, The British Academy: London. Chapters 1- 2. [INST
ARCH DBMA 15 Qto SHA (1 week); Issue Desk IOA SHA 9 (3 hour)]
Urban Archaeology
Page 19
Sugandhi, N (2003) 'Context, content , and composition: questions of intended meaning and
the Asokan edicts', Asian Perspectives 42.2, 224-246 [INST ARCH PERS; Available
online: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/library/ejournal]
Further Reading:
Bailey, G and Mabbett I (2003) The Sociology of Early Buddhism. Cambridge University
Press: Cambridge (Introduction and Ch. 1: good summary of the various explanations
for the rise of Buddhism and its relationship to contemporary social and political
changes) [ANTHROPOLOGY D 195 BAI; TC 3478]
Chakrabarti, D K (1985) ‘Iron and urbanisation: an examination of the Indian context’
Puratattva 15, 68-74 [INST ARCH PERS; TC 2820]
Chakrabarti, D K (1995) The Archaeology of Ancient Indian Cities. Oxford University Press:
Delhi. (pp. 242-262, and description of individual sites in rest of ch. 5). [INST ARCH
DBMA 100 CHA (1 week); Issue Desk IOA CHA 17 (3 hour)]
Erdosy, G (1988) Urbanisation in Early Historic India. BAR International Series 430:
Oxford [INST ARCH DBMA 100 Qto ERD (standard)]
Lal, M (1984) Settlement history and the rise of civilisation in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab
(from 1500 BC-AD 300). B.R. Publishing Corporation: Delhi [INST ARCH DBMA
14 LAL]
Lal, M (1985) ‘Iron tools, Forest Clearance and Urbanisation in Gangetic Plains’, Man and
Environment 10, 83-90. [INST ARCH PERS]
Mitra, D (1971) Buddhist Monuments. Munshiram Manoharla: Delhi (pp. 1-7 for life of
Buddha; 8-56 for architecture; pp. 57-90 for Bihar) [INST ARCH DBMA 398 MIT]
Sharma, R S (1995) (2nd edition) Perspectives in the Social and Economic History of Early
India. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. [DBMA 200 SHA; Another copy at the Issue
Desk (3 hour)]
Tewari, R (2003) ‘The Origins of Ironworking in India: New Evidence from the Central
Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas’, Antiquity 77, 536-544. [INST ARCH PERS;
Available online: http://antiquity.ac.uk/]
Thapar, R (1984) From Lineage to State: Social Formations in the Mid-First Millennium BC
in the Ganges Valley. Oxford University Press: Delhi (especially chapters 2-4). [INST
ARCH DBMA 200 THA or Issue Desk IOA THA]
Thapar, R (2000) ‘Ethics, Religion and Social Protest in the First Millennium BC in Northern
India’, in R Thapar, Cultural Pasts. Oxford University Press: Delhi, 856-875. Also
found in Ancient Indian Social History (Orient Longman, 1978). [INST ARCH
DBMA 200 THA]
Session 10 (lecture): Case study: Urban archaeology in China (Wang Tao)
Synopsis: This lecture explores the development of the idea of the city in one of the greatest
urban civilizations. We start by examining the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, who developed
sophisticated sedentary civilizations in the Yellow River valley in the second and first
millennium BCE. We then explore the Qin Empire (221-210 BCE), seen as the first largescale and unified Chinese empire, and follow the development of Chinese urbanism up to the
Ming Dynasty (CE 1368-1644). Throughout this we examine the development of Chinese
society and its impact upon the nature of urbanism, including the nature of imperial cities;
palaces and planned cities in Han China; especially Han capital of Chang’an. Major
archaeological findings are explored within themes of the role of political power and
patronage, and economic and social change, in framing the Chinese city. The heavy reliance
on ancient textual accounts, which pervades Chinese archaeology, will be discussed in the
context of archaeological methods for investigating the political, social and economic systems
of urbanism.
Urban Archaeology
Page 20
Key reading:
Liu, L and Chen, X (2003) State Formation in Early China. Duckworth: London [INST
ARCH DBL LIU]
Ebrey, P B (ed) (2010) The Cambridge illustrated history of China. (2nd ed) Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge – especially Chapters 3-5 [INST ARCH On order]
Lewis, M E (2009) China's cosmopolitan empire: the Tang dynasty. Belknap Press of
Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass.– especially Chapter 1 the geography of
empire & Chapter 5 Urban life[INST ARCH DBL LEW]
Nylan, M and Loewe, M (eds) (2010) China's early empires: a re-appraisal. Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge - especially Pirazzoli-t'Serstevens ‘Urbanism’, pp. 169185; and Snodgrass ‘Archaeology in China: a view from outside’, 232-250 [INST
ARCH DBL NYL]
Wang, T (1999) ‘A city with many faces: urban development in pre-modern China’, in R
Whitfield, and Wang T (eds) Exploring China's past: new discoveries and studies in
archaeology and art. Saffron Books: London, 111-121 [INST ARCH DBL Qto WHI]
Wheatley, P (1971) The Pivot of the Four Quarters. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh
[INST ARCH DBL WHE]
Further reading:
Juliano, A L and Jiayao, A (2012) Unearthed: Recent Archaeological Discoveries from
Northern China. Yale University Press. [On order]
Lewis, M E (2007) The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. Belknap Press of Harvard
University Press: Cambridge, Mass. [Issue Desk IOA LEW 3]
Loewe, M & Shaughnessy, E L (eds) (1999) The Cambridge History of Ancient
China: from the origins of civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge - Particularly: Bagley ‘Shang archaeology’, pp. 124–231; Keightley ‘The
Shang: China's first historical dynasty’, pp. 232–291; Shaughnessy ‘Western Zhou
History’, pp. 292–351 [Issue Desk IOA LOE]
Wang, M (2009) Empire and local worlds: a Chinese model for long-term historical
anthropology. Left Coast Press: Walnut Creek, Calif. - especially Chapter 2 ‘The
Carp: Empire and culture of commerce, 712-1368’, 63-91 [INST ARCH DBL WAN]
Whitfield, R and Wang, T (eds) (1999) Exploring China's past: new discoveries and studies
in archaeology and art. Saffron Books: London [INST ARCH DBL Qto WHI]
Session 11 (lecture): Urbanisation and empire: the case-study of Rome (Dominic
Perring)
Synopsis: The Roman Empire was an empire of cities and the legacy of Rome is still largely
described in urban terms. The expansion of Rome’s empire had major impact on the
trajectory of Mediterranean urbanisation, promoting the city of Rome into a vast metropolis
and supporting both new urban foundations and new patterns of civic investment and
engagement within existing cities. This session will describe some of the forces which
shaped the growth of Rome, and ask how and why was Rome an urban empire? This will in
turn be used to discuss the relationship between empire systems and urbanisation. Features to
be considered will include:
 the political and economic role of cities and conquest
 taxation and municipal government,
 imperial expansion as a motor for urbanisation
 the army and colonisation
Urban Archaeology
Page 21
Key reading:
Corbier, M (1991) ‘City, territory and taxation’, in J Rich and A Wallace-Haddrill (eds), City
and Country in the Ancient World. Routledge: London, 211-39 [INST ARCH
YATES K 100 RIC & ISSUE DESK IOA RIC 3; Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64
RIC]
Cornell, T J (1995) ‘Warfare and urbanization in Roman Italy’, in T J Cornell and K Lomas
(eds), Urban society in Roman Italy, London, 121-34 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R
65 COR]
Hopkins, K (1978) ‘Economic growth and towns in Classical Antiquity’, in P Abrams and E
A Wrigley (eds.), Towns and Societies, 35-79 [Main HISTORY 82bf ABR; SSEES
Misc XXII TOW]
Laurence, R, Esmonde Cleary, S, & Sears, G (2011) The City in the Roman West, c.250 BCc.AD 250. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge – Chapters 1-3 [INST ARCH DA
170 LAU]
Mattingly, D (2011) Imperialism, power, and identity: Experiencing the Roman Empire,
Princeton University Press. [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 MAT]
Revell, L (2009) Roman Imperialism and local identities. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 55 REV]
Scheidel, W (ed) (2009), Rome and China: Comparative Perspectives on Ancient World
Empires, Oxford University Press (especially N Rosenstein ‘War, State Formation,
and the Evolution of Military Institutions in Ancient China and Rome’, 24-51) [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY A 8 SCH]
Further Reading:
Blagg, T F C and Millett M (eds.) (1990) The early Roman Empire in the West. Oxbow
Books: Oxford [INST ARCH DA 170 BLA; Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 BLA]
Eckstein, M (2006) Mediterranean Anarchy, interstate war, and the rise of Rome. University
of California Press: Berkeley & London [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 ECK]
Fentress, E (ed) (2000) Romanization and the City: creation, transformations and failures.
JRA Suppl. Ser. 38 (mainly for the papers by Fentress and Zanker) [INST ARCH
YATES QUARTOS K 120 FEN]
Garnsey, P, and Saller, R (1987) The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture.
Duckworth: London – chapters 1 & 2 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 14 GAR]
González, J (1986), ‘The lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law’, Journal of
Roman Studie 76, 147-243
Keppie, L (1983) Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy 47-14BC. London [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 KEP]
Lomas, K (1998) ‘Roman imperialism and the city in Italy’, in R Laurence and J Berry (eds),
Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire. Routledge: London, 64-78 [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 72 LAU]
Millett, M (1990) The Romanization of Britain. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge Chapter 4 The emergence of the ‘Civitates’, 65-101 [INST ARCH DAA 170 MIL and
ISSUE DESK IOA MIL 8]
Pollard, N (2000) Soldiers, Cities and Civilians in Roman Syria. University of Michigan
Press: Ann Arbor [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 45 POL]
Whittaker, C R (1997) ‘Imperialism and culture: the Roman initiative’, in D J Mattingly (ed.)
Dialogues in Roman Imperialism. Power, discourse, and discrepant experience in the
Roman Empire. JRA Suppl. Ser. 23: Portsmouth, Rhode Island, 143-164 [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 MAT]
Woolf, G (1998) Becoming Roman: The origins of provincial civilization in Gaul. Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge - Chapter 5 Urbanizing the Gauls, 106-41 [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 28 WOO]
Urban Archaeology
Page 22
Session 12 (seminar): Power and patronage in the Roman city (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: Whilst the emphasis of the previous session (Empire and Urbanization) privileges
the ‘ top-down’ study of urbanisation, showing how the needs of empire were imposed on
subject and federate communities through forces such as conquest and colonisation, here the
focus is on how communities of engagement were formed within the individual cities of the
Roman world. This touches on the over-worked issue of Romanisation, but the main focus
will be on how elite society developed networks of patronage and power structured through
cities and urban institutions: the spatial and architectural consequences of which are the
subject of several of the following sessions. In addition to the historical and literary sources,
archaeology draws on the evidence of the public buildings and civic benefaction made by
elite society: epigraphic material is often key. Who built what and when? How and why do
patterns of urban patronage and benefaction differ within the ancient world: as, for example,
between North Africa and Britain? What might this tell us about the nature of urban society?
Key reading:
Cornell T and Lomas K (eds) (2003), ‘Bread and Circuses’: Euergetism and Municipal
Patronage in Roman Italy. London [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 LOM]
Keay, S and Terrenato, N (eds) (2001) Italy and the West: comparative issues in
Romanization, Oxbow: Oxford – with particular reference to papers of Terrenato and
Alcock [INST ARCH DA 170 KEA]
Laurence, R, Esmonde Cleary, S, & Sears, G (2011) The City in the Roman West, c.250 BCc.AD 250. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge – Chapters 1-3 [INST ARCH DA
170 LAU]
Lomas, K (1997) 'The idea of a city: Elite ideology and the evolution of urban form in Italy,
200BC-AD 100', in H M Parkins (ed) Roman urbanism: Beyond the consumer city,
21-41[Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 PAR]
Wallace-Hadrill, A (ed.) (1989) Patronage in Ancient Society. Routledge [ANCIENT
HISTORY M 55 WAL]
Zuiderhoek, A (2010) The politics of munificence in the Roman Empire: citizens, elites and
benefactors in Asia Minor. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 39 ZUI]
Further reading:
Blagg, T F C (1981) ‘Architectural Patronage in the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire
in the Third Century’, in A King & M Henig (eds) The Roman West in the Third
Century: contributions from archaeology and history. British Archaeological
Reports International Series 109(i): Oxford, 167-188 [INST ARCH DA Qto KIN]
Blagg, T F C (1990) 'Architectural munificence in Britain: the evidence of inscriptions',
Britannia 21, 13-32
Brown, P (1992) Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity: Towards a Christian Empire,
University of Wisconsin Press [ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 BRO]
Butcher, K (2003), Roman Syria and the Near East. British Museum Press: London - see Part
4, the Construction of Communities [INST ARCH DBD 100 BUT]
Creighton, J, (2006) Britannia: the creation of a Roman province. Routledge: Abingon [INST
ARCH DAA 170 CRE]
Duncan-Jones, R (1985) 'Who paid for public buildings in Roman cities?' in F Grew and B
Hobley (eds) Roman Urban Topography in Britain and the Western Empire (Council
for British Archaeology Research Report 59), 28-33 [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series
COU 59]
Urban Archaeology
Page 23
Garnsey, P and Saller, R (1987) The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture, London:
Duckworth – chapters 6-8 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 14 GAR]
Johnston, D (1985) 'Munificence and municipia: Bequests to towns in classical Roman Law',
Journal of Roman Studies, 75, 105-25
Lukes, S (2004) Power: A Radical View (2nd edition). Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke
[Main PUBLIC POLICY JC 330 LUK; Science ANTHROPOLOGY D 70 LUK]
Mackie, N (1990) ‘Urban munificence and the growth of urban consciousness in Roman
Spain’ in T Blagg and M Millett (eds), The Early Roman Empire in the West. Oxbow:
Oxford, 179-92 [INST ARCH DA 170 BLA; Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 BLA]
Saller, R (1982) Personal Patronage under the Early Empire. Cambridge [ANCIENT
HISTORY R 64 SAL]
Veyne, P (ed) (1987) A history of Private Life: from Pagan Rome to Byzantium, Harvard
University Press: Cambridge Mass & London – with particular reference to papers by
Veyne & Brown [Main HISTORY 82 cu ARI]
Wallace-Hadrill, A (2008) Rome’s Cultural Revolution. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 72 WAL]
Zanker, P (1990) The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. University of Michigan Press:
Ann Arbor [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 15 ZAN]
Session 13 (lecture): Town planning (Stephen Marshall)
Synopsis: This lecture aims to provide understanding of urban morphology as a product of
design. A conceptual introduction to the relationships between urban morphology and urban
design is first offered (Marshall and Caliskan, 2011). A more detailed scrutiny of basic
morphological elements is then offered – including the relationships between buildings (and
building components), plots, streets and blocks. The relationships between those
morphological elements and different kinds of planning or design actors and processes are
discussed. This includes consideration of interlocking ‘patterns’ at different scales (Alexander
et al., 1977); and urban design codes as well as town plans (Marshall, 2011). Then three more
detailed issues are presented, each of which may be of interest to archaeology in different
ways. The first is discussion of capturing different types of street pattern (e.g. Southworth and
Ben Joseph, 2003) and their types of order, regularity, irregularity and complexity. Secondly,
there is discussion of how the underlying geometry of shapes (such as of buildings) influences
the morphology we see on the ground; and the shapes of buildings in relation to overall
‘morphospace’ and trajectories of form through time (Steadman and Mitchell, 2010). Thirdly,
an evolutionary interpretation of urban change is presented (Marshall, 2009). Together, this
coverage is intended to stimulate thought about how we can capture the nature of urban
morphology and account for the urban patterns we find on the ground, with or without the
inference of conscious design or planning.
Key reading:
Alexander, C, Ishikawa, S, Silverstein, M (1977) A Pattern Language. Oxford University
Press: New York [Bartlett ARCHITECTURE BA 4 ALE]
Marshall, S (2009) Cities, Design and Evolution. Routledge: London and New York [Bartlett
TOWN PLANNING A 30 MAR]
Marshall, S (ed) (2011) Urban Coding and Planning. Routledge: Abingdon [TOWN
PLANNING A 30 URB]
Marshall, S and Caliskan, O (eds) (2011) Urban Morphology and Design, themed issue of
Built Environment, 7.4
Steadman P and Mitchell, L J (2010) ‘Architectural morphospace: mapping worlds of built
forms’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 37.2, 197–220
Urban Archaeology
Page 24
Session 14 (lecture): Case study: Late-Saxon towns of Wessex (Andrew Reynolds)
Synopsis: The emergence of towns in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex is a much
debated issue, which centres on the notion that urban development was a function of the
impact of Viking incursion as a responsive measure aimed at providing defended refuges and
market places. A list of apparently defended towns - known as 'The Burghal Hidage' documents 33 ‘burhs’ (or fortifications) apparently established during the reign of King
Alfred, which formed part of a defensive network against the Vikings. The lecture discusses
the archaeological evidence for these sites in southern England, looking at their layout,
construction, and the evidence for urban development. More recent studies have questioned
such a straightforward interpretation and the seminar considers new approaches and ideas
about urban development in Southern England.
Key reading:
Biddle, M (1976) ‘Towns’, in D M Wilson (ed) The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England.
99-150 [Issue Desk IOA WIL 11]
Carver, M (2010) The Birth of a Borough: an archaeological study of Anglo-Saxon Stafford.
[INST ARCH DAA 410 S.5 CAR]
Clarke H and Ambrosiani B (1991) Towns in the Viking Age. [DA 181 CLA]
Further reading:
Biddle, M (1976) Winchester Studies I: Winchester in the Early Middle Ages, 275-82, 450-55.
[DAA 410 H.2 WIN 1]
Biddle M and Hill D (1971) ‘Late Saxon planned towns’, Antiquaries Journal 51, 70-85
Blair, J (2005) The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society [INST ARCH DAA BLA]
Hall, RA (1989) ‘The Five Boroughs of the Danelaw: a Review of Present Knowledge’,
Anglo-Saxon England 18, 149-206
Haslam J (ed.) (1984) Anglo-Saxon Towns in Southern England [INST ARCH DAA 180
HAS]
Hill D and Rumble, A R (1996) The defence of Wessex: The Burghal Hidage and AngloSaxon Fortifications [DAA 180 HIL]
Session 15 (lecture): Navigating the Roman city: studies in urban design,
connectivity and movement (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: Building on the themes raised in the previous two classes our attention will return
to recent research in the Roman city. First we will discuss Roman town planning. Roman
cities are usually thought of as being closely regulated, laid out to a repetitive grid, but was
this really the case? The relationship between orthogonal planning and organic urban
developments will be discussed, drawing on the evidence of streets, gates and walls to
elucidate the dynamics involved. Controlled movement will be a particular theme, allowing
us to define archaeologies of inclusion and exclusion – through which urban order could be
maintained. In the second part of the class we will look at recent studies of movement and
space in the cities of Rome, Ostia and Pompeii (Laurence & Newsome 2011), and the key
theme of connectivity.
Key reading:
DeLaine, J (2008) ‘Between Concept and Reality: Case studies in the Development of Roman
Cities in the Mediterranean’ in J Marcus and J Sabloff (eds) The Ancient City: New
Urban Archaeology
Page 25
Perspectives on Urbanism in the Old and New Worlds. School of American Research
Press: Albuquerque, 95-116 [INST ARCH BC 100 MAR]
Esmonde Cleary, S (2005) ‘Beating the Bounds: ritual and the articulation of urban space in
Roman Britain’, in A MacMahon and J Price (eds.), Roman working Lives and Urban
Living. Oxford, 1-17 [INST ARCH DAA 170 MAC]
Favro D and Johanson C (2010) ‘Death in Motion: Funeral Processions in the Roman Forum’
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 69. 1, 12-37
Grahame, M (1997), ‘Towards a Theory of Roman Urbanism: Beyond Economics and IdealTypes’, in K Meadows, C Lemke and J Heron (eds) TRAC 96: proceedings of the
Sixth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Oxbow Books: Oxford,
151-62 [INST ARCH DAA 170 THE]
Laurence R and Newsome D J (eds.) (2011) Rome, Ostia, Pompeii: Movement and Space.
Oxford University Press: Oxford [INST ARCH YATES K 120 LAU]
Rogers, G (1991) The Sacred Identity of Ephesos: foundation myths of a Roman city.
Routledge: London [INST ARCH DBC 10 ROG; Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 39
ROG]
Further reading:
Bayliss, R (1999) 'Usurping the urban image: the experience of ritual topography in late
antique cities of the Near East' in Baker et al. (eds) TRAC98: proceedings of the
eighth annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. University of Leicester
[INST ARCH DAA 170 THE]
Creighton, J (2006) Britannia. The Creation of a Roman Province, Routledge: Abingon
[INST ARCH DAA 170 CRE]
Elsner, J (1991) 'Cult and sculpture: sacrifice in the ara pacis augustae', Journal of Roman
Studies 81, 50-61
Favro, D (1994), ‘The Street Triumphant: The Urban Impact of Roman Triumphal Parades’ in
Z Ćelik et al (eds) Streets: Critical Perspectives on Public Space, Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University of California Press, 151-64 [Bartlett ARCHITECTURE B 1
CEL]
Fentress E (1994), Cosa in the Empire: the Unmaking of a Roman Town, Journal of Roman
Archaeology 7, 208-22
Fentress, E (ed.) (2000) Romanization and the City: creation, transformations and failures,
JRA Suppl. Ser. 38 [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K 120 FEN]
Haussler, R (1999) 'Architecture, performance and ritual: the role of state architecture in the
Roman Empire', in Baker et al. (eds) TRAC98: proceedings of the eighth annual
Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. University of Leicester [INST ARCH
DAA 170 THE]
Kostof, S (1991) The City Shaped: urban patterns and meanings through history. Thames
and Hudson: London [Bartlett TOWN PLANNING E 5 KOS]
Lefebvre, H (1991) The Production of Space (transl. D Nicholson Smith), Oxford
[Bartlett ARCHITECTURE A 20 LEF]
MacDonald, W (1986) The Architecture of the Roman Empire II: an urban appraisal. Yale
University Press: London and New Haven [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K 5
MAC]
Newsome, D J (2008) ‘Traffic and Congestion in Rome’s Empire’, Journal of Roman
Archaeology 21, 442-6
Perring, D (1991) 'Spatial organization and social change in Roman towns', in J Rich and A
Wallace-Haddrill (eds), City and Country in the Ancient World . Routledge: London,
273-93 [INST ARCH YATES K 100 RIC & ISSUE DESK IOA RIC 3; Main
ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 RIC]
Urban Archaeology
Page 26
Rykwert, J (1976) The idea of a town: The anthropology of urban form in Rome, Italy and the
ancient world. Faber and Faber: London [INST ARCH BD RYK; Main ANCIENT
HISTORY A 58 RYK; Bartlett TOWN PLANNING E 30 RYK]
Sewell, J (2010) The formation of Roman urbanism, 338-200 B.C.: between contemporary
foreign influence and Roman tradition. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl Series:
Portsmouth RI – Chapter 1on town planning [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K
120 SEW]
Tonkiss, F (2005) Space, the City and Social Theory, Polity Press: Cambridge [Science
GEOGRAPHY H 48 TON]
Ward-Perkins, J (1974) Cities of Ancient Greece and Italy: planning in classical antiquity.
Braziller: New York [INST ARCH YATES K 100 WAR]
Weiss, C F (2010) ‘Performativity of Place: Movement and Water in Second Century A.D.
Ephesus’, in A J Moore, E Harris, P Girdwood, G Taylor and L Shipley(eds) TRAC
2009: Proceedings of the 19th Theoretical Archaeology Conference Southampton and
Michigan 2009, Oxford: Oxbow Books, 66-74 [INST ARCH DAA 170 MOO]
Session 16 (seminar): The foundation of Rome (Corinna Riva & Dominic
Perring)
Synopsis: According to legend (in its most widely accepted version) Rome was founded by
the hero Romulus on April 21st 753 BC. Rome’s sacred identity and mythical origins formed
a key part of Roman identity, and the public landscape of the later Etruscan and Roman city
was built to forge a relationship between contemporary power and ancient tradition. The
study of the origins of Rome is therefore in part an archaeological reconstruction of the
evolution of urban topography, in part a description of ceremonial landscapes, and in part an
attempt to disentangle constructed myth from history. Much depends on which sources to
privilege and how to reconcile uncertainties in the archaeological record with uncertainties in
the historical one. The debate is further complicated by a collision between different schools
of scholarship, operating in different languages. The leading recent excavator of Rome,
Andrea Carandini, claims to have found archaeological evidence that lends support to the idea
(previously championed by Filippo Coarelli) that Rome was built as a planned city on the
Palatine hill – at a date consistent with legend, and around monuments that can be identified
with places described in ancient sources. Little of this work is published in English, where
reviews are generally hostile. T P Wiseman, in particular, has developed a strong critique of
Carandini – and can instead identify the ways in which myths are the product of later
invention as urban communities and factions seek to embellish their legendary credentials.
This session will place this debate within the context of recent research into early Etruscan
urbanisation and its relationship with Roman and Latial urbanisation, discussing problems
with the Romano-centric and textual model of Etruscan urbanisation. It will involve a
critique of different disciplinary approaches and sources (in particular the relationship
between text and archaeology) in the study of how/why cities come into being.
Key reading:
Carandini, A (2011) Rome: Day One, Princeton University Press: Princeton [on order]
Grandazzi, A (1997) The Foundation of Rome. Myth and History (transl. J M Todd from
Grandazzi 1991). Cornell University Press: Ithaca and London [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 22 GRA]
Riva, C (2010) The urbanisation of Etruria. Funerary practices and social change, 700-600
BC. Cambridge University Press: New York - chapters 1, 2, 7 [INST ARCH: DAF 10
RIV]
Torelli, M (2000) The Etruscan City-State, in M H Hansen (ed) A Comparative Study of
Thirty City-State Cultures. An Investigation Conducted by the Copenhagen Polis
Urban Archaeology
Page 27
Centre, 189-203. Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters: Copenhagen
[INST ARCH: BC 100 Qto HAN]
Vanzetti, A (2002) Some Current Approaches to Protohistoric Centralization and
Urbanization in Central Italy, in Attema, P., G.J. Burgers, E. van Joolen, M. van
Leusen and B. Mater (eds) New Developments in Italian Landscape Archaeology, 3651. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1091. Archeopress: Oxford,
36-51 [INST ARCH: DAF Qto ATT]
Wiseman, T P (2001)’Reading Carandini’, Journal of Roman Studies 91, 182-193
Wiseman, T P (2008) Unwritten Rome. Exeter: University of Exeter Press [Main
CLASSICS LC 18 WIS]
Further reading:
Ammerman, A (1990) ‘On the origins of the Roman forum’, AJA 94, 627-46
Bietti-Sestieri A M (1992) The Iron Age community of Osteria dell’Osa: a study of sociopolitical development in Central Tyrrhenian Italy. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [INST ARCH: DAF 10 BIE]
Carandini, A (1997) ‘La nascita di Roma. Torino [on order]
Carandini, A (2004) Palatino, Velia e Sacra Via. Paesaggi urbani attraverso il tempo.
Workshop di archeologia classica. Quaderni, 1. Rome: Edizioni dell'Ateneo [on
order]
Claridge, A (1998) Rome: an Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford [on order]
Claridge, A (2010) Rome: an Oxford Archaeological Guide . Oxford [INST ARCH YATES E
22 ROM]
Coarelli, F (1986) Il Foro Romano: Periodo Arcaico, Edizioni Quasar: Roma [Stores 393 K
50 COA]
Cornell, T (2000) ‘The city-states in Latium’, in M H Hansen (ed.) A comparative study of
thirty city-state cultures. An investigation conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre.
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters: Copenhagen, 209-228 [INST
ARCH: BC 100 Qto HAN]
Damgaard Andersen, H (1997) ‘The archaeological evidence for the origin and development
of the Etruscan city in the 7th to 6th centuries BC’, in H Damgaard Andersen et al
(eds) Urbanization in the Mediterranean in the 9th to 6th centuries BC. Museum
Tusculanum Press: Copenhagen. 343-382 [INST ARCH YATES K 100 AND TC
3714]
Filippi, F (ed.) Archeologia e Giubileo: Gli interventi a Roma e nel Lazio nel piano per il
grande Giubileo del 2000 [on order]
Leighton, R (2004) Tarquinia. An Etruscan City. Duckworth: London - Chapter 3 [INST
ARCH DAF 10 LEI]
Nijboer A J (2004) ‘Characteristics of emerging towns in Central Italy, 900/800 to 400 BC’,
in P Attema (ed.) Centralization, early urbanization and colonization in first
millennium BC Italy and Greece, Part 1: Italy. Peeters: Leuven, 137-156 [INST
ARCH DAG 100 ATT]
Patterson, J (2010) ‘The City of Rome Revisted: from mid republic to mid empire’ Journal of
Roman Studies 100, 210-32
Rasmussen T (2005) ‘Urbanization in Etruria’, in B Cunliffe and R Osborne (eds),
Mediterranean Urbanisation 800–600 BC, 71-90. Proceedings of the British
Academy 126. The British Academy: London [INST ARCH: DAG 100 OSB; Main:
HUMANITIES Pers]
Rodriguez-Mayorgas, A (2010) ‘Romulus, Aeneas and the Cultural Memory of the Roman
Republic’, Athenaeum 98, 89-110
Smith, C J (1996) Early Rome and Latium. Economy and society c. 1000 to 500
BC. Oxford, Clarendon [INST ARCH: DAF 10 SMI; Main: ANCIENT HISTORY R
11 SMI]
Urban Archaeology
Page 28
Smith, C J (2000) ‘Early and Archaic Rome’, in J Coulston and H Dodge (eds) Ancient Rome:
the archaeology of the Eternal City, Oxbow: Oxford, 16-41 [INST ARCH YATES E
22 ROM]
Smith, C J (2005) ‘The beginnings of urbanization at Rome’, in B W Cunliffe and R Osborne
(eds) Mediterranean Urbanization 800-600 BC. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 91111 [INST ARCH: DAG 100 OSB; Main: HUMANITIES Pers]
Smith, C J (2007) ‘Latium and the Latins. The Hinterland of Rome’, in G Bradley, E Isayev
and C Riva (eds) Ancient Italy. Regions without Boundaries. Exeter University Press:
Exeter, 161-178 [INST ARCH: DAF 100 BRA]
Steingräber, S (2001) ‘The Process of Urbanization of Etruscan Settlements from the Late
Villanovan to the Late Archaic Period (End of the Eighth to the Beginning of the
Fifth Century B.C.): Presentation of a Project and Preliminary Results’, Etruscan
Studies 8, Article 1. [Available at:
http://scholarworks.umass.edu/etruscan_studies/vol8/iss1/1 ]
Wiseman T P (1996), ‘What do we know about early Rome?’, Journal of Roman Archaeology
9, 310-315
Wiseman, T P (2010) ‘The city that never was: Alba Longa and the historical tradition’,
Journal of Roman Archaeology 23, 433-9
Session 17 (lecture) Case study: Feeding the town (Mark Maltby)
Synopsis: This session will focus on the supply of meat and other animal food products to
towns. Using case studies from Roman Britain and Medieval Russia, we will examine how
major towns were provisioned. Some of the questions that will be addressed will include the
following. How was provisioning organized? What were the roles of butchers and other
specialists and where did they operate? Did the diets of inhabitants of towns differ from those
in their hinterland? What impacts did the emergence of towns have on traditional animal
production, redistribution and consumption practices?
Reading:
Albarella, U, Johnstone, C, and Vickers, K (2008) ‘The development of animal husbandry
from the Late Iron Age to the end of the Roman period: a case study from South-East
Britain’, Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 1828-48
Brisbane, M and Gaimster, D (eds.) (2001) Novgorod: the archaeology of a Russian Medieval
city and its hinterland. British Museum Occasional Papers 141: London [INST
ARCH DAK 14 Qto BRI]
Brisbane, M, Nosov, E and Makarov, N (eds.) (2012) The Archaeology of Medieval Novgorod
in its wider Context. Oxbow: Oxford [on order]
Brisbane, M and Maltby, M (2002) ‘Love letters to bare bones: a comparison of two types of
evidence for the use of animals in medieval Novgorod’, Archaeological Review from
Cambridge 18, 99-119
Cool, H (2006) Eating and Drinking in Roman Britain. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [INST ARCH DAA 170 COO]
Grant, A (2004) ‘Domestic animals and their uses’, in M Todd (ed.), A Companion to Roman
Britain. Oxford: Blackwell, 371-392 [INST ARCH DAA 170 TOD]
Hammon, A (2011) ‘Understanding the Romano-British–early Medieval transition: a
zooarchaeological perspective from Wroxeter (Viroconium Cornoviorum)’, Britannia
42, 275-305
King, A (1999) ‘Diet in the Roman world: a regional inter-site comparison of the animal
bones’, Journal of Roman Studies 12, 168-202
Maltby, M (2007) ‘Chop and change: specialist cattle carcass processing in Roman Britain’,
in B Croxford, N Ray, R Roth and N White (eds.), TRAC 2006: Proceedings of the
Urban Archaeology
Page 29
Sixteenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Cambridge 2006.
Oxbow: Oxford, 59-76 [INST ARCH DAA 170 CRO]
Maltby, M (2010) Feeding a Roman Town: environmental evidence from excavations in
Winchester, 1972-1985. Winchester Museums Service: Winchester [INST ARCH
DAA 410 Qto MAL]
O’Connor, T (2010) ‘Livestock and deadstock in early Medieval Europe from the North Sea
to the Baltic’, Environmental Archaeology 15, 1-15
van der Veen, M and O’Connor, T (1998) ‘The expansion of agricultural production in the
late Iron Age and Roman Britain’, in J Bayley (ed.), Science in Archaeology: an
agenda for the future. English Heritage: London, 127-43 [INST ARCH AJ 10 Qto
BAY]
Woolgar, C M, Serjeantson, D and Waldron, T (eds.) (2006) Food in Medieval England.
Oxford University Press [INST ARCH HC WOO]
Session 18 (student led seminar): The topography and society of Pompeii
This is a student led seminar. One member of the class will take responsibility for chairing
the session and agreeing on topics and contributions (with a minimum of two and maximum
of four papers to be arranged). Each contribution will last no longer than 20 minutes, with a
further 5 minutes for questions specific to the paper. The session chair will additionally
responsible for introducing the session and organising a concluding discussion.
Synopsis: Pompeii is where urban archaeology started, and it remains the most
comprehensively studied of all Roman cities. The preservation of this site by the vulcanic
eruption of AD 79 makes it one of the most evocative sites of the ancient world. Recent
research has concentrated on making better sense of both the topography and chronology of
the site – drawing on the unparalleled opportunity provided by the site to look at spatial and
morphological diversity. This is the key theme of this session: how was urban space used; to
what extent were some activities clustered - and do such clusters show the work of social or
economic forces? Topics might include town planning, the spatiality of industry, the
archaeology of vice, connectivity, the distribution of elite households, and so on.
Key reading:
Bon, S E and Jones, R F J (1997) Sequence and space in Pompeii, Oxbow Monograph 77
[INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
Laurence, R (2007) Roman Pompeii: space and society. (2nd edition) Routledge: London
[INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
Laurence R and Newsome D J (eds.) (2011), Rome, Ostia, Pompeii: Movement and
Space. Oxford University Press: Oxford– for papers by Van Nes, Kaiser and
Poehler [INST ARCH YATES K 120 LAU]
Robinson, D (2005) ‘Re-thinking the social organisation of trade and industry in first century
AD Pompeii’, in A MacMahon and J Price (eds) Roman working lives and urban
living. Oxbow: Oxford, 88-105 [INST ARCH DAA 170 MAC]
Wallace-Hadrill, A (1994) Houses and society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Princeton
University Press: Princeton [INST ARCH YATES K 73 WAL]
Wallace-Hadrill, A (1995) 'Public honour and private shame: The urban texture of Pompeii',
in T J Cornell and K Lomas (eds), Urban society in Roman Italy, London, 121-34
[Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 65 COR]
Further reading:
Banaji, J.M ‘The economy and society of Pompeii’, Journal of Roman Studies 79, 229-31
Urban Archaeology
Page 30
Beard, M (2008) Pompeii: the life of a Roman town. Profile Books: London [INST ARCH
YATES E 22 POM]
D’Orazio, L and Maruscelli, E (1999) ‘Textiles in Pompeii: technology, industry and
commerce’, in A Ciarallo and E de Carolis (eds) Pompeii: life in a Roman town,
Electa: Milan, 92-4 [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS E 22 POM]
DeFelice, J (2001) Roman Hospitality the professional women of Pompeii, Marco Polo
Monographs 6, Shangri La Publications: Pennsylvania [Main ANCIENT HISTORY
R 21 DEF]
Dobbins J and Foss P (eds) (2007) The World of Pompeii. Routledge: London [INST ARCH
YATES E 22 POM]
Ellis, S J R (2004) ‘The distribution of Bars at Pompeii: Archaeological, Spatial and
Viewshed Analyses’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 17, 371-84
Fulford, M and Wallace-Hadrill, A (1998) 'Unpeeling Pompeii', Antiquity, 72, 128-45.
Hartnett, J (2008), ‘Si quis hic sederit: Streetside Benches and Urban Society in Pompeii’,
American Journal of Archaeology 112, 91-119
Jongman, W (1988) The economy and society of Pompeii, Geiben: Amsterdam [ANCIENT
HISTORY R 21 JON]
Laurence, R (1994) 'The organisation of space in Pompeii', in T J Cornell and K Lomas (eds)
Urban society in Roman Italy. London, 63-78 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 65
COR]
Mattingly, D J (1990) 'Painting, presses and perfume production at Pompeii', in Oxford
Journal of Archaeology, 91, 71-90
Raper, R A (1977) 'The analysis of the urban structure at Pompeii. A sociological
examination of land use', in D L Clarke (ed.), Spatial Archaeology . Academic Press:
London [INST ARCH AH CLA; Science GEOGRAPHY H 58 CLA]
Tsujimura, S (1991) ‘Ruts in Pompeii: The traffic system in the Roman City’, Opuscula
Pompeiana 2, 58-86
Wallace-Hadrill, A (2011) Herculaneum: Past and Future. Frances Lincoln [INST ARCH
YATES QUARTOS E 22 HER]
Zanker, P (1998) Pompeii public and private life. Harvard University Press: Cambridge Mass
and London [INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
Session 19 (lecture): The archaeology of urban houses and households (Dominic
Perring)
Synopsis: We have three main sources of evidence for the study of daily life in the Roman
city: texts, buildings and rubbish. Domestic architecture has become an increasingly
important field of study, in which town houses have become seen as texts – the reading of
which can cast light on changing social and economic circumstances. The Graeco-Roman
house provided a stage for the social encounters from which political and economic life was
built. The social complexity of city living left a clear and visible mark on the design and
organisation of domestic space. The study of town houses consequently offers important
information on how Roman cities were understood and experienced, and about how such
understandings may have differed according to circumstance. Roman civic life revolved
around the encounters that took place here, and domestic space was configured around
socially acceptable approaches to polite behaviour. This behaviour drew on a shared interest
in Greek culture that facilitated the educated discourse of elite society. The use of Greek
inspired approaches to domestic ceremony required the adoption of appropriate GraecoRoman architectural settings. These ceremonies, and the architectures that they inspired, were
essentially concerned with reproducing patronal ties within local communities. As a
consequence the architecture was not only Graeco-Roman in inspiration, but was deployed in
ways that reinforced the distinctive characters of particular civic and regional identities. Most
Urban Archaeology
Page 31
Roman houses managed to combine references to ‘universal’ cultural values within local
design traditions. The purposes of this session are:
 to identify ways in which text, architecture and find can be combined in the study of
social arrangements
 to question assumptions about family structure and the relationship between
domestic and working lives
Key reading:
Hales, S (2003) The Roman House and Social Identity, Cambridge University Press [INST
ARCH YATES K 73 HAL]
Nevett, L C (2010) Domestic Space in Classical Antiquity (Key Themes in Ancient History).
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [INST ARCH YATES K 70 NEV]
Rawson, B (ed.) (2011) A companion to families in the Greek and Roman worlds. WileyBlackwell: Chichester – see contributions by Nevett, Trumper and Dickmann [INST
ARCH ANCIENT HISTORY M 65 RAW]
Further reading:
Allason-Jones, L (2001) ‘Material culture and identity’, in S James and M Millett, (eds),
Britons and Romans: advancing an archaeological agenda. Council for British
Archaeology Research Report 125: York, 19-25 [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU
125]
Allison, P M (2001) ‘Using the material and written sources: turn of the millennium
approaches to Roman domestic space’, AJA 105, 181–208
Allison, P M (2004) Pompeian Households. An Analysis of the Material Culture. Los Angeles
[INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
Allison, P M, (ed.) (1999), The Archaeology of Household Activities, Routledge: London and
New York [INST ARCH BD ALL]
Alston R (2002) The city in Roman and Byzantine Egypt, Routledge, London And New York
[INST ARCH EGYPTOLOGY B 20 ALS]
Ball, L F (2003) The Domus Aurea and the Roman Architectural Revolution. Cambridge
[INST ARCH YATES K 55 BAL]
Barton I M (1996) Roman Domestic Buildings (Exeter Studies in History) [INST ARCH
YATES K 73 BAR]
Bowes, K (2010) Houses and Society in the Later Roman Empire, Duckworth [INST ARCH
YATES K 73 BOW]
Brandt, J R and Karlsson, L (eds) (2001) From huts to houses: transformation of ancient
societies, Stockholm [INST ARCH KO Qto BRA]
Cooper, K (2007) "Closely Watched Households: Visibility, Exposure and Private Power in
the Roman Domus," P&P 197, 3-33.
DeLaine, J (2004) “Designing for a market: medianum apartments at Ostia,” Journal of
Roman Archaeology 17, 146-176
Dunbabin, K (2003) The Roman banquet: images of conviviality, see pages 46-8 [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 65 DUN]
Ellis, S (2002) Roman Housing, London: Duckworth [INST ARCH YATES K 73 ELL]
George, M (1997) ‘Repopulating the Roman house’ in B Rawson and P Weaver The Roman
family in Italy: status, sentiment, space, Clarendon Press: Oxford [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 65 RAW]
Hermansen, G (1982), Ostia: Aspects of Roman City Life, The University of Alberta Press
[Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 21 HER]
Lavan, L, Özgenel, L and Sarantis, A (eds) (2007) Housing in Late Antiquity. From Palaces
to Shops. Leiden and Boston [INST ARCH DA 180 LAV]
Urban Archaeology
Page 32
Laurence, R and Wallace-Hadrill, A (1997) Domestic Space in the Roman world: Pompeii
and beyond (JRA Suppl. 22.) Portsmouth, R.I. [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K
73 LAU]
Métraux G P R (1999) ‘Ancient Housing: "Oikos" and "Domus" in Greece and Rome’
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 58. 3, 392-405
Perring, D (2003) ‘The archaeology of Beirut: a report on work in the insula of the House of
the Fountains’, Antiquaries Journal 83, 195-229
Perring, D (2005) ‘Domestic architecture and social discourse in Roman towns’ in A
MacMahon and J Price (eds) Roman working lives and urban living, Oxford: Oxbow,
18-28 [INST ARCH DAA 170 MAC]
Sewell, J (2010) The formation of Roman urbanism, 338-200 B.C.: between contemporary
foreign influence and Roman tradition. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl Series:
Portsmouth RI – chapter 4 on the atrium house [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K
120 SEW]
Vanhaverbeke, H, Poblome, J, Vermeulen, F and Waelkens, M (eds) (2008) Thinking about
Space: the potential of surface survey and contextual analysis in the analysis of space
in Roman times, Leuven (Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology 8) [INST
ARCH DA Qto VAN]
Session 20 (student led seminar): Houses of Roman Pompeii
This is a student led seminar (see Session 18 for structure/guidance)
Synopsis: This seminar will involve case studies on the archaeology of houses, art and
decoration, gardens and household assemblages in Pompeii – building from the more general
themes discussed in session 19. Individual presentations will draw on the evidence of both
individual houses (such as the House of the Faun, House of the Menander, etc.) as well as
specialist studies of finds, structures and spaces.
Key reading:
Allison, P M (2004), Pompeian Households. An Analysis of the Material Culture. Los
Angeles [INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
Grahame, M (2000) Reading Space: Social Interaction and Identity in the Houses of Roman
Pompeii, BAR: Oxford [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K 73 GRA]
Laurence, R (2007) Roman Pompeii: space and society. (2nd edition) Routledge: London
[INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
Laurence, R and Wallace-Hadrill, A (1997), Domestic Space in the Roman world: Pompeii
and beyond (JRA Suppl. 22.). Portsmouth, R.I. [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K
73 LAU]
Wallace-Hadrill, A (1994) Houses and society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Princeton
University Press: Princeton [INST ARCH YATES K 73 WAL]
Jashemski, W (1979) The gardens of Pompeii. Caratzas Brothers: New Rochelle, N.Y. [INST
ARCH YATES QUARTOS E 22 POM]
Further reading:
Allison, P (1997) 'Roman households: An archaeological perspective', in H M Parkins (ed)
Roman Urbanism, beyond the consumer city. Routledge: London and New York,
112-46 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 PAR]
Clarke, J R (1991) The houses of Roman Italy, 100BC - AD250. Ritual, space and decoration.
University of California Press: London and Berkeley [INST ARCH YATES K 73 +
Farrar, L (1998) Ancient Roman gardens (2nd edn). Stroud [INST ARCH YATES K 73 FAR]
Urban Archaeology
Page 33
George, M (2004) ‘Domestic Architecture and Household Relations: Pompeii and Roman
Ephesos’, Journal for the Study of the New Testament 27.1, 7-25
Knights, C (1994) 'The spatiality of the Roman domestic setting', in M Parker-Pearson and C
Richards (eds), Architecture and order: Approaches to social space . Routledge:
London [INST ARCH AH PAR; Bartlett ARCHITECTURE A 20 PAR; Science
ANTHROPOLOGY E 15 PEA]
Ling, R, (1997) The Insula of the Menander at Pompeii 1: the Structures, Oxford University
Press: New York [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS E 22 POM]
Richardson, L (1988) Pompeii: an Architectural History, Johns Hopkins University Press:
Baltimore [INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
Veyne P (ed.) (1987) A History of Private Life. I From Pagan Rome to Byzantium (transl. A.
Goldhammer), Cambridge, Mass. and London - mainly for the paper by Thébert on
‘Private Life and Domestic Architecture in Roman Africa’ [Main HISTORY 82 cu
ARI]
Zanker, P (1998) Pompeii public and private life. Harvard University Press: Cambridge Mass
and London [INST ARCH YATES E 22 POM]
TERM II
Session 21 (lecture): Town walls and the urban fortress (Tim Williams)
Synopsis: Town walls are a common feature of many ancient urban centres. But their
inspiration and function often encompassed complex ideological as well as practical issues:
defence, security, social and political barriers, religious and legal limits, indicators of prestige,
taxation controls, etc. The session will explore these issues and consider themes such as
design, architecture, decoration, gates and the scale of investment that these undertakings
represented. We will examine the function of town walls through various case studies, and
examine their impact upon later cities, long after the walls had ceased to perform their
original functions. We will also look at the role of urban fortresses, cities as fortified places,
military encampments and associated linear boundaries, and their impact upon the nature of
the urban space.
Reading:
Urban defences
Chiaramonte, C (2007) ‘The walls and gates’, in Dobbins, J J & Foss, P W (eds) The World of
Pompeii, pp.140-149. Routledge: London [YATES E 22 POM]
Karlsson, L (1992) Fortification towers and masonry techniques in the Hegemony of
Syracuse, 405-211 B.C., Acta Instituti Romani Regni Sueciae XLIX [STORE 070815]
Lavan, L (ed) (2001) Recent research in late-antique urbanism. Journal of Roman
Archaeology: Portsmouth, Rhode Island [INST ARCH DBA 100 LAV] Especially
‘Fortifications and urbanism: Thessaloniki and other eastern cities’ (J Crow); ‘Urban
remodelling and defensive strategy in Late Roman Italy’ (N J Christie); ‘City walls
and urban area in Macedonia’ (S Provost)
Maloney, J & Hobley, B (eds) (1983) Roman urban defences in the west. Council for British
Archaeology: London [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 51]
Sami, D and Speed, G (eds) (2010) Debating Urbanism: Within and Beyond the Walls AD
300–700. Leicester Archaeology Monograph 17: Leicester [ISSUE DESK IOA SAM
2]
Wilson, R J A (2006) ‘Early urban defences in Britain’, in R J A Wilson (ed) (2006)
Romanitas: Essays on Roman archaeology in honour of Sheppard Frere on the
occasion of his ninetieth birthday. Oxbow Books: Oxford [INST ARCH DAA 170
WIL]
Urban Archaeology
Page 34
Merv
Brun, P & Annaev, A (2001) ‘The fortifications of Sultan Kala’, Iran 39,33-41
Brun, P & Annaev, A (2003) ‘The fortifications of Abdullah Khan Kala’, Iran 41, 148-161
Brun, P (2005) ‘From arrows to bullets: the fortifications of Abdullah Khan Kala (Merv,
Turkmenistan)’, Antiquity 79(305), 616-624
Zavyalov, V A (2007) ‘The Fortifications of the City of Gyaur Kala, Merv’, in J Cribb & G
Herrmann (eds) After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. 313-329. Oxford
University Press: Oxford [INST ARCH DBK CRI]
London defences
Butler, J (2001) ‘The city defences at Aldersgate’, Trans London and Middlesex Archaeol Soc
52, 41-112
Butler, J (2001) ‘1600 years of the City defences at Aldersgate’, London Archaeologist 9.9,
235-244
Hobley, B (1981) ‘The Archaeology of London Wall’, The London Journal 7.1, 3-14
Howe, E (2002) Roman defences and medieval industry: excavations at Baltic House, City of
London. Museum of London Archaeological Service: London [INST ARCH DAA
416 Qto HOW]
Lyon, J (2007) Within these walls: Roman and medieval defences north of Newgate at the
Merrill Lynch Financial Centre, City of London. Museum of London Archaeological
Service: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto LYO]
Maloney, J (1983) ‘Recent work on London's defences’, in J Maloney & B Hobley (eds)
Roman urban defences in the west. Council for British Archaeology: London [INST
ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 51]
Parnell, G (1985) ‘The Roman and Medieval Defences and the Later Development, of the
Inmost Ward, Tower of London: Excavations 1955-77’, Transactions of the London
and Middlesex Archaeological Society 36: 1-80
Sankey, D & Stephenson, A (1991) ‘Recent work on London's defences’, in V Maxfield & M
J Dobson (eds) Roman frontier studies 1989: proceedings of the XVth International
congress of Roman frontier studies. University of Exeter Press :Exeter [INST ARCH
DA 170 Qto LIM]
Sheldon, H (2010) ‘Enclosing Londinium: The Roman Landward and Riverside walls: Papers
Read at the 45th LAMAS local history conference held at the Museum of London in
November 2010: ‘London under attach: wars and insurrections’, Trans London and
Middlesex Archaeological Society 61, 227-35
Shepherd, J D (2011) The Discovery of the Roman Fort at Cripplegate, City of London:
Excavations by W.F. Grimes, 1947-1968. Museum of London Archaeology: London
[INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto SHE]
London – contemporary context
Harris, E (2009) Walking London Wall. The History Press [LONDON HISTORY 72.240
HAR]
Sandes, C (2008) ‘St Alphage's Tower, Cripplegate: monument to tenacity’, London
Archaeologist 12.2, 35-39
Sandes, C (2010) Archaeology, conservation and the city: post-conflict redevelopment in
London, Berlin and Beirut. Oxford: Archaeopress [INST ARCH AG Qto SAN]
Forts & citadels
Bartl, K and Moaz, A A-R (eds) (2008) Residences, Castles, Settlements. Transformation
Processes from Late Antiquity to Early Islam in Bilad al-Sham. Marie Leidorf:
Rahden [INST ARCH DBD 100 Qto BAR]
Urban Archaeology
Page 35
Genequand, D (2005) ‘From 'desert castle' to medieval town: Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi (Syria)’,
Antiquity 79(304), 350-361
Shepherd, J D (2011) The Discovery of the Roman Fort at Cripplegate, City of London:
Excavations by W.F. Grimes, 1947-1968. Museum of London Archaeology: London
[INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto SHE]
Session 22 (Student led seminar): Public space and building in the ancient city
This is a student led seminar (see Session 18 for structure/guidance)
Synopsis: This seminar will review recent research on the design, layout and meaning of
public buildings and architecture in ancient cities, with particular focus on the archaeology of
individual classes of monument/space (baths, theatres, etc.) The bibliography presented
below is structured with reference to the study of such buildings in the Roman world, but
students are encouraged to pursue interests in the public architecture of other regions and
periods (taking advice from the course tutors on supplementary reading lists) to facilitate
comparative discussion. In preparation for the class students should focus their attention on
an individual monument class – and identify a small (which in many cases could be a single
example) number of case studies (e.g. the amphitheatre: with case studies of the Colosseum
and the Roman amphitheatre of London). Descriptive detail should be restricted to the
minimum necessary to facilitate class discussion: our main interest is to know how recent
archaeological research on these monument types has contributed to our understanding of a
society.
Reading:
Background reading
Laurence, R, Esmonde Cleary, S, & Sears, G, (2011) The City in the Roman West, c.250 BCc.AD 250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 7 – 10 [INST ARCH
DA 170 LAU]
Ward-Perkins, J B 1981, Roman Imperial Architecture (2nd edn). Harmondsworth [INST
ARCH YATES K 5 WAR]
Haussler, R (1999) ‘Architecture, Performance and Ritual: the role of state architecture the
Roman Empire’, in P Baker, C Forcey, S Jundi and R Witcher (eds) TRAC98
Proceedings of the eighth annual theoretical Roman archaeology conference.
Oxbow: Oxford, 1-13 [INST ARCH DAA 170 THE]
Sear, F (2000), Roman Architecture (2nd edn). Batsford: London [INST ARCH YATES K 5
SEA]
Segal, A (1997) From Function to Monument: Urban Landscapes of Roman Palestine, Syria
and Province Arabia, Oxbow: Oxford [INST ARCH YATES K 120 SEG]
Taylor, R (2003) Roman builders: a study in architectural process. Cambridge University
Press: Cambridge [INST ARCH YATES K 5 TAY]
Forum and basilica
Brown, F E, Richardson, E H and Richardson L (1993) Cosa III: The Buildings of the Forum:
Colony, Municipium and Village. Rome [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS E 22
COS]
Dobbins J J (1994) ‘Problems of chronology, decoration, and urban design in the forum of
Pompeii’, AJA 98, 629-94
Guidobaldi P (1998) The Roman Forum. Electa: Milan [on order]
Hurst, H.R. (1999) ‘Civic space at Glevum’, in H. Hurst (ed) The Coloniae of Roman Britain:
New Studies and a Review. Papers of the conference held at Gloucester on 5-6 July
1997. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series No. 36. Portsmouth :
Rhode Island, 152-160 [INST ARCH DAA 170 HUR]
Urban Archaeology
Page 36
Milne, G (ed), 1992 From Roman Basilica to Medieval Market. HMSO: London [INST
ARCH DAA 416 MIL]
Newsome, D J (2010) The Forum and The City: Rethinking Centrality in Rome and
Pompeii, 3rd century BC – 2nd century A.D. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation,
University of Birmingham) [available on-line at http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/814/]
Packer, J E (1997) The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments. University of
California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles [INST ARCH YATES QUARTOS K 50
PAC]
Ruoff-Väänänen E (1978) ‘Studies in the Italian fora’ Historia Einzelshriften 32
Sewell, J (2005) ‘Trading places? A reappraisal of the fora at Cosa’, Ostraka 14, 91-114
Sewell, J (2010) The formation of Roman urbanism, 338-200 B.C.: between contemporary
foreign influence and Roman tradition. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl Series:
Portsmouth RI – Chapter 2 on town planning and the forum [INST ARCH YATES
QUARTOS K 120 SEW]
Trifiló F (2011) Movement, Gaming and the Use of Space in the Forum’ in R Laurence and
D J Newsome (eds.), Rome, Ostia, Pompeii: Movement and Space. Oxford
University Press: Oxford, 312-31 [INST ARCH YATES K 120 LAU]
Welch, K (2003) ‘A new view of the origins of the Basilica: the Atrium Regium,
Graecostasis, and the Roman diplomacy’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 16, 5-34
Wiseman T P (1990) ‘The central area of the Roman forum’, Journal of Roman Archaeology
3, 245-246
Amphitheatre
Auguet R (1994) Cruelty and Civilisation. The Roman Games. Routledge: London [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 80 AUG]
Bateman, N, Cowan, C, and Wroe-Brown, R (2008) London’s Roman amphitheatre:
Guildhall Yard, City of London. MoLAS Monograph Series 35: London [INST
ARCH DAA 416 Qto BAT]
Bauman R A (1996) Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome. London [Main LAW R 7 BAU]
Beacham R (1999) Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. New Haven [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 80 BEA]
Bomgardner D L (1993) ‘New era for amphitheatre studies’ Journal of Roman Archaeology
6, 375-9
Bomgardner D L (2000) The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge: London [YATES
K 63 BOM]
Coleman K (1990) ‘Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments’,
Journal of Roman Studies 80, 44-73
Futrell A (1997) Blood in the Arena. The Spectacle of Roman Power. University of Texas
Press: Austin [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 80 FUT]
Hopkins K (1983) Death and Renewal. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge - see 1-30,
‘Murderous Games’. [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 6 HOP ]
Hopkins, K and Beard, M (2005) The Colosseum. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA
[YATES K 60 HOP]
Köhne E and Ewigleben C (2000), Gladiators and Caesars: the power of spectacle in ancient
Rome; London: British Museum [YATES QUARTOS A 60 KOH]
Kyle D G (2001) Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome; Routledge: London [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 80 KYL]
Welch K E (1991) ‘Roman Amphitheatres revived’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 1, 272-81
Welch K E (1994) ‘The Roman Arena in Late-Republican Italy: a new interpretation’,
Journal of Roman Archaeology 7, 80-99
Welch, K E (2007) The Roman Amphitheatre: from its origins to the Colosseum. Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge [YATES K 63 WEL]
Wiedemann T (1992) Emperors and Gladiators. Routledge: London
Urban Archaeology
Page 37
Wilmot T (ed) (2009) Roman Amphitheatres and Spectacula: a 21 st century Perspective.
BAR: Oxford [YATES QUARTOS K 63 WIL]
Circus and Theatre
Bartsch S (1994) Actors in the Audience. Theatricality and Doublespeak from Nero to
Hadrian. Harvard University Press: Camb. Mass. [Main CLASSICS LC 18 BAR]
Beacham R C (1991) The Roman theatre and its audience. Routledge: London [Main
CLASSICS LC 32 BEA]
Coleman K (2000) ‘Entertaining Rome’, in J Coulston and H Dodge (eds), Ancient Rome:
The Archaeology of the Eternal City. Oxbow Books: Oxford, 210-58 [INST ARCH
YATES E 22 ROM]
Crummy, P (2005) ‘The circus at Colchester (Colonia Victricensis)’, Journal of Roman
Archaeology 18, 267-77
Gruen E S (1992) Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome. Duckworth: London Chapter 5 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 72 GRU]
Heintz F (1998) ‘Circus curses and their archaeological contexts’, Journal of Roman
Archaeology 11: 337-42.
Humphrey, J H (1986) Roman Circuses: Arenas for Chariot Racing, Batsford: London especially chs 3-5 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 80 HUM]
Lim R (1999) ‘In the Temple of Laughter: Visual and Literary Representations of Spectators
at Roman Games’, in B Bergmann and C Kondoleon (eds) The art of ancient
spectacle. National Gallery of Art: Washington, 343-65 [YATES QUARTOS A 60
BER]
Nicolet C (1976) The World of the Citizen in Republican Rome, 361-73 [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 64 NIC]
Parker H N (1999) ‘The observed of all observers: spectacle, applause and cultural poetics in
the Roman theatre audience’, in B Bergmann and C Kondoleon (eds) The art of
ancient spectacle. National Gallery of Art: Washington, 163-79 [YATES QUARTOS
A 60 BER]
Rawson E (1987) ‘Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis’, Papers of the British
School at Rome 55: 83-113 Reprinted in E. Rawson (1991) Roman Culture and
Society, 508-45 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 13 RAW]
Ros, K E (1996) ‘The Roman theatre at Carthage’ AJA 100.3, 449-89
Sear, F (2006) Roman Theatres: An Architectural Study. Oxford [YATES QUARTOS K 63
SEA]
Veyne P (1990) Bread and Circuses: the historical sociology and political pluralism. Allen
Lane: London - Chapters 3 & 4 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY P 64 VEY]
Baths
DeLaine J (1997) The Baths of Caracalla. A Study in the Design, Construction and
Economics of Large-Scale Building Projects in Imperial Rome. JRA Suppl:
Portsmouth RI [YATES QUARTOS K 65 DEL]
DeLaine J and Johnson D E (eds) (1999) Roman Baths and Bathing. JRA Suppl: Portsmouth
RI [YATES QUARTOS K 65 DEL]
Douglas, A, Gerrard J and Sudds, B (2011) A Roman settlement and bath house at
Shadwell: excavations at Tobacco Dock and Babe Ruth Restaurant, the Highway,
London. Pre-Construct Archaeology: London. [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto DOU]
Fagan G G (1999) Bathing in Public in the Roman World. University of Michigan Press: Ann
Arbor [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 65 FAG]
Nielson I (1990) Thermae et Balnea: The Architecture and Cultural History of Roman Public
Baths. Aarhus [YATES QUARTOS K 65 NIE]
Urban Archaeology
Page 38
Wardle A (2008) ‘Bene lava: bathing in Roman London’, in J Clark, J Cotton, J Hall, R
Sherris and H Swain (eds) Londinium and beyond: essays on Roman London and its
hinterland for Harvey Sheldon. CBA Research Report 156: York, 201-11 [INST
ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 156]
Yegül F (1992) Baths and Bathing in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge, Mass. [YATES
QUARTOS K 65 YEG]
Temples
Barton I M (1982) ‘Capitoline temples in Italy and the provinces (especially Africa)’ Aufstieg
und Niedergang der Römischen Welt II 12.1. Berlin, 259-342 [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 5 TEM]
Mierse W E (1999) Temples and Towns in Roman Iberia: the social and architectural
dynamics of sanctuary designs from the third century BC to the third century AD.
University of California Press: Berkeley [YATES K 45 MIE]
Stambaugh J E (1978) ‘The functions of Roman temples’, Aufstieg und Niedergang der
Römischen Welt II.16.1, 534-608 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 5 TEM]
Stamper, J W (2005) The architecture of Roman temples: the republic to the middle empire.
Cambridge University Press: New York [YATES QUARTOS K 45 STA]
Session 23 (lecture): The urban economy (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: Any discussion of the relationship between town and country must be informed by
more broadly based research into the nature of the ancient economies. Study of the ancient
economy has been framed by a polarizing debate between ‘modernists’ and ‘primitivists’. For
‘modernists’, ancient economies were not substantively different to modern ones, differing
chiefly in matters of scale but otherwise characterised by productive cities, market-driven
prices, long-distance trade, extensive monetization and market growth (following
Rostovtzeff). By way of contrast a ‘primitivist’ position emphasises factors that prevented
ancient economies from functioning in modern fashion: the dominance of self-contained
household production and the limits placed on market developments by social attitudes and
political constraints (as Finley). This debate has been recast as one between ‘formalists’, who
see the ancient economy as a functionally segregated sphere of activity, and ‘substantivists’
who stress the socially embedded nature of economic relationships in the ancient world.
Whilst many see the debate as a tired one, archaeologists still need to understand and engage
with the key points at issue in developing a more rounded understanding of how and why
cities functioned as they did. This lecture will consider the place of the city in controlling and
promoting trade; cities as consumers of surplus; cities as places of production and
manufacture; and will give particular attention to the extent to which urban development was
driven by the command economy of the Roman administration.
Key reading:
Bang, P F (2008) The Roman bazaar: a comparative study of trade and markets in a tributary
empire. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [ANCIENT HISTORY R 68 BAN]
Cartledge, P (2002) ‘The Economy (Economies) of Ancient Greece’, in W Scheidel & S von
Reden (eds) The Ancient Economy. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh 11-32
[Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 SCH]
Erdkamp, P M (2001) ‘Beyond the Limits of the Consumer City: a model of the urban and
rural economy in the Roman world’, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 50.3,
332-356
Hopkins, K (1980) ‘Taxes and trade in the Roman Empire (200BC – AD 400)’, Journal of
Roman Stud 70, 101-25
Scheidel, W, Morris, I, & Saller, R (eds) (2007) The Cambridge Economic History of the
Greco-Roman World [Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 SCH]
Urban Archaeology
Page 39
Whittaker, C R (1995) ‘Do theories of the Ancient City matter?’, in T J Cornell & K Lomas
(eds), Urban Society in Roman Italy, London, 121-34 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R
65 COR]
Further reading:
Bairoch, P (1988) Cities and Economic Development from the Dawn of History to the
Present. Chicago. Chapter 9 [Science GEOGRAPHY H 48 BAI]
Bang, P F, Ikeguchi, M, & Ziche, H G (eds), (2006) Ancient economies, modern
methodologies: archaeology, comparative history, models and institutions, Edipuglia:
Bari [Main ANCIENT HISTORY A 64 BAN]
Bowman, A K, & Wilson, A (eds) (2009) Quantifying the Roman Economy: Problems and
Methods. Oxford University Press: Oxford [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 BOW]
D’Arms, J H (1981) Commerce and Social Standing in Ancient Rome. Harvard University
Press: Cambridge Mass. [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 68 DAR]
De Ligt, L (1993) Fairs and Markets in the Roman Empire: economic and social aspects of
periodic trade in a pre-industrial society. Gieben: Amsterdam [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 68 LIG]
Erdkamp, P M (ed) (2002) The Roman Army and the Economy, Gieben: Amsterdam [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 70 ERD]
Finley, M I (1999) The Ancient Economy (Updated edn), University of California Press:
Berkeley & London [Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 FIN]
Fulford, M I (1982) ‘Town and Country in Roman Britain - A parasitical relationship?’, in D
Miles (ed.) The Romano-British Countryside: Studies in Rural Settlement and
Economy. BAR, British Series 103: Oxford, 403-419 [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series
BRI 103]
Fulford, M (1987) ‘Economic interdependence among urban communities of the Roman
Mediterranean’, World Archaeology 19.1, 58-75
Garnsey, P, Hopkins, K and Whittaker, C R (1983) Trade in the Ancient Economy. London
[Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 68 GAR]
Hopkins, K (1978) ‘Economic growth and towns in classical antiquity’, in P Abrams & E A
Wrigley (eds), Towns in Societies: Essays in Economic History and Historical
Sociology, 35-77 [Main HISTORY 82bf ABR; SSEES Misc XXII TOW]
Jacobs, J, (1970) The economy of cities. Cape: London [Bartlett: TOWN PLANNING A 30
JAC]
Mattingly, D J and Salmon, J (eds) (2001) Economies beyond agriculture in the classical
world, Routledge: London [Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 FIN]
Middleton, P (1979) ‘Army supply in Roman Gaul: an hypothesis for Roman Britain’, in B C
Burnham and H B Johnson (eds), Invasion and Response: The case of Roman Britain.
BAR Brit Ser 73: Oxford, 81-97 [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series BRI 73]
Mieroop, M van de, (1999) The Ancient Mesopotamian City (2nd edn) [INST ARCH DBB
200 MIE; ANCIENT HISTORY D 5 MIE]
Morley, N (1996) Metropolis and hinterland: the city of Rome and the Italian economy, 200
B.C.-A.D. 200. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 64 MOR]
Parkins, H M (ed) (1997) Roman Urbanism: beyond the consumer city. Routledge: London
and New York [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 PAR]
Rickman, G (1980) The corn supply of Ancient Rome. Clarendon Press: Oxford [ANCIENT
HISTORY R 67 RIC]
Rostovtzeff, M I (1957) The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire (2nd edn
revised by P Fraser) [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 20 ROS]
Saller, R P (2001) ‘The non-agricultural economy: superceding Finley and Hopkins?’,
Journal of Roman Archaeology 14, 580-4
Urban Archaeology
Page 40
Scheidel, W (ed) (2008) Rome and China: comparative perspectives on Ancient World
Empires. Oxford University Press: Oxford [Main ANCIENT HISTORY A 8 SCH]
Scheidel, W and von Reden, S (eds) (2002) The Ancient Economy. Edinburgh University
Press: Edinburgh [Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 SCH]
Silver, M (2009) ‘Historical otherness, the Roman bazaar, and primitivism: P.F. Bang on the
Roman economy’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 22, 421-43
Temin, P (2001) ‘A market economy in the early Roman empire’, Journal of Roman Studies
91, 169-81
Whittaker, C R (1990) ‘The consumer city revisted: the vicus and the city’, Journal of Roman
Archaeology 3, 110-118
Woolf, G (1992) ‘Imperialism, empire and the integration of the Roman economy’, World
Archaeology 23, 283-83
Session 24 (lecture): Case Study: A biography of Roman and early medieval
London (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: London is a key case-study for the course, and has been the subject of intensive
recent study. This session will develop a biographic narrative, tracing the city from its early
Roman origins down to the early medieval period – looking at the main events that shaped the
city, and how these have been reconstructed from the archaeological evidence. Essentially
this is a story of how cities are a product of political will, but are also shaped by individual
circumstance. Key issues to be discussed here are the circumstances of London’s foundation
(introducing some new ideas on the relationship between military and civilian in the
establishment of the first town here), the role of the city as the principal location of the
imperial administration, the possible causes of 2 nd century decline and the subsequent
redesign of urban space, the late Roman contraction and failure of the city, and the subsequent
relocation of power to suburban areas, followed by the development of a trading site upstream
at Westminster before the relocation of power into the shell of the Roman city in the late 9 th
century.
Key reading:
Clark, J, Cotton, J, Hall, J, Sherris, R, and Swain, H (eds) (2008) Londinium and beyond:
essays on Roman London and its hinterland for Harvey Sheldon. CBA Research
Report 156: York [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 156]
Perring, D (2011) ‘Two studies on Roman London’, J Roman Archaeol 24, 249-282
Hill, J and Rowsome, P (2012) Roman London and the Walbrook Stream Crossing:
Excavations at 1 Poultry and Vicinity 1985-1996, Museum of London: London
[INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto HIL]
Haslam, J, (2010) ‘King Alfred and the development of London’, London Archaeologist 12.8,
208-12
Malcolm, G, Bowsher, D and Cowie, R (2003) Middle Saxon London: excavations at the
Royal Opera House 1989-99, Museum of London: London [INST ARCH DAA 416
Qto MAL]
Vince, A (1990) Saxon London: an archaeological investigation, London [INST ARCH DAA
416 VIN]
Further reading:
Bateman, N, Cowan, C, and Wroe-Brown, R (2008) London’s Roman amphitheatre:
Guildhall Yard, City of London, MoLAS Monograph Series 35, London [INST
ARCH DAA 416 Qto BAT]
Betts, I M (1995) ‘Procuratorial Tile stamps from London’, Britannia 26, 207-229
Urban Archaeology
Page 41
Bird, J, Hassall M and Sheldon H (eds) (1996) Interpreting Roman London. Papers in
memory of Hugh Chapman, Oxbow Monograph 58, Oxford INST ARCH DAA 416
Qto BIR]
Blair, I, Spain, R, Swift D, Taylor T and Goodburn D (2006) ‘Wells and Bucket-chains:
Unforeseen Elements of Water Supply in Early Roman London’, Britannia 37, 1-52
Bradley T and Butler J (2008) From temples to Thames Street – 2000 years of riverside
development; Archaeological excavations at the Salvation Army International
Headquarters, PCA Monograph 7: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto BRA]
Butler, J (2006) Reclaiming the Marsh - Archaeological Excavations at Moore House, City of
London, PCA Monograph 6: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto BUT]
Cowan C, Seeley F, Wardle A, Westman A and Wheeler L (eds) (2009) Roman Southwark,
settlement and economy: excavations in Southwark 1973-91, MoLA Monograph 42:
London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto COW]
Creighton, J (2006) Britannia. The Creation of a Roman Province, Abingdon [INST ARCH
DAA 170 CRE]
Drummond-Murray J, Thompson, P, with Cowan, C (2002) Settlement in Roman Southwark:
archaeological excavations (1991–8) for the London Underground Limited Jubilee
Line Extension Project. MoLAS Monograph 12, London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto
DRU]
Fulford, M (2008) ‘Nero and Britain: the palace of the client king at Calleva and imperial
policy towards the province after Boudica’, Britannia 39, 1-14
Gerrard, J (2010) ‘Cathedral or Granary? The Roman coins from Colchester House, City of
London (PEP89)’, Trans London and Middlesex Archaeological Society 61, 81-8
Haslam, J (2009) ‘The Development of London by King Alfred: A reassessment’, , Trans
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society 60, 109-144
Leary, J (2004) Tatberhts Lundenwic: Archaeological Excavations in Middle Saxon London.
Pre-Construct Archaeology [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto LEA]
Marsden, P (1987) The Roman Forum site in London: Discoveries before 1985. HMSO:
London [INST ARCH DAA 416 MAR]
Marsden, P, and West, B (1992) ‘Population Change in Roman London’, Britannia 23, 13340
Mattingly, D (2006) An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. London [INST
ARCH DAA 170 MAT]
Millett, M (1990) The Romanization of Britain: An essay in archaeological interpretation.
Cambridge [INST ARCH DAA 170 MIL]
Millett, M (1994) ‘Evaluating Roman London’, Arch. Journ. 151, 427-435
Milne, G (ed) (1992) From Roman Basilica to Medieval Market. HMSO: London [INST
ARCH DAA 416 MIL]
Milne, G, and Wardle, A (1993) ‘Early Roman Development at Leadenhall Court, London
and Related Research’, Trans London Middlesex Archaeol Soc 44, 23-169
Perring, D (1991) Roman London. London [INST ARCH DAA 416 PER]
Rowsome, P (1999) ‘The Huggin Hill baths and bathing in London: barometer of the town’s
changing circumstances?’, in J Delaine and D E Johnston (eds) Roman baths and
bathing: proceedings of the 1st international conference on Roman baths held at Bath,
England, 30 March – 4 April 1992, J Roman Archaeol Suppl Ser 37, Portsmouth RI,
262-277 [YATES QUARTOS K 65 DEL]
Sheldon, H (2010) ‘Enclosing Londinium: The Roman Landward and Riverside walls: Papers
Read at the 45th LAMAS local history conference held at the Museum of London in
November 2010: ‘London under attach: wars and insurrections’, Trans London and
Middlesex Archaeological Society 61, 227-35
Tatton Brown, T (1986) ‘The topography of Anglo-Saxon London’ Antiquity 60, 21-35
Tomlin, R SO (2006) ‘Was Roman London ever a Colonia? The written evidence’, in R J A
Wilson (ed), Romanitas: Essays on Roman Archaeology in Honour of Sheppard
Urban Archaeology
Page 42
Frere on the Occasion of his Ninetieth Birthday. Oxbow: Oxford, 50-64 [INST
ARCH DAA 170 WIL]
Watson, B (ed) (1998) Roman London, Recent Archaeological Work, J Roman Archaeol
Suppl Ser 24, Portsmouth RI [INST ARCH DAA 416 WAT]
Yule, B (2005) A prestigious Roman building complex on the Southwark waterfront:
excavations at Winchester Palace, London, 1983–90, MoLAS Archaeology Studies
Series 23, London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto YUL]
Session 25 (lecture): Town and Country in Roman Britain and beyond (Dominic
Perring)
Synopsis: The relationship between town and country remains a critical and complex research
theme. How were cities supported, and what impact did the city have on the surrounding
landscape? By now we will already have looked at the economic basis of this relationship,
but what did this mean in terms of the settlement pattern and the ‘natural’ environment?
Where was power resident, and how was it manifest? From an archaeological point of view
consumption is key. This, then, is about the conclusions that can be drawn from the study of
distributions of pottery, ecofacts and buildings. Two surveys of urban hinterlands in Roman
Britain will be used as detailed case studies: the ‘Wroxeter Hinterlands Project’ and the
‘Roman Essex Project’. The theme of regional survey also gives us an opportunity to look at
current archaeological research in several parts of the Roman world (as referred to also in
session 6 above). A spate of recent publications may mean that we are reaching saturation
point in terms of survey data - but this gives us plenty of new information to exploit in testing
and developing models. Questions that will be addressed include the following:
 How can archaeological survey can contribute to our study of the relationship
between town and country?
 What was the role of towns in both the organisation and promotion of trade and
industry.
 How urban was the architecture of the Roman villa and to what extent did it impose
urban values on the countryside?
Key reading:
Gaffney, V L, & White, R H (2007) Wroxeter, the Cornovii, and the urban process: final
report on the Wroxeter Hinterland Project 1994-1997, J of Roman Archaeol
Supplementary Ser 68 [INST ARCH DAA 410 S.3 GAF]
Mattingly, D (2011) Imperialism, power, and identity: Experiencing the Roman Empire,
Princeton University Press. - Chapter 6 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 MAT]
Perring, D and Pitts, M (2013) Alien cities. Consumption and the origins of urbanism in
Roman Britain. [in press – if not published in advance of the class a pdf will be made
available on moodle site]
Further reading:
See reading under session 6 above
Millett, M (1991) 'Roman towns and their territories: An archaeological perspective', in J
Rich and A Wallace-Hadrill (eds), City and country in the Ancient World. Routledge:
London [INST ARCH YATES K 100 RIC & ISSUE DESK IOA RIC 3; Main
ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 RIC]
Evans, J (2001) ‘Material approaches to the identification of different Romano-British site
types’, in M Millett and S James (eds.) Britons and Romans: advancing an
archaeological agenda. CBA Research Report 125: York, 26-35 [INST ARCH DAA
Qto Series COU 125]
Urban Archaeology
Page 43
Kehoe, D P (1988) The Economics of Agriculture on Roman Imperial Estates in North Africa.
Gőttingen [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 67 KEH]
Mattingly, D (ed) (1997) Dialogues in Roman imperialism: Power, discourse, and discrepant
experience in the Roman Empire, JRA Suppl.: Portsmouth RI [ANCIENT
HISTORY R 61 MAT]
Millett, M (1982) 'Town and country: A review of some material evidence', in D Miles (ed.)
The Romano-British countryside: Studies in rural settlement and economy, British
Archaeological Reports, British Series 103: Oxford, 421-432 [INST ARCH DAA Qto
Series BRI 103]
Shipley G and Salmon, J (1996) Human landscapes in classical antiquity: Environment and
culture. Routledge: London [INST ARCH BB 6 SHI]
Purcell, N (1994) 'The Roman villa and the landscape of production', in T J Cornell and K
Lomas (eds), Urban society in Roman Italy. London [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R
65 COR]
Purcell, N (1987) 'Town in country and country in town', in E B MacDougall, Ancient Roman
villa gardens. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection: Washington DC
[YATES QUARTOS K 73 MAC]
Session 26 (student led seminar): The archaeology of the port of London
This is a student led seminar (see Session 18 for structure/guidance)
Synopsis: This seminar will explore the role of London as a port city, based on recent
archaeological research on the subject. The archaeological study of cities as ports draws on
diverse strands of evidence: involving nautical and waterfront archaeology, as well as studies
of trade (through the evidence of finds), and the architecture of harbour installations and other
structures associated with the port. The port of London has been the subject of particularly
close archaeological attention, benefitting from the extensive redevelopment of London’s
Thames waterfront as port functions and activities have been relocated elsewhere. Individual
presentations may wish to focus on particular periods of change in London’s waterfront
activity (e.g. the construction of the Roman port of London, the mercantile role of the early
Medieval emporium on the Strand, or the docks and quays of the medieval city of London),
and/or explore different strands and classes of evidence (e.g. ships, waterfronts, warehouses ,
harbours & docks, traded goods, etc.). There is also scope to include contributions based on
comparable port cities, and/or wider strategic reviews of this developing subject.
Key reading:
Brigham T (1990) ‘The Waterfront in Late Roman London’, Britannia 21, 99-183
Milne, G (1985) The Port of Roman London. Batsford: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 MIL]
Milne, G (2003) The Port of Medieval London. Tempus: Stroud [INST ARCH DAA 416
MIL]
Watson, B, Brigham, T, and Dyson T, (2001) London Bridge, 2000 years of a river crossing,
MOLAS Monograph 8: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto WAT & ISSUE DESK
IOA WAT 1]
Further reading:
Blackman, D J (1982) ‘Ancient Harbours in the Mediterranean, Parts 1 and 2’, in IJNA 11.2,
79- 104 and 11.3), 185-212
Brigham, T (1998) ‘The port of Roman London’ in B Watson (ed) (1998) Roman London,
Recent Archaeological Work, J Roman Archaeol Suppl Ser 24, Portsmouth RI, 23-34
[INST ARCH DAA 416 WAT]
Urban Archaeology
Page 44
Christophersen, A (1999) ‘The Waterfront and Beyond: Commercial Activity and the Making
of Townscapes’, in J Bill and B L Clausen (eds.) Maritime Topography and the
Medieval Town. Danish National Museum: Copenhagen. 161-68 [INST ARCH DAK
12 Qto BIL]
Good, G L, Jones R H and Ponsford M W (eds) 1991, Waterfront Archaeology: Proceedings
of the Third International Conference. Bristol, 1988, Council for British Archaeology
Research Report 74 [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 74]
Grainger, I and Phillpotts, C (2010) The Royal Navy victualling yard, East Smithfield,
London. Museum of London Archaeology Service: London [INST ARCH DAA 416
Qto GRA]
Heard K with Goodburn G (2003) Investigating the maritime history of
Rotherhithe: excavations at Pacific Wharf, 165 Rotherhithe Street, Southwark.
Museum of London Archaeology: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto HEA]
Lee, R (1998) ‘The socio-economic and demographic characteristics of port cities: a typology
for comparative analysis?’,Urban History 25.2, 147-72
Marsden, P (1994) Ships of the Port of London: First to Eleventh Centuries AD. English
Heritage: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto MAR],
Marsden, P (1996) Ships of the Port of London: Twelfth to Seventeenth Centuries AD. English
Heritage.: London [INST ARCH HG Qto MAR]
McGrail, S (ed.) (1979) The Archaeology of Medieval Ships and Harbours in Northern
Europe. British Archaeological Reports: Oxford [INST ARCH HG Qto McG]
Miller L et a1 (1986) The Roman Quay at St Magnus House. London Middlesex Archaeol
Soc Special Paper no 8: London [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA MIL 7; Main
LONDON HISTORY 63.120 DYS]
Milne, G (1999) ‘Maritime Topography and Medieval London’, in J Bill and B L Clausen
(eds.) Maritime Topography and the Medieval Town. Danish National Museum:
Copenhagen, 145-52 [INST ARCH DAK 12 Qto BIL]
Milne G and Milne C (1982) Medieval waterfront development at Trig Lane, London : an
account of the excavations at Trig Lane, London, 1974-6 and related research .
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society: London [INST ARCH DAA 416
MIL]
Raban, A (1985) (ed.) Harbour Archaeology. British Archaeological Reports: Oxford
Steedman K, Dyson, T and Schofield, J (1992) Aspects of Saxo-Norman London: 3, the
bridgehead and Billingsgate to 1200, London and Middlesex Archaeol. Soc Special
Paper 14: London [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA STE 3; Main LONDON
HISTORY 72.300 STE]
Tatton-Brown T (1974) 'Excavations at the Custom House site, London 1973', Trans London
Middlesex Archaeol Soc 25, 117-219
Session 27 (lecture): The archaeology of suburbs (Andrew Reynolds)
Synopsis: This seminar considers the development of suburbs in English towns in the AngloNorman period. Where suburbs grew up during this period they appear in many cases to
represent rapid expansion in a short time. Elsewhere planned suburbs sprang up and in some
cases they might be seen as settlements with a distinct social and economic identity. Case
studies will include Lincoln and Oxford, while other forms of evidence including placenames, written sources, parish boundaries and churches will be investigated. Models for the
emergence and development of suburbs will be discussed as will the relationships between
towns and their administrative hinterlands.
Urban Archaeology
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Reading:
Bond, J (1987) 'Anglo-Saxon and medieval defences', in J Schofield & R Leach (eds). Urban
Archaeology in Britain, CBA Research Report 61: London, 92-115 [INST ARCH
DAA Qto Series COU 61]
Creighton, O and Higham, R (2005) Medieval town walls: an archaeological and social
history of urban defence. Stroud: Tempus [INST ARCH DAA 190 TUR]
Darby, H C (1977) Domesday geography of England. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [HISTORY 27i DOM]
Dyer, A. 2000. 'Appendix: Ranking lists of English medieval towns', in D M Palliser (ed). The
Cambridge urban history of Britain, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 747770 [Main HISTORY 7 d CAM]
Keene, D J (1976) 'Suburban growth', in M W Barley (ed). The plans and topography of
medieval towns in England, Council for British Archaeology Research Report 14:
London, 71-88 [INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 14]
Ottaway, P (1992) Archaeology in British towns: from the Emperor Claudius to the Black
Death. Routledge: London [INST ARCH DAA 100 OTT]
Palliser, D M (2000), 'Introduction', in D M Palliser (ed). The Cambridge urban history of
Britain, volume I: 600 - 1540, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 3-15 [Main
HISTORY 7 d CAM]
Thomas, R M (2006) 'Mapping the towns: English Heritage's urban survey and
characterisation programme', Landscapes 7.1, 68-92
Session 28 (student led seminar): Industry and trade in London
This is a student led seminar (see Session 18 for structure/guidance)
Synopsis: This session will explore the archaeological evidence available for the study of
urban industry and trade, drawing on the results of recent excavation and study in
London. Which industries were specifically urban, and why? How important were
they to urban economies and urban life? To what extent were cities innovative
centres of production, or simply producing and importing the goods needed for local
consumption differing little from non-urban communities except in the scale of
demand? What also can be learnt about the particular industries and trades involved,
and how much more does archaeology have to offer? The presentations should draw
on primary archaeological detail – as reported on in recent monographs of the
Museum of London and other archaeological teams operating within London – but
also set these within the context of more broadly based research (and potentially also
drawing on case-studies from outside London). Individual seminar presentations may
focus on particular periods (Roman or Medieval), specific industrial/commercial
sectors (e.g. textiles, metal-working, food processing, etc.), or explore – through
comparative studies – differences between urban and rural or between ancient and
medieval.
Key reading:
Mac Mahon A and Price J (eds.) Roman working Lives and Urban Living, Oxford – note in
particular Mac Mahon on shops, Hall on craft workers, Evans on pottery and Price
on Glass [INST ARCH DAA 170 MAC]
Schofield J and Vince A (2003) Medieval Towns (2nd edn.) Leicester University Press:
London – Chapters 4 & 5 [INST ARCH DAA 190 SCH]
Serjeantson D and Waldron T (eds) (1989) Diet and crafts in towns: the evidence of animal
remains from the Roman to the post-medieval periods. BAR: Oxford [INST ARCH
DAA Qto Series BRI 199]
Urban Archaeology
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Further reading
Roman
Bateman N and Lockyer A (1982) ‘The sauce of the Thames’ London Archaeologist 4.8, 2047
Cowan C, Seeley F, Wardle A, Westman A and Wheeler L (eds) (2009) Roman Southwark,
settlement and economy: excavations in Southwark 1973-91, MoLA Monograph 42:
London – see 91-118 on industry and trade [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto COW]
Hill, J and Rowsome, P (2012) Roman London and the Walbrook Stream Crossing:
Excavations at 1 Poultry and Vicinity 1985-1996, Museum of London: London – for
various contributions on evidence for industry and retail - 291-305; 349-54, 389-403,
441-2[INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto HIL]
Hammer, F (2003) Industry in north-west Roman Southwark : excavations, 1984-8. Museum
of London Archaeology Service: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto HAM]
Perring D with Brigham T (2000) ‘Londinium and its hinterland: the Roman period’, in
Museum of London, The Archaeology of Greater London: An Assessment of
archaeological evidence for human presence in the area now covered by Greater
London. Museum of London: London, 119-70 [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA
MUS]
Pritchard, F (1994) ‘Weaving tablets from Roman London’, in G Jaacks and K Tidow (eds)
Archaeological Textiles. Textilsymposium Neumünster (NESAT V), 157-61 [INST
ARCH KJ TEX]
Rhodes, M (1987) ‘Inscriptions on leather waste from Roman London’, Britannia 18, 173-81
Seeley F and Drummond-Murray J (2005) Roman pottery production in the Walbrook
Valley: excavations at 20-28 Moorgate, City of London, 1998-2000. Museum of
London Archaeology: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto SEE]
Shepherd, J, and Wardle, A (2009) The glass workers of Roman London. Museum of London
Archaeology: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 SHE]
Medieval and post-medieval
Tyler, K, Betts, I and Stephenson, R (2008) London’s delftware industry: the tin-glazed
pottery industries of Southwark and Lambeth: Museum of London Archaeology:
London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto TYL]
Blair, J and Ramsey, N (1991) English Medieval Industries: craftsmen, techniques, products.
Hambledon Press: London [INST ARCH K BLA]
Clarke 1984 The archaeology of medieval England. Blackwell: Oxfordshire [INST ARCH
DAA 190 CLA]
Egan G and Pritchard F (1991) Dress accessories c 1150 – c 1450. HMSO: London [INST
ARCH HD EGA]
Keene D (1990) ‘Shops and shopping in medieval London’, in L Grant (ed) Medieval art,
architecture and archaeology in London, Brit Archaeol Ass: London [INST ARCH
DAA 416 GRA]
Sloane B and Harding C (2000) ‘From the Norman conquest to the Reformation’, in Museum
of London The Archaeology of Greater London: An Assessment of archaeological
evidence for human presence in the area now covered by Greater London. Museum
of London: London, 207-54 [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA MUS]
Howe, E (2002) Roman defences and medieval industry: excavations at Baltic House, City of
London, Museum of London Monograph 7, London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto
HOW]
Miller E and Hacher J (1995) Medieval England: towns, commerce and crafts 1086—1348,
Longman: London [HISTORY 82 f MIL]
Urban Archaeology
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Session 29 (lecture): The urban infrastructure (Tim Williams)
Synopsis: This lecture focuses on issues of civic administration and local community action.
What services does an urban centre require and how are these delivered – and how well? Is
delivery dependant on socio-economic status, location within the city, or political will? The
sessions will explore the extent to which the archaeological study of rubbish disposal, water
supply and street maintenance can shed light on these issues. It will also explore concepts of
cleanliness and hygiene through anthropological studies, and consider how these might
nuance our interpretations of past societies.
How have urban communities tackled the disposal of waste? What strategies are employed to
remove organic waste, effluent and non-organic debris, and to what extent was recycling a
feature of ancient societies? Most importantly, to what extent can we understand the
administration of cities and organisation of communities from these disposal patterns? How
does this material evidence enter the archaeological record; what are the biases of survival;
and how do we interpret the complexity of the social and economic life of the city from a
partial record?
Water supply (in) and sewage, street drainage & water runoff (out). Supplying and servicing
cities has always presented complex hydraulic and engineering issues, many of which are still
present in contemporary communities. How have urban societies developed approaches to
both supply and disposal, and what can we infer from this about the nature of civil society, the
structuring of elite provisions, and the nature of the urban space? We explore how water
provision has changed the nature of urban societies and the urban landscape.
The maintenance (or lack of it) of streets & thoroughfares again provides important insights
into character of civic urban society: the scale and nature of cooperation and coercion; the
role and penetration of the civic authority; the socio-economic pattern of the urban landscape;
and the division between prestige and poverty.
Reading:
Rubbish disposal, consumption and formation processes
Allison, P M (2004) Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture. Cotsen
Institute of Archaeology, University of California: Los Angeles [YATES E 22 POM]
Allison, P M (2006) The Insula of the Menander at Pompeii: Finds, a Contextual Study.
Volume III. Oxford University Press: Oxford [YATES QUARTOS E 22 POM]
Ballet, P, Cordier, P and Dieudonné-Glad, N (eds) (2003) La ville et ses déchets dans le
monde romain: rebuts et recyclages; Actes du colloque de Poitiers (19-21 Septembre
2002). Monique Mergoil: Montagnac [INST ARCH DA Qto BAL]
Barker, S J (2011) ‘Nineteenth-Century Labour Figures for Demolition: A Theoretical
Approach to Understand the Economics of Re-use’, in D Mladenovic and B Russell
(eds) TRAC 2010: Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Theoretical Roman
Archaeology Conference. Oxford: Oxbow [INST ARCH DAA 170 MLA]
Ciaraldi, M & Richardson, J (2000) ‘Food, ritual and rubbish in the making of Pompeii’, in G
Fincham, G Harrison, R Holland and L Revell (eds) TRAC 99: Proceedings of the
ninth annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Oxbow: Oxford [INST
ARCH DAA 170 THE]
Cooley, M G L & Cooley, A E (2004) Pompeii: a sourcebook. Routledge: London [YATES E
22 POM]
Cool, H E M (2006) Eating and drinking in Roman Britain. Cambridge University Press
[INST ARCH DAA 170 COO]
Ellis, S (2008) ‘The use and misuse of 'legacy data' in identifying a typology of retail outlets
at Pompeii’, Internet Archaeology 24
Urban Archaeology
Page 48
Forbes, H (2002) ‘Prudent Producers and Concerned Consumers: Ethnographic and Historical
Observations on Staple Storage and Urban Consumer Behaviour’, in P Miracle and N
Milner (eds) Consuming Passions and Patterns of Consumption. Cambridge:
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research [INST ARCH HC MIR]
Gerrard, J (2009) ‘Dumps and tesserae: high-status building materials from 33 Union Street,
Southwark’, London Archaeologist 12.5, 130-134
Hooper, J (2006) ‘Waste and its disposal in Southwark’, London Archaeologist 11(4): 95-100
Keller, D (2005) ‘Social and economic aspects of glass recycling’, in J Bruhn, B Croxford
and D Grigoropoulos (eds) TRAC 2004: Proceedings of the fourteenth Annual
Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Oxbow Books: Oxford [INST ARCH
DAA 170 BRU]
Maltby, M (2007) ‘Chop and change: Specialist cattle carcass processing in Roman Britain’,
in B Croxford, N Ray, R Roth and N White (eds) TRAC 2006: Proceedings of the
sixteenth Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Oxbow Books: Oxford [INST
ARCH DAA170 CRO]
Maltby, M (2010) Feeding a Roman Town: Environmental Evidence from Excavations in
Winchester, 1972-1985. Winchester Museum Service & English Heritage:
Winchester [INST ARCH DAA 410 Qto MAL]
McKenzie, M (2004) ‘Roman and later pits at 5 Billiter Street, City of London’, London
Archaeologist 10.11, 289-299
Mac Mahon, A and Price, J (eds) (2005) Roman working lives and urban living. Oxbow
Books: Oxford [INST ARCH DAA 170 MAC]
Nevett, L C (2008) ‘Artefact assemblages and activity area analysis: a comparison from
Greek domestic contexts’, in H Vanhaverbeke et al (eds) Thinking about Space: the
potential of surface survey and contextual analysis in the definition of space in
Roman times, Brepols: Turnhout, 153-160 [INST ARCH DA Qto VAN]
Pena, J T (2007) Roman Pottery in the Archaeological Record. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [INST ARCH DA 170 PEN]
Pitts, M (2007) ‘Consumption, deposition and social practice: a ceramic approach to intra-site
analysis in late Iron Age to Roman Britain’, Internet Archaeology 21
Simpson, S T J (2008) ‘Suburb or slum? Excavation at Marv (Turkistan) and observations on
stratigraphy, refuse and material culture in a Sasanian city’, in D Kennet & P Luft,
(eds) Current Research in Sasanian Archaeology, Art and History. Proceedings of A
Conference Held at Durham University 3-4 November 2001, Archaeopress: Oxford,
65-78. [INST ARCH DBG Qto KEN]
Van der Veen, M, Livarda, A, & Hill, A (2007) ‘The archaeobotany of Roman Britain:
current state & research priorities’, Britannia 38, 181-210
Ynnilä, H (2011) ‘Meaningful Insula: Bridging the gap between large and small scale studies
of urban living conditions’, in D Mladenovic, and B Russell (eds) (2011) TRAC 2010:
Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference.
Oxbow: Oxford [INST ARCH DAA 170 MLA]
General urban life
Aldrete, G S (2004) Daily Life in the Roman City: Rome, Pompeii, and Ostia. Greenwood
Press: Westport, Conn. [INST ARCH on order]
Barnow, F (2001) The city of the divine king: urban systems and urban architecture in Egypt,
Mesopotamia, Indus, India, Nepal and China. Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
School of Architecture Publishers: Copenhagen [ARCHITECTURE B 1 BAR]
Croom, A T (2011) Running the Roman Home. The History Press: Stroud [INST ARCH on
order]
Dark, K R (2004) Secular Buildings and the Archaeology of Everyday Life in the Byzantine
Empire. Oxbow: Oxford [YATES A 48 DAR]
Urban Archaeology
Page 49
Hingley, R and Willis, S (eds) (2007) Roman finds: context and theory. Proceedings of a
conference held at the University of Durham, July 2002. Oxbow books: Oxford
[INST ARCH DAA 170 Qto HIN]
Laurence, R (2007) Roman Pompeii: space and society. (2nd ed) Routledge: London
[YATES E 22 POM]
Smith, M L (ed) (2003) The social construction of ancient cities. Smithsonian: Washington
[INST ARCH BC 100 SMI]
Parkins, H and Smith, C (eds) (1998) Trade, traders and the ancient city. Routledge: London
[ANCIENT HISTORY A 68 PAR]
Wright, R P (2010) The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society. Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge [INST ARCH DBMA 12 WRI]
Streets
Ballet, P, Dieudonné-Glad, N and Saliou, C (eds) (2008) La rue dans l’antiquité: Définition,
aménagement et devenir de l’Orient méditerranéen à la Gaule. Actes du colloque de
Poitiers, 7–9 septembre 2006. Presses Universitaires de Rennes: Rennes [INST
ARCH on order]
Dark, K R (2004) ‘Houses, streets and shops in Byzantine Constantinople from the fifth to the
twelfth centuries’, Journal of Medieval History 30.2, 83-108
Lavan, L (2006) ‘Street Space in Late Antiquity’, in E. Jeffreys (ed) Proceedings of the 21st
International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London 21–26 August 2006. Vol. 2,
Abstracts of Panel Papers, pp. 68–9. Ashgate Publishing: Aldershot [INST ARCH on
order]
Lavan, L (2012) ‘Public Space in Late Antique Ostia: Excavation and Survey in 2008-2011’,
American Journal of Archaeology, 116(4): 649-691
Mango, M (2001) ‘The Porticoed Streets of Constantinople’, in N. Necipoğlu (ed) Byzantine
Constantinople: Monuments, Topography and Everyday Life, pp. 29-50. Brill: Leiden
[INST ARCH on order]
Robinson, O F (1994) Ancient Rome: city planning and administration. Routledge: London
[ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 ROB]
Westfall, C W (2007) ‘Urban planning, roads, streets and neighbourhoods’, in Dobbins, J J &
Foss, P W (eds) The World of Pompeii, pp.129-139. Routledge: London [YATES E
22 POM]
Water supply (& drainage)
Blair, I, Spain, R, Swift, D, Taylor, T, & Goodburn, D (2006) ‘Wells and bucket-chains:
Unforeseen elements of water supply in early Roman London’, Britannia 37, 1-52
Blair, S and Bloom, J (eds) (2009) Rivers of paradise: water in Islamic art and culture. Yale
University Press: New Haven [ARCHITECTURE B 1 RIV]
Bruun, C (1991) The Water Supply of Ancient Rome. A Study of Roman Imperial
Administration. Societas Scientiarum Fennica: Helsinki
Chant, C (ed) (1999) The pre-industrial cities and technology reader. Routledge in
association with The Open University: London [GEOGRAPHY H 55 CHA]
Clarke, D, Sala, R, Deom, J-M, & Meseth, E (2005)’Reconstructing irrigation at Otrar Oasis,
Kazakhstan, AD 800-1700’, Irrigation and Drainage 54.4, 375-388
Crouch, D P (1993) Water management in ancient Greek cities. Oxford University Press:
Oxford [YATES K 110 CRO]
*Crow, J (2008) The water supply of Byzantine Constantinople. Society for the Promotion of
Roman Studies: London [YATES QUARTOS K 95 CRO]
Davies, H C (2008) The archaeology of water. History Press: Stroud [INST ARCH DAA 100
DAV]
El-Khouri, L S (2009) Roman settlements in the region of Northwest Jordan: archaeological
studies. Ugarit-Verlag: Münster [INST ARCH DBE 10 ELK]
Urban Archaeology
Page 50
Evans, H B (1994) Water distribution in ancient Rome: the evidence of Frontinus. University
of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor [YATES K 95 EVA]
Fabre, G, Fiches, J-L, Leveau, P, & Paillet, J-L (1992) The Pont du Gard: water and the
Roman town. Presses du CNRS: Paris [INST ARCH DAC 24 FAB]
Fisher, C T, Brett Hill J, and Feinman, G M (eds) (2009) The Archaeology of Environmental
Change: Socionatural Legacies of Degradation and Resilience. University of Arizona
Press: Tucson [INST ARCH BB 6 FIS]
Hodge, A T (1991) Roman aqueducts and water supply. Duckworth: London [YATES K 95
HOD]
Isaac, P C G (1980) ‘Roman public health engineering’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil
Engineering 68.1
Jansen, G (2007) ‘The water system: supply and drainage’, in Dobbins, J J & Foss, P W (eds)
The World of Pompeii, pp. 257-266. Routledge: London [YATES E 22 POM]
Kleijn, G de (2001) The water supply of ancient Rome: city area, water, and population.
Gieben: Amsterdam.[YATES K 95 KLE]
Koloski-Ostrow, A O (ed) (2001) Water Use and Hydraulics in the Roman City. Kendall
Hunt: Dubuque, Iowa [YATES QUARTOS K 95 KOL]
Mays, L W (ed) (2010) Ancient Water Technologies. Springer: London [INST ARCH K
MAY]
Olami, Y & Peleg, Y (1977) ‘The water supply system of Caesarea Maritima’, Israel
Exploration Journal 27, 127-137
Ortloff, C R (2009) Water Engineering in the Ancient World: Archaeological and Climate
Perspectives on Societies of Ancient South America, the Middle East, and South-East
Asia. Oxford University Press: Oxford [INST ARCH BA 40 ORT]
Ricciardi, M A and Scrinari, V S M (1996) La civiltà dell’acqua in Ostia antica. Vol. 2.
Fratelli Palombi: Rome [Roman Society]
Robinson, B A (2005) ‘Fountains and the formation of cultural identity at Roman Corinth’, in
D N Schowalter, & S J Friesen (eds) Urban religion in Roman Corinth:
interdisciplinary approaches. Cambridge, Mass. [ANCIENT HISTORY R 35 SCH]
Shaw, J & Sutcliffe, J (2003) ‘Ancient dams, settlement archaeology and Buddhist
propagation in central India: the hydrological background’, Hydrological Sciences
Journal 48.2, 277-291
Taylor, R M (2000) Public needs and private pleasures: water distribution, the Tiber River
and the urban development of ancient Rome. "L'Erma" di Bretschneider: Rome
[YATES K 95 TAY]
Vernon, L S (1991) ‘Water Management Adaptations in Nonindustrial Complex Societies: An
Archaeological Perspective’, Archaeological Method and Theory 3, 101-154
Williams, T (2003) ‘Water and the Roman city: life in Roman London’, in P R Wilson (ed)
The archaeology of Roman towns: studies in honour of John S. Wacher, Oxbow:
Oxford, 242-250 [INST ARCH DAA 170 Qto WIL]
Wilson, A (2006) ‘Water for the Pompeians’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 19, 501-508
Wittfogel, K A (1957) Oriental Despotism: A comparative Study of Total Power. Yale
University Press: London [ANTHROPOLOGY D 75 WIT]
*Zuchowska, M (ed) (2012) The Archaeology of Water Supply. Archaeopress: Oxford [INST
ARCH in cataloguing]
Sewage disposal
Hobson, B (2009) Pompeii, latrines and down pipes: a general discussion and photographic
record of toilet facilities in Pompeii. John and Erica Hedges: Oxford [YATES
QUARTOS E 22 POM]
Urban Archaeology
Page 51
Session 30 (lecture): Case study - Urban populations as consumers (Martin Pitts)
Synopsis: Approaches to modelling Roman urban consumption from finds evidence.
Addresses issues of urban practices and identities through consumption; consumer choice; the
role of markets in relation to urban hinterlands; measuring social inequality; early modern
analogues.
Key reading:
Perring, D and Pitts, M (2013) Alien cities. Consumption and the origins of urbanism in
Roman Britain. London. Chapters 5-10. [in press – if not published in advance of the
class a pdf will be made available on moodle site]
Pitts, M (2013) Rural transformation in the urbanised landscape, in Revell, L, Millett, M and
Steele, S (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain, Oxford University Press.
[in press – if not published in advance of the class a pdf will be made available on
moodle site]
Further reading:
Albarella, U, Johnstone, C and Vickers, K (2008) ‘The development of animal husbandry
from the late Iron Age to the end of the Roman period: a case study from south-east
Britain’ Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 1828-48
Cool, H E M (2006) Eating and drinking in Roman Britain. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [INST ARCH DAA 170 COO]
Eckardt, H (2002) Illuminating Roman Britain. Editions Monique Mergoil: Montagnac. [on
order]
Evans, J (2001) ‘Material approaches to the identification of different Romano-British site
types’, in S James and M Millett (eds) Britons and Romans: advancing an
archaeological agenda, Council for British Archaeology Research Report 125: York
[INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 125]
Gaffney, V L and White, R H (2007) Wroxeter, the Cornovii, and the urban process: final
report on the Wroxeter hinterland project 1994-1997. JRA Supplementary Series 68.
[INST ARCH DAA 410 S.3 GAF]
King, A C (2001) ‘The Romanization of diet in the western empire’, in S Keay and N
Terrenato (eds) Italy and the West. Comparative issues in Romanization. Oxbow:
Oxford [INST ARCH DA 170 KEA]
Maltby, M (2007) ‘Chop and change: specialist cattle carcass processing in Roman Britain’,
in B Croxford, N Ray, R E Roth and N White (eds) TRAC 2006. Proceedings of the
Sixteenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Oxbow: Oxford
[INST ARCH DAA 170 CRO]
Monteil, G (2004) ‘Samian and consumer choice in Roman London’, in B. Croxford, H.
Eckardt, J. Meade and J. Weekes (eds) TRAC 2003. Proceedings of the thirteenth
annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Leicester 2003. Oxbow: Oxford
[INST ARCH DAA 170 THE]
Perring, D (2002) Town and country in England. Frameworks for archaeological research.
Council for British Archaeology Research Report 134: York [INST ARCH DAA Qto
Series COU 134]
Pitts, M, and Griffin R (2012) ‘Exploring health and social well-being in late Roman Britain:
an intercemetery approach’, American Journal of Archaeology 116, 253-76
Pitts, M (2008) ‘Globalizing the local in Roman Britain: an anthropological approach to
social change’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 27, 493-506
Pitts, M (2010) ‘Artefact suites and social practice: an integrated approach to Roman
provincial finds assemblages’, Facta. A Journal of Roman Material Culture Studies
4, 125-152
Urban Archaeology
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Pitts, M (2010) ‘Re-thinking the British oppida: networks, kingdoms and identities’,
European Journal of Archaeology 13, 32-63
Pitts, M and Perring, D (2006) ‘The making of Britain's first urban landscapes: the case of late
Iron Age and Roman Essex’, Britannia 37, 189-212
van der Veen, M, Livarda, A and Hill, A (2008) ‘New plant foods in Roman Britain dispersal and social access’, Environmental Archaeology 13, 11-36
Weatherill, L (1996) Consumer behaviour & material culture in Britain 1660-1760. London:
Routledge [HISTORY 82 m WEA]
Willis, S (2011) ‘Samian ware and society in Roman Britain and beyond’, Britannia 42, 167242
Session 31 (lecture): Populating the city - the study of urban mortality and
population movement (Natasha Powers)
Synopsis: This session will examine the bioarchaeological evidence for urban mortality and
population movement, looking at case-studies from three different periods of flux and change.
What can the examination of the skeleton tell us about the lives of past populations? Firstly
we will investigate demographic evidence from two, well phased cemeteries located at the
north edge of Londinium to look at how the population of the Roman City developed over
time. We will then discuss the evidence for medieval population movement and the effect that
the development of London as a large urban centre had on human health. What does the
demographic evidence suggest about who was moving to the City and what is the evidence
for catastrophic mortality events? We will focus specifically on the populations buried at St
Mary Spital and the Black Death cemetery at the Royal Mint. Finally, the development of
post-medieval London will be examined via examples from two burial grounds in Tower
Hamlets, looking at the results of n a recent study of isotopic, artefactual and
bioarchaeological evidence for migration and at the effects of population movement on health
and mortality. The session will then bring together the main demographic and
palaeopathological themes to draw some conclusions on the effect of urbanisation on health
and disease and the lessons that an examination of the past has for us today.
Key reading:
Connell B, Gray Jones A, Redfern R, Walker D (2012) A bioarchaeological study of medieval
burials on the site of St Mary Spital: excavations at Spitalfields Market, London E1,
1991–2007, MOLA Monograph Series 60: London [On order]
Grainger I, Hawkins D, Cowal L, Mikulski R (2008) The Black Death cemetery, East
Smithfield, London, MOLA Monograph Series 43: London [INST ARCH DAA 416
Qto GRA]
Hoppa R D and Vaupel JW (eds) (2002) Paleodemography: Age Distributions from Skeletal
Samples, Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology (No. 31)
[INST ARCH BB 2 HOP]
Roberts C. A. and Cox, M (2003) Health and Disease in Britain: from prehistory to the
present day, Sutton Publishing Ltd: Stroud [INST ARCH JF ROB]
Session 32 (seminar): Death and the city (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: This session will look more widely at the issue of death and the city, drawing in
part on the bioarchaeological evidence discussed in the previous lecture but also the
archaeological testimony of graves, grave-goods, cemeteries, funerary monuments and
tombstones. These different sources contribute to a social archaeology of death, where the
rituals of burial practice and the material organisation of graveyards provide a range of
different perspectives on urban social organisation.
Urban Archaeology
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Key Reading:
Bassett, S (ed) (1992) Death in Towns: Urban responses to the dying and the dead, 100-1600.
Leicester University Press [INST ARCH DA 200 BAS]
Hope V M and Marshall E (2000) Death and Disease in the Ancient City. Routledge: New
York [Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 76 HOP]
Morris, I (1992) Death-Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge
[ANCIENT HISTORY M 55 MOR]
Further reading:
Roman burial custom
Barber, B, & Bowsher, D, 2000 The eastern cemetery of Roman London: excavations 1983–
90, MoLAS Monogr Ser 4 [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto BAR]
Davies, P (2000) Death and the Emperor: Roman Imperial Funerary Monuments from
Augustus to Marcus Aurelius. Cambridge: CUP. [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA
DAV 2]
Hope, V M (1997) ‘A Roof over the dead: communal tombs and the family structure’, in R
Laurence and A Wallace-Hadrill (eds), Domestic Space in the Roman world: Pompeii
and beyond (JRA Suppl. 22.). Portsmouth, R.I., 69-88 [INST ARCH YATES
QUARTOS K 73 LAU]
Hope, V M (1997) ‘Words and Pictures: the interpretation of Romano-British tombstones’,
Britannia 28, 245-58.
Jones, R., 1987, ‘Burial customs of Rome and the Provinces’ in J S Wacher (ed), The Roman
World: 1, 812-837 [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA WAC; Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 5 WAC]
Patterson, J R (2000) ‘Living and Dying in the City of Rome: houses and tombs’, in J
Coulston and H Dodge (eds) Ancient Rome: the archaeology of the Eternal City,
Oxbow: Oxford, 259-89 [INST ARCH YATES E 22 ROM]
Petts D (2003) Christianity in Roman Britain. Tempus: Stroud - Ch 6 [INST ARCH DAA 170
PET]
Shaw B D (1996) ‘Seasons of Death: Aspects of Mortality in Imperial Rome’ Journal of
Roman Studies 86, 100-38
Thomas, CM (2005) ‘Placing the Dead: Funerary Practice and Social stratification in the
Early Roman Period at Corinth and Ephesos’, in D N Schowatter and S J Frieson
(eds) Urban Religion in Roman Corinth: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Harvard
University Press, 281-309 [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 35 SCH]
Medieval and post-medieval cemeteries
Daniell, C (1997) Death and Burial in Medieval England 1066-1550. Routledge [INST
ARCH DAA 190 DAN]
Miles A and Connell B (2010) The City Bunhill burial ground, Golden Lane,
London: excavations at South Islington schools, 2006 . Museum of London
Archaeology: London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto CON]
Emery and Wooldridge, K (2010) St Pancras burial ground: excavations for St Pancras
International, the London terminus of High Speed 1, 2002-3. London [INST ARCH
DAA 416 Qto EME]
Session 33 (lecture): Christianity and the City (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: The Christianisation of the city in late antiquity gave renewed vigour to many
urban communities, and this was reflected in the architecture and archaeology of the late
antique, Byzantine and medieval city. Cities were reconfigured around new spaces and new
Urban Archaeology
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activities. Public institutions and civic society underwent radical change, with major
consequences for the city as the basic unit of social and political organization. The Christian
monumentalization of the city was a remarkably diverse and, in most cases, a surprisingly late
phenomenon. In particular the late 4th and early 5th century saw an explosion in church
building. In addition to the building of churches the church also took in hand the organisation
of urban cemeteries, and the redirection of resources witnessed the construction of Episcopal
palaces and other new urban residences. Other important features initiated in this period
included the growth of monasticism, the architecture and archaeology of pilgrimage and
martyr cults, and the emergence of important suburban and satellite settlements around extramural churches.
Key reading:
Cantino Wataghin, G (1999) ‘The ideology of urban burials’, in G P Brogiolo and B WardPerkins, The Idea and Ideal of the Town between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle
Ages. Brill: Leiden, 147-63 [INST ARCH DA 180 BRO]
Cantino Wataghin, G (2003) ‘Christian Topography in the Late Antique Town: Recent
Results and Open Questions’, in L Lavan and W Bowden (eds), Theory and Practice
in Late Antique Archaeology, Late Antique Archaeology V. 1. Brill: Leiden, 224-56
[INST ARCH DA 180 LAV]
Harries, J (1992) ‘Christianity and the city in Late Roman Gaul’ in J Rich (ed) The City in
Late Antiquity, Routledge, 77-98 [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA RIC 4; Main
ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 RIC]
Loseby, S T (1992) ‘Bishops and Cathedrals: order and diversity in the fifth-century urban
landscapes of southern Gaul’, in J Drinkwater and H Elton (eds), Fifth-century Gaul:
A crisis of identity?, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 144-55 [INST ARCH
DAC 180 DRI; Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 28 DRI]
Further reading:
Baker, D (ed) (1979) Studies in Church History 16, The Church in Town and Countryside,
Blackwell, London [HISTORY 83a STU]
Brenk, B (2006) Christianization of the Late Roman World: Cities, Churches, Synagogues,
Palaces, Private Houses and Monasteries in the Early Christian Period. Pindar:
London [On order]
Brown, P (1971) The World of Late Antiquity: from Marcus Aurelius to Muhammed. Thames
and Hudson, Chapter 2 [ANCIENT HISTORY A 5 BRO]
Caroli, M (2000) ‘Bringing Saints to Cities and Monasteries: Translationes in the making of
a sacred geography (ninth-tenth centuries)’, in G P Brogiolo, N Gauther and N
Christie (eds) Towns and their Territories between Late Antiquity and the early
Middle Ages. Brill: Leiden, 259-274 [INST ARCH DA 180 BRO]
Caseau, B (2001) ‘Sacred Landscapes’, in G W Bowersock, P Brown and O Grabar,
Interpreting Late Antiquity. Harvard University Press, 21-59 [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY A 6 BOW]
Curran, C (2000) Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the fourth century. Oxford
[Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 74 CUR]
Goodman, P J (2007)The Roman City and its Periphery. Routledge, Chapter 6 [YATES
K120 GOO]
Hall, L J (2004) Roman Berytus: Beirut in Late Antiquity. Routledge, Chapters 8 & 9 [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 45 HAL]
Lavan, L, Özgenel, L, and Sarantis, A (eds) (2007) Housing in Late Antiquity: From Palaces
to Shops. Leiden: Brill (for various papers on Episcopal palaces) [INST ARCH DA
180 LAV]
Urban Archaeology
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Limberis, V (2005) ‘Ecclesiastical Ambiguities. Corinth in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries’, in
D N Schowatter and S J Frieson (eds) Urban Religion in Roman Corinth:
Interdisciplinary Approaches. Harvard University Press, 443-57 [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY R 35 SCH]
Mango, C (2002) The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press: Oxford [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY S 5 MAN; Main HISTORY 41 c OXF]
MacMullen, R (1984) Christianizing the Roman Empire. New Haven [Main ANCIENT
HISTORY X 12 MAC]
McLynn, N (1994) Ambrose of Milan: Church and Court in a Christian Capital. University
of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles [Main ANCIENT HISTORY X 60
MAC]
Trout, D (1996) ‘Town, Countryide and Christianization at Paulinus’ Nola’ in R W Mathisen
and H S Sivan (eds) Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity. Aldershot, 175-86 [Main
ANCIENT HISTORY R 6 MAT]
Session 34 (lecture): Case study - Green cities? Environment and urbanism in the
humid neotropics (Elizabeth Graham)
Synopsis: Cities, towns and hinterlands of the humid tropics are consistently marginalized in
studies of urbanism, most all of which privilege the growth of cities in temperate and
Mediterranean climates of the northern hemisphere. Thus the development of cities in
Europe, the Middle East and north Africa, north China, northern India and Pakistan receive
far more attention than the development of urbanism in south China, southern India, southeast
Asia, sub-Saharan Africa or the New World tropics. In addition, cultural evolutionary
theories are often used to argue that tropical cities are not as complex as cities of the North.
In this lecture I review the conditions for urbanism in the humid tropics with a focus on the
distinctive paths taken by neotropical cities in Mesoamerica.
Key reading:
Graham, E (1999) ‘Stone Cities, Green Cities’, in E A Bacus and L J Lucero (eds) Complex
Polities in the Ancient Tropical World. Archaeological Papers of the American
Anthropological Association 9: Arlington, Virginia, 185-194 [INST ARCH BC 100
BAC]
Sanders, W T and Webster D (1988) ‘The Mesoamerican Urban Tradition’, American
Anthropologist 90.3, 521-546
Graham, E 1996 ‘Maya Cities and the Character of a Tropical Urbanism’, in P Sinclair (ed)
The Development of Urbanism from a Global Perspective. Uppsala University:
Uppsala, Sweden [http://www.arkeologi.uu.se/afr/projects/BOOK/graham.pdf Posted
in 1996]
Further reading:
Smith, M E (2008) Aztec City-State Capitals. University Press of Florida, Gainesville [INST
ARCH DFA 100 SMI & ISSUE DESK IOA SMI 6]
Graham, E (2006) ‘Due South: Learning from the Urban Experience in the Humid Tropics’,
in D M Pendergast and A P Andrews (eds) Reconstructing the Past: Studies in
Mesoamerican and Central American Prehistory, BAR International Series 1529:
Oxford, 151-158 [INST ARCH DF 100 Qto PEN]
Balée, W. and Erickson, C L (2006) Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in
the Neotropical Lowlands. Columbian University Press: NY [INST ARCH DF 100
BAL]
Urban Archaeology
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Marcus J and Sabloff J (eds) (2008) The Ancient City: New Perspectives on Urbanism in the
Old and New Worlds. School of American Research Press, Albuquerque. [INST
ARCH BC 100 MAR]
Session 35 (lecture): Continuity and Discontinuity - cities between late antiquity
and the early medieval world (Dominic Perring)
Synopsis: Why do towns fail? This session will explore issues of urban failure from the
perspective of the transition from late antiquity to the early medieval period. Whilst our
focus will ,as ever, be on the archaeological evidence – and the models that can be built from
such evidence – this session will also be rooted in the wider historical debate about the
‘decline and fall’ of Rome. Individual instances of urban failure can be identified at many
different places and times - through natural disaster, political reform, or changed geo-political
and economic circumstance - but towns tend to be remarkably robust. This was not the case in
late antiquity, when urban decline was widespread. Some of these changes can be traced back
in the early Roman period (with some models suggesting a 2 nd century origin for processes of
urban contraction), but elsewhere (as in the Roman east) a vigorous early Byzantine urbanism
made way for a succession of urban failures in the course of the late 6th and 7th centuries.
These changes were closely linked to the political fortunes of the Roman Empire and its
successor states, influenced also by the forces of fire, famine, pestilence, warfare and natural
disaster, but archaeological research has shown that in many cities processes of change were
complex and of comparatively long duration. The nature of urban communities changed
through the period in question – and towns were consequently given different shape and
direction. Some of these issues will have been anticipated in our discussion of the
Christianization of the city (session 29), and in our case-study of Roman and Medieval
London (session 24) but here we will look at the broader archaeological evidence for the
decline and fall of the Roman city, and the different regional patterns of emergent medieval
urbanisation.
Key reading:
Carver, M O H (1996) ‘Transitions to Islam: Urban rôles in the east and south Mediterranean,
fifth to tenth centuries AD’, in Christie, N & Loseby, S T (eds) Towns in transition.
Urban evolution in Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages, pp. 184-212. Scolar
Press: Aldershot [ ISSUE DESK IOA CHR 3]
Kennedy, H (1985) ‘From polis to madina: urban change in late antique and early Isalmic
Syria’, Past & Present 106, 3-27
Liebeschuetz, J H W G (2001) The decline and Fall of the Roman City, Oxford University
Press [ANCIENT HISTORY R 64 LIE]
Reece, R (1980) ‘Town and Country, the end of Roman Britain’, World Archaeology 12.1,
77-92
Ward-Perkins, B (1995) ‘Urban survival and urban transformation in the Eastern
Mediterranean’ in G P Brogiolo (ed) Early Medieval Towns in the Western
Mediterranean, Documenti di Archeologia 10, Padua, 143-53
[www.bibar.unisi.it/sites/www.bibar.unisi.it/files/testi/.../10-10.pdf]
Whittow, M (2003) ‘Decline and Fall? Studying Long-Term Change in the East’ in L Lavan
and W Bowden (eds). Theory and Practice in Late Antique Archaeology, Late
Antique Archaeology; V. 1. Leiden: Brill. 404ff [ISSUE DESK IOA LAV 1]
Further reading:
Bowden, W, Gutteridge, A, and Machado, C (eds) (2006) Social and political life in late
Antiquity. Leiden: Brill [INST ARCH DA 180 BOW]
Urban Archaeology
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Bowersock, G W, Brown, P, and Grabar, O (eds) (2001) Interpreting late antiquity: essays on
the postclassical world. London: Harvard University Press [ANCIENT HISTORY A
6 BOW]
Brogiolo, G P and Ward-Perkins, B (eds) (1998) The idea and ideal of the town between Late
Antiquity and the Early Modern Ages. Brill [INST ARCH DA 180 BRO]
Brogiolo, G.P, Gauther and N Christie N (eds) 2000 Towns and their Territories between Late
Antiquity and the early Middle Ages, Leiden: Brill [[INST ARCH DA 180 BRO]
Brown, P (1989) The World of Late Antiquity. (2nd ed) London: Thames & Hudson
[ANCIENT HISTORY A 5 BRO]
Cameron, A (1993) The Mediterranean world in Late Antiquity. AD 395-600. Routledge:
London and New York: Routledge. – esp Ch 7 Urban Change and the end of antiquity
[ANCIENT HISTORY R 19 CAM]
Christie, N and Loseby, S (eds) (1996) Towns in transition. Urban evolution in Late Antiquity
and the Early Middle Ages. London: Scolar Press - especially Brian Ward-Perkins on
‘Urban Continuity?’ and Roskams on ‘Urban transition in North Africa: Roman and
medieval towns of the Maghreb’ [ISSUE DESK IOA CHR 3]
Constable, O R (2003) Housing the Stranger in the Mediterranean World: Lodging, Trade,
and Travel in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press [HISTORY 82 cu CON]
Dignas, B & Winter, E (2007) Rome and Persia in late antiquity: neighbours and rivals.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [ANCIENT HISTORY R 61 DIG]
Fowden, G (2004) Qusayr 'Amra: Art and the Umayyad Elite in Late Antique Syria.
University of California [INST ARCH DBE 10 FOW]
Garnsey, P & Humfress, C (2001) The Evolution of the Late Antique World. Cambridge:
Orchard Academic [ANCIENT HISTORY R 14 GAR]
Haldon, J F and Conrad, L I (eds) (2004) The Byzantine and early Islamic Near East: Elites
old and new in the Byzantine and early Islamic Near East. Princeton, N.J: Darwin
Press [ANCIENT HISTORY S 6 WOR]
Hill, D and Cowie, R., 2001, Wics: the early medieval trading centres of northern Europe,
Sheffield [INST ARCH DA Qto HIL]
Hodges, R (2012) Dark Age Economics: a new audit. Bristol Classical Press: London [INST
ARCH DA 180 HOD]
Hodges, R & Whitehouse, D (1983) Mohammed, Charlemagne & the Origins of Europe.
London: Duckworth [INST ARCH DA 180 HOD]
Howard-Johnson, J (2006) East Rome, Sasanian Persia and the End of Antiquity:
Historiographical and Historical Studies. Aldershot: Ashgate [ANCIENT HISTORY
S 6 HOW]
Jones, A H M (1971) Cities of the eastern Roman Provinces. (2nd ed) Oxford: Oxford
University Press [ANCIENT HISTORY R 20 JON]
Kennedy, H (2006) The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East. Aldershot: Ashgate [On
order]
Kennet, D and Luft, P (eds) (2008) Current Research in Sasanian Archaeology, Art and
History. Oxford: Archaeopress [INST ARCH DBG Qto KEN]
Kingsley, S and Decker, M (eds) (2001) Economy and Exchange in the East Mediterranean
during Late Antiquity: Proceedings of a conference at Somerville College, Oxford,
29th May, 1999. Oxford: Oxbow Books [INST ARCH DBA 100 KIN]
Lavan, L (ed) (2001) Recent research in late-antique urbanism. Portsmouth, Rhode Island:
Journal of Roman Archaeology [INST ARCH DBA 100 LAV]
Lavan, L and Bowden, W (eds) (2003) Theory and Practice in Late Antique Archaeology.
Leiden: Brill [INST ARCH DA 180 LAV]
Lavan, L, Özgenel, L, and Sarantis, A (eds) (2007) Housing in Late Antiquity: From Palaces
to Shops. Leiden: Brill [INST ARCH DA 180 LAV]
Urban Archaeology
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Lavan, L, Zanini, E, and Sarantis, A (eds) (2007) Technology in Transition AD 300-650.
Leiden: Brill [INST ARCH DA 180 LAV]
March, C (2009) Spatial and religious transformations in the late antique polis: a multidisciplinary analysis with a case-study of the city of Gerasa. Oxford: Archaeopress
[INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto MAR]
Miles, R (ed) (1999) Constructing identities in Late Antiquity. London: Routledge
[ANCIENT HISTORY M 72 MIL]
Mitchell, S (2007) A history of the Later Roman Empire AD 284-641: The transformation of
the Ancient World. Oxford: Blackwell [ANCIENT HISTORY R 14 MIT]
Poulter, A G (2007) ‘The Transition to Late Antiquity on the Lower Danube: The City, a Fort
and the Countryside’, in A.G. Poulter (ed) The Transition to Late Antiquity on the
Danube and Beyond, pp. 51–97. Oxford University Press for the British Academy:
Oxford [ANCIENT HISTORY R 6 POU]
Rich, J (ed) (1992) The City in Late Antiquity. London: Routledge [INST ARCH ISSUE
DESK IOA RIC 4; Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 RIC]
Rosenthal, F (1992) The classical heritage in Islam. Routledge [Main HEBREW A 75 ROS]
Rousseau, P (ed) (2009) A Companion to Late Antiquity. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell
[ANCIENT HISTORY A 5 ROU]
Rousseau, P and Papoutsakis, E (eds) (2008) The transformations of late antiquity: essays for
Peter Brown. Aldershot: Ashgate [ANCIENT HISTORY A 6 BRO]
Sandwell, I and Huskinson, J (eds) (2004) Culture and society in later Roman Antioch:
papers from a colloquium, London, 15th December 2001. Oxford: Oxbow
[ANCIENT HISTORY R 45 SAN]
Sivan, H (2008) Palestine in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press [ANCIENT
HISTORY J 5 SIV]
Sjostrom, I (1993) Tripolitania in Transition: Late Roman to Islamic Settlement - with a
Catalogue of Sites. Avebury [INST ARCH DCB SJO]
Spieser, J-M (2001) Urban and Religious Spaces in Late Antiquity and Early Byzantium.
Ashgate [INST ARCH DA 180 SPE]
Ward-Perkins, B (1984) From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Urban Public Building
in Northern and Central Italy, A.D. 300-850. Oxford University Press: Oxford
[HISTORY 82 z 2 WAR]
Wharton, A.J (1995) Refiguring the post classical City. Dura Europos, Jerash, Jerusalem and
Ravenna, New York. [Main ANCIENT HISTORY B 52 WHA]
Williams, S & Friell, G (1998) The Rome that did not fall: The survival of the East in the fifth
century. Routledge [Main ANCIENT HISTORY R 19 WIL]
Zavagno, L (2009) Cities in Transition: Urbanism in Byzantium Between Late Antiquity and
the Early Middle Ages (500-900 A.D.). Oxford: Archaeopress [INST ARCH DBA
100 Qto ZAV]
Session 36 (lecture): Early Urbanism, Capitals and Semi-Autonomous Cities in
Arid West Africa: the Middle Niger (Kevin Macdonald)
Synopsis: The Middle Niger is the locale of earliest known cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, some
dating back to the first millennium BC. The Middle Niger has been characterised as an
organic, 'self-organizing' urban landscape by Roderick McIntosh, eschewing hierarchy in
favour of heterarchy, and state power for autonomy. This lecture takes a fresh look at the
early cities of Dia and Jenne-jeno and their potential antecedents and casts a critical eye on
the relationship of urbanism with state power, using historic examples and the lecturer's own
excavation and survey work in the Segou region. The notion of 'capital city' in a West African
context will also be explored.
Key reading:
Urban Archaeology
Page 59
McIntosh, R J (2005) Ancient Middle Niger: Urbanism and the Self-Organizing Landscape.
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [INST ARCH DCF MCI]
McIntosh S K (1999) ‘Modeling political organization in large-scale settlement clusters: a
case study from the Inland Niger Delta’, in S K McIntosh (ed.) Beyond Chiefdoms:
pathways to complexity in Africa. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 66-79
[INST ARCH DC 100 MCI & ISSUE DESK MCI]
MacDonald, K C, Camara, S, Sow, M (2012) ‘Segou, Slavery, and Sifinso’ in J C Monroe &
A Ogundiran (eds) Power and Landscape in Atlantic West Africa. Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge, 169-190 [INST ARCH DCG MON & ISSUE DESK
IOA MON 1]
Further reading:
Bedaux, R, MacDonald, K, Person, A, Polet, J, Sanogo K, Schmidt A and Sidibé S (2001)
‘The Dia Archaeological Project: rescuing cultural heritage in the Inland Niger Delta
(Mali)’ Antiquity 75, 837-48
Conrad, D C (1994) ‘A Town Called Dakalajan: the Sunjata tradition and the question of
Ancient Mali’s Capital’, Journal of African History 35, 355-77
Holl, A (1993) ‘Late Neolithic cultural landscape in southeastern Mauritania: an essay in
spatiometrics’, in A Holl and T E Levy (eds) Spatial Boundaries and Social
Dynamics: Case Studies from Food-producing societies. International Monographs in
Prehistory: Ann Arbor, 95-133 [INST ARCH DC 100 HOL]
MacDonald, K C (2012) ‘"The least of their inhabited villages are fortified": the walled
settlements of Segou’, Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 47, 343-364.
MacDonald, K C, Camara, S, Canos Donnay, S, Gestrich N and Keita D (2009-2011)
Sorotomo: a Forgotten Malian Capital? Archaeology International 13/14, 52-64
McIntosh, R J (1999) Peoples of the Middle Niger. Blackwell: Oxford [INST ARCH DCF
MCI]
McIntosh, S.K. (ed.) (1995) Excavations at Jenné-Jeno, Hambarketolo, and Kaniana (Inland
Niger Delta, Mali), The 1981 Season. University of California Press: Berkeley [INST
ARCH DCF MCI]
McIntosh, S K and McIntosh, R J (1993) ‘Cities Without Citadels: understanding urban
origins along the Middle Niger’, in Shaw, Sinclair, Andah and Okpoko (eds) The
Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns. Routledge: London, 622-41[INST
ARCH DC 100 SHA & ISSUE DESK IOA SHA 6]
Togola, T (2008) Archaeological Investigations of Iron Age Sites in the Mema Region, Mali
(West Africa), Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology.73, BAR: Oxford, 93101[INST ARCH DCF Qto TOG]
Session 37 (lecture): Identities and communities - the representation of identity,
ethnicities & neighbourhoods in the Islamic city (Tim Williams)
Synopsis: Cities represent complex landscapes of communities, often linked by factors such
as patronage, craft specialisation, ethnicities or beliefs. As a case study, we explore the
Islamic city and examine the archaeological evidence for the existence of neighbourhoods.
How can we identify these within the urban landscape? What criteria and characteristics
might we expect them to exhibit? If we can recognise distinct areas of the city, what evidence
might enable us to understand the make-up of population? During this session we will explore
the case-study of Merv in some detail.
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Key reading:
Bennison, A K and Gascoigne, A (eds) (2007) Cities in the pre-modern Islamic world: the
urban impact of religion, state and society. Routledge: London [INST ARCH DBA
100 BEN]
Goodson, C J, Lester, A E, and Symes, C (eds) (2010) Cities, Texts and Social Networks, 4001500: Experiences and Perceptions of Medieval Urban Space. Farnham: Ashgate
[HISTORY 82 bf GOO]
Especially: How to found an Islamic city (Hugh Kennedy); Metropolitan architecture,
demographics and the urban identity of Paris in the 13th century (Meredith Cohen);
The meaning of topography in Umayyad Córdoba (Ann Christys); The myth of
urban unity: religion and social performance in late medieval Braunschweig (FranzJosef Arlinghaus); Out in the open, in Arras: sightlines, soundscapes and the
shaping of a medieval public sphere (Carol Symes)
Walmsley, A (2007) Early Islamic Syria: An Archaeological Assessment. Duckworth:
London [INST ARCH DBD 100 WAL]
Whitcomb, D (ed) (2004) Changing social identity with the spread of Islam: archaeological
perspectives. University of Chicago: Chicago [INST ARCH DBA 100 WHI]
Williams, T (2008) The landscapes of Islamic Merv, Turkmenistan: Where to draw the line?,
Internet Archaeology 25 [access via UCL ejournals]
Further reading:
Abu-Lughod, J L (1987) ‘The Islamic City--Historic Myth, Islamic Essence, and
Contemporary Relevance’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 19(2): 155176
Al Sayyad, N (1991) Cities and Caliphs: On the genesis of Arab Muslim urbanism.
Greenwood Press: Westport [TOWN PLANNING B 161 ALS]
Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E (eds) (1998) History of Civilizations of Central Asia.
Volume IV. The age of achievement: AD 750 to the end of the Fifteenth Century. Part
One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. UNESCO: Paris [INST ARCH
DB HIS]
Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E (eds) (2000) History of Civilizations of Central Asia.
Volume IV. The age of achievement: AD 750 to the end of the Fifteenth Century. Part
Two: The achievements. UNESCO: Paris [INST ARCH DB HIS]
Benco, N L (ed) (2004) Anatomy of a medieval Islamic town: Al-Basra, Morocco.
Archaeopress: Oxford [INST ARCH DCCB Qto BEN]
Bianca, S (2000) Urban form in the Arab world: past and present. Thames & Hudson:
London [TOWN PLANNING B 161 BIA]
Blair, S, Bloom, J, & Ettinghausen, R (1994) The art and architecture of Islam, 1250-1800.
Yale University Press: New Haven, Conn [ARCHITECTURE B 4 BLA]
Bloom, J (1989) Minaret. Symbol of Islam. Oxford University Press: Oxford
[ARCHITECTURE B 4 BLO]
Bonine, M E (1979) ‘The Morphogenesis of Iranian Cities’, Annals of the Association of
American Geographers 69(2): 208-224
Bonine, M E (1994) The Middle Eastern city and Islamic urbanism: an annotated
bibliography of Western literature. Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag: Bonn [British Library
2247.683000 Heft 91 DSC]
Bosworth, C E (ed) (2007) Historic cities of the Islamic world. Brill: Leiden [TOWN
PLANNING B 161 HIS]
Bulliet, R W (2009) Cotton, Climate, and Camels in Early Islamic Iran: A Moment in World
History. Columbia University Press: New York [INST ARCH DBG 100 BUL]
Burns, R (2005) Damascus: a history. Routledge: London [INST ARCH DBD 100 BUR]
Urban Archaeology
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Cameron, A (ed) (2007) The Byzantine and early Islamic Near East: Patterns of communal
identity. Darwin Press: Princeton, N.J [INST ARCH on order]
Creswell, K A C (1968) A short account of early Muslim architecture. Librairie du Liban:
Beirut [ARCHITECTURE B 1 CRE]
Curtis, V S and Stewart, S (eds) (2009) The rise of Islam. I.B.Tauris: London [ANCIENT
HISTORY F 74 CUR]
de la Vaissière, E (2005) Sogdian Traders: A History. Brill: Leiden [INST ARCH DBK
LAV]
Ettinghausen, R, Grabar, O, & Jenkins, M (2001) Islamic art and architecture 650-1250. (2nd
ed) Yale University Press: New Haven, Conn. & London [ARCHITECTURE B 4
ETT]
Gangler, A, Gaube, H, & Petruccioli, A (2004) Bukhara, the eastern dome of Islam: urban
development, urban space, architecture and population. Edition Axel Menges:
Stuttgart [ARCHITECTURE B 1:59 GAN]
Hakim, B S (1988) Arabic-Islamic cities: building and planning principles. (2nd ed) Kegan
Paul International: London [TOWN PLANNING C 66 TUN]
Haldon, J F and Conrad, L I (eds) (2004) The Byzantine and early Islamic Near East: Elites
old and new in the Byzantine and early Islamic Near East. Darwin Press: Princeton,
N.J [ANCIENT HISTORY S 6 WOR]
Haneda, M and Miura, T (eds) (1994) Islamic urban studies: historical review and
perspectives. Keagan Paul: London [SSEES Misc.XXII ISL]
Henderson, J, Challis, K, O'Hara, S, McLaughlin, S, Gardner, A, & Priestnall, G (2005)
‘Experiment and innovation: early Islamic industry at al-Raqqa, Syria’, Antiquity
79(303): 130-145
Hillenbrand, R (1994) Islamic architecture: form, function and meaning. Edinburgh
University Press: Edinburgh [ARCHITECTURE B 1 HIL]
Hillenbrand, R (1999) Islamic Art and Architecture. Thames and Hudson: London [ART HB
5 HIL]
Hodges, R & Whitehouse, D (1983) Mohammed, Charlemagne & the Origins of Europe.
Duckworth: London [INST ARCH DA 180 HOD]
Hourani, A and Stern, S M (eds) (1970) The Islamic City. Bruno and Cassirer: Oxford
[ANTHROPOLOGY PA 20 HOU]
Insoll, T (1999) The archaeology of Islam. Blackwell: Oxford [INST ARCH DBA 100 INS]
Jayyusi, S K, with Holod, R, Petruccioli, A, and Raymond, A (eds) (2008) The city in the
Islamic world. Brill: Leiden [TOWN PLANNING B 161 CIT]
Kennedy, H (1985) ‘From Polis to Medina: urban change in late antique and early Islamic
Syria’, Past and Present, 106: 3-27
Kennedy, H (1992) ‘Antioch: from Byzantium to Islam and back again’, in J Rich (ed) The
City in Late Antiquity, 181-198. Routledge: London [ISSUE DESK IOA RIC 4]
Kennedy, H (1999) ‘Medieval Merv: an historical overview’, in G Herrmann (ed) Monuments
of Merv. Traditional buildings of the Karakum, 25-44. Society of Antiquaries of
London: London [INST ARCH DBKB Qto HER]
Kheirabadi, M (2000) Iranian cities: formation and development. Syracuse University Press:
Syracuse [INST ARCH DBG 100 KHE]
Lapidus, I M (1988) A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press: Berkeley
[HISTORY 53 d LAP]
Le Strange, G (1905) Lands of the Eastern Caliphate: Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central
Asia, from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge [MOCATTA FA 20 LES]
Michell, G (ed) (1978) Architecture of the Islamic world: its history and social meaning, with
a complete survey of key monuments. Thames and Hudson: London
[ARCHITECTURE B 1 MIC]
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Morony, M G (1982) ‘Continuity and Change in the Administrative Geography of Late
Sasanian and Early Islamic al-'Ir-üq’, Iran 20: 1-49
Northedge, A (2005) Remarks on Samarra and the archaeology of large cities, Antiquity
79(303): 119-129
Northedge, A (2005) The historical topography of Samarra. British School of Archaeology in
Iraq: London [INST ARCH DBB 10 Qto NOR]
Palazón, J N & Castillo, J C (2011) The Islamic town in medieval Europe, in M O H Carver
& J Klápšte (eds) The archaeology of medieval Europe. Vol 2 twelfth to sixteenth
centuries, 404-407. Acta Jutlandica, Aarhus University Press: Aarhus [INST ARCH
DA 190 GRA]
Petersen, A (2005) The towns of Palestine under Muslim rule AD 600-1600. Archaeopress:
Oxford [INST ARCH DBE 100 Qto PET]
Petruccioli, A (2007) After amnesia: learning from the Islamic Mediterranean urban fabric.
ICAR: Altamura [ARCHITECTURE B 1:49 PET]
Rante, R (2007) The topography of Rayy during the early Islamic period, Iran 45: 161-180
Raymond, A (1994) ‘Islamic City, Arab City: Orientalist Myths and Recent Views’, British
Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 21(1): 3-18
Robinson, C F (ed) (2001) A medieval Islamic city reconsidered: an interdisciplinary
approach to Samarra. Oxford University Press (for the Board of Faculty of Oriental
Studies): Oxford [INST ARCH DBB 10 ROB]
Rostovtzeff, M (1932) Caravan cities. Clarendon Press: Oxford [ISSUE DESK IOA ROS 2
or ANCIENT HISTORY R 45 ROS]
Sauvaget, F (1939) ‘Caravansérails Syriens du Moyen-Âge, I: Caravansérails Ayyubides
(env. 1125-1260 AD)’, Ars Islamica 6: 48-55
Sjostrom, I (1993) Tripolitania in Transition: Late Roman to Islamic Settlement - with a
Catalogue of Sites. Aldershot: Avebury [INST ARCH DCB SJO]
Triano, A V (2007) Madīnat al-Zahrā': transformation of a Caliphal city, in G D Anderson &
M Rosser-Owen (eds) Revisiting al-Andalus. Perspectives on the Material Culture of
Islamic Iberia and Beyond, 3-26. Brill: Leiden [INST ARCH DAPA 10 AND]
Wheatley, P (2001) The places where men pray together. Cities in Islamic Lands, Seventh
Through the Tenth Centuries. University of Chicago Press: Chicago [INST ARCH
DBA 100 WHE]
Whitcomb, D (2007) An urban structure for the early Islamic city: an archaeological
hypothesis, in A K Bennison & A Gascoigne (eds) Cities in the pre-modern Islamic
world: the urban impact of religion, state and society, 15-26. Routledge: London
[INST ARCH DBA 100 BEN]
Whitehouse, D, Whitcomb, D, & Wilkinson, T J (2009) Siraf: History, Topography, and
Environment. Oxbow & the British Institute of Persian Studies: Oxford [INST ARCH
DBG 10 WHI]
Williams, T (2007) The city of Sultan Kala, Merv, Turkmenistan: communities,
neighbourhoods and urban planning from the eighth to the thirteenth century, in A K
Bennison & A Gascoigne (eds) Cities in the pre-modern Islamic world: the urban
impact of religion, state and society, 42-62. Routledge: London [INST ARCH DBA
100 BEN]
Session 38 (lecture): Case study - Changing and Changed Communities in 19th
century cities (Hanna Steyne)
Synopsis: The 19th century was a period of rapid technological and scientific development,
empire building, social change, economic expansion and mass migration, which combined to
create dynamic and legendary cities of outrageous wealth and unimaginable poverty,
immortalized in the fiction of writers such as Charles Dickens and Arthur Conan Doyle.
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Throughout the century major urban centres expanded dramatically, drawing in thousands of
people and shaping the cities we know today in terms of their street plan, architecture, social
mix and the nature of the suburbs and inner cities. The archaeology of urban centres can
provide unique insights into the impacts of industrialisation, globalisation and mass migration
on communities whose lives were not recorded in the historical record, but whose stories are
fundamental to our understanding of modern cities and the management of their heritage.
This session will explore the archaeology of 19 th century urban communities in Australia,
America and the UK, with a focus on the approaches, methodologies and data sources applied
in urban historical archaeological research. A case study from London will demonstrate the
value of multifaceted approaches to urban historical archaeology and explore the impact of
Victorian ‘Urban Improvement’ works on riverside communities.
Key reading:
Mayne, A and Murray, T (eds) (2001). The Archaeology of Urban Landscapes: Explorations
in Slumland. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge [INST ARCH AH MAY]
This book is the best introduction to the ‘classic’ sites of urban historical archaeology,
including work in Australia, USA, South Africa, Canada and the UK. I particularly
recommend:
 Mayne & Murray: The archaeology of urban landscapes: explorations in slumland
 Karskens: Small things, big pictures: new perspectives from the archaeology of
Sydney’s Rocks neighbourhood.
 Murray & Mayne: Imaginary landscapes: reading Melbourne’s ‘Little Lon’
 Yamin: Alternative narratives: respectability at New York’s Five Points
Mayne, A and Lawrence, S (1998) ‘An Ethnography of Place: Imagining ‘little Lon’’,
Journal of Australian Studies 22.57, 93-107
Further reading:
Dwyer, E (2011) The impact of the railways in the East End, 1835-2010: Historical
archaeology from the London Overground East London line. Museum of London
Archaeology Monograph 52: London [Main: LONDON HISTORY FOLIOS 48.510
DWY]
Jeffries, N, OIwens, A, Hicks, D, Featherby, R, and Wehner, K (2009) ‘Rematerialising
Metropolitan Histories? People, Places and Things in Modern London’, in A Horning
and M Palmer (eds). Crossing Paths or Sharing Tracks? Future directions in the
archaeological study of post-1550 Britain and Ireland. Boydell & Brewer Ltd:
Woodbridge [INST ARCH DAA 100 HOR]
Porter, D (1998) The Thames Embankment: Environment, Technology and Society in
Victorian London. University of Akron Press: Akron [LONDON HISTORY 87.520
POR]
Session 39 (lecture): Urban archaeology and the contemporary city (Tim
Williams)
Synopsis: Cities develop and redevelop themselves, fashioning new identities. Sometimes
these explicitly draw upon and integrate the past; sometimes the impact of earlier cities has
been more subtle, framing the streets and properties, or retaining the fabric of earlier
structures. This session will explore the use and reuse of historic urban landscapes and the
legacy of a built environment. We will also examine how our concept of urban landscape
determines how we experience these spaces and representations.
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How do we manage and present urban archaeology in the modern city? The management of
urban archaeological deposits present complex issues, especially when faced with the
pressure of urban communities. How can archaeology be integrated with the economic, social,
and cultural life of a current city? In 2011 UNESCO’s General Conference adopted the
Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, a ’soft-law’ to be implemented by
individual Member States on a voluntary basis (http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/638/). All
cities are the result of a process of physical layering through time but this fundamental aspect
is seldom explicitly embodied in urban planning and management. Exceptions exist, when
areas are protected for their historical and archaeological values, but this is often only a
fragment of the historic urban environment. The Recommendation on the Historic Urban
Landscape aims to give relevance, among other things, to the ‘time dimension’ in the
management of historic cities, with a landscape approach aimed at integrating this dimension
in to urban planning, conservation and development processes.
Key reading:
Bandarin, F & van Oers, R (2012) The historic urban landscape: managing heritage in an
urban century. Wiley Blackwell: Chichester [ARCHITECTURE B 20 BAN]
Chatzoglou, A, Polyzoundi, A, Sorensen, M L S & Taha, S (2011) Historic environment:
historic cities. Australian ICOMOS: Burwood, Victoria [INST ARCH in cataloguing]
Hall, M (2006) ‘Identity, Memory and Countermemory: The Archaeology of an Urban
Landscape’, Journal of Material Culture 11(1): 189-210
ICOMOS (1987) Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas.
ICOMOS. Available at: http://www.international.icomos.org/e_towns.htm
Lynch, K (1960) The image of the city. MIT Press: London [TOWN PLANNING A 30 LYN]
van Oers, R & Haraguchi, S (eds) (2010) Managing Historic Cities. World Heritage Papers
27. UNESCO: Paris Available as pdf at: http://whc.unesco.org/en/series/27/
Further reading:
Assi, E (2008) ‘The relevance of urban conservation charters in the world heritage cities in
the Arab States’, City & Time 4(1), 57-63
Baugher, S and DiZerega Wall, D (1997) ‘Ancient and modern united: archaeological
exhibitions in urban plazas’, in J H Jameson Jr (ed) Presenting Archaeology to the
Public: digging for truths. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creek, California, 114-129 [INST
ARCH DED 100 JAM]
Birabi, A K (2007) ‘International urban conservation charters: catalytic or passive tools of
urban conservation practices among developing countries?’, City & Time 3(2): 39-53
Callebaut, D & Sunderland, J (2010) ‘ENAME: new technologies perpetuate the past’,
Museum International 50(2), 50-54
Dennison, P (ed) (1999) Conservation and change in historic towns. CBA Res Rep 122: York
[INST ARCH DAA Qto Series COU 122]
du Cros, H and Lee, Y S F (eds) (2007) Cultural Heritage Management in China: Preserving
the Pearl River Delta Cities.: Routledge: London [INST ARCH on order]
English Heritage & CABE (2001) Building in context: New development in historic areas.
English Heritage & CABE: London. Available as a pdf at:
http://www.helm.org.uk/upload/pdf/Building-in-context.pdf?1349448265
English Heritage (2001) Enabling development and the conservation of heritage assets.
English Heritage: London. Available via
http://www.helm.org.uk/server/show/nav.19686
English Heritage (2005) Regeneration and the historic environment: heritage as a catalyst for
better social and economic regeneration. English Heritage: London. Available via:
http://www.helm.org.uk/server/show/nav.19589
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Galán, E & Zezza, F (eds) (2002) International Symposium on the Conservation of
Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin (Seville, Spain): Protection and conservation
of the cultural heritage of the Mediterranean cities. A.A. Balkema: Lisse,
Netherlands [INST ARCH LA GAL]
Getty Conservation Institute (2011) Historic cities (Special issue). Conservation Perspectives,
The GCI Newsletter, 26(2)
Grewcock, D (2006) Museums of Cities and Urban Futures: new approaches to urban
planning and the opportunities for museums of cities, Museum International 58(3),
32-42.
Hall, P (1998) Cities in civilization: culture, innovation and urban order. Weidenfield &
Nicolson: London [TOWN PLANNING E 5 HAL]
Kabbani, O R (1998) ‘Public space as infrastructure: the case of the post-war reconstruction
of Beirut’, in Rowe, P & Sarkis, H (eds) Projecting Beirut: episodes in the
construction and reconstruction of a modern city, pp. 240-259. Prestel: London
[Bartlett: TOWN PLANNING C 62 LEB]
Kostof, S (1992) The city assembled: the elements of urban form through history. Thames &
Hudson: London [TOWN PLANNING E 5 KOS]
Lynch, K, edited by Banerjee, T and Southworth, M (1990) City sense and city design.
Writings and projects of Kevin Lynch. MIT Press: Cambridge [TOWN PLANNING E
5 LYN]
Loukaki, A (2008) Living ruins, value conflicts. Ashgate: Aldershot [YATES A 8 LOU]
Monclus, F & Guardia, M (eds) (2006) Culture, Urbanism and Planning. Ashgate: Aldershot
[TOWN PLANNING A 30 MON]
Organization of World Heritage Cities 1991. The World Heritage Cities Management Guide.
UNESCO: Paris. Available at http://www.ovpm.org/gestion/index.asp
Pickard, R (ed) (2001) Management of historic centres. Spon: London [INST ARCH AG
PIC]
Sandes, C (2010) Archaeology, conservation and the city: post-conflict redevelopment in
London, Berlin and Beirut. Archaeopress: Oxford [INST ARCH AG Qto SAN]
Session 40 (seminar): Archaeology and conflict (Dominic Perring & Tim
Williams)
Synopsis: In this final session we discuss conflicts between urban renewal and archaeology,
based on case studies such as London’s Rose theatre, the post-war reconstruction of Beirut
Central District, the excavations of the New York Negro cemetery and the rebuilding of Cape
Town District Six. In most cases the principal argument has been between planners and
builders intent on urban renewal – often, but not invariably, motivated by the prospect of
commercial profit – and other interest groups concerned to resist such change because of
alternative values that can be found in the archaeological and heritage remains. Whilst these
issues are not exclusive to the urban landscape, it is here that the conflicting pressures are at
their most acute. This is, of course, but another way in which we can shape urban fabric
against our ideological, political and economic goals. The archaeological site consequently
becomes another active component within the public landscape of the city. Our aim here is to
look in some detail at the events and issues associated with the individual case-studies – and
use these to identify (and question) some of the broader social goals that attach to the conduct
of archaeological research in the contemporary city, and to take position over the purpose and
value of urban archaeology.
Key reading:
Carver, M O H (1993) Arguments in Stone: Archaeological Research and the European Town
in the First Millenium, Oxbow Monograph 29: Oxford [INST ARCH DA CAR]
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Hall, M (2001) ‘Cape Town’s District Six and the archaeology of memory’, in R Layton, P
Stone and J Thomas (eds), Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property.
Routledge: London, 298-311 [INST ARCH AG LAY & ISSUE DESK IOA LAY 4]
Perring D and van der Linde, S (2010) ‘The Politics and Practice of Archaeology in Conflict’
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 11. 3–4, 197–213
Smith, L (2004) Archaeological Theory and the Politics of Cultural Heritage. Routledge:
London & New York [INST ARCH AG SMI]
Further reading:
Barber, I (2006) ‘Is the truth down there?: Cultural Heritage Conflict and the Politics of
Archaeological Authority’, Public History Review 13, 143-154
Barakat, S (2007) ‘Postwar reconstruction and the recovery of cultural heritage: critical
lessons from the last fifteen years’, in N Stanley-Price (ed) Cultural Heritage in
Postwar Recovery. ICCROM: Rome, 26-39 [INST ARCH AG STA]
Hamilakis Y and Duke, P (eds) (2007) Archaeology and Capitalism. Left Coast Press: Walnut
Creek, California [INST ARCH AG HAM]
Cantwell, A M and Wall, D (2001) Unearthing Gotham: The archaeology of New York City.
Yale University Press: New Haven & London [INST ARCH DED 16 CAN]
Meskell L (ed) (1998) Archaeology Under Fire: Nationalism, politics and heritage in the
Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Routledge: London [INST ARCH AG MES
& ISSUE DESK IOA MES 2]
Sandes, C (2010) Archaeology, conservation and the city: post-conflict redevelopment in
London, Berlin and Beirut. Archaeopress: Oxford [INST ARCH AG Qto SAN]
Tunbridge, J E and Ashworth, G J (1996) Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past
as a Resource in Conflict. Wiley & Sons: London [INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IoA
TUN]
Beirut as a case study
Khalaf, S (2006) The heart of Beirut: Reclaiming the Bourj. London: Saqi Books [Bartlett
TOWN PLANNING C 62 BEI]
Nasr, J & Verdeil, E (2008) ‘The Reconstructions of Beirut’, in S K Jayyusi, R Holod, A
Petruccioli & A Raymond (eds) The City in the Islamic World. Brill: Leiden, 11161141[Bartlett TOWN PLANNING B 161 CIT]
Perring D (2010) ‘Archaeology and the Post-war Reconstruction of Beirut’ Conservation and
Management of Archaeological Sites, 11. 3–4, 296–314
Rowe, P and Sarkis, H (eds) (1998) Projecting Beirut: Episodes in the Construction and
Reconstruction of a Modern City. Prestel: Munich [Bartlett TOWN PLANNING C 62
LEB]
Schmid, H (2006) ‘Privatized urbanity or a politicized society? Reconstruction in Beirut after
the civil war’, European Planning Studies 14.3, 365-381
Seeden, H (1999) Lebanon’s archaeological heritage on trial in Beirut: what future for
Beirut’s past? In A Hatton & F Mcmanamon (eds) Cultural Resource Management in
Contemporary Society: Perspectives on Managing and Presenting the Past. London:
Routledge, 168-187 [INST ARCH AG MCM]
Stewart, D J (1996) ‘Economic Recovery and Reconstruction in Postwar Beirut’, The
Geographical Review 86, 487-504
Rose theatre as a case study
Biddle, M (1989) ‘The Rose reviewed: a comedy (?) of errors’, Antiquity 63, 753-760
Bowsher, J (1998) ‘The Rose Theatre: an archaeological discovery. Museum of London
Archaeology Service: London – for foreword by Ian McKellen; postscript by C
Walter Hodges [INST ARCH DAA 416 BOW]
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Bowsher, J and Miller P (2009) The Rose and the Globe: playhouses of Shakespeare’s
Bankside, Southwark: excavations 1988-91. Museum of London Archaeology:
London [INST ARCH DAA 416 Qto BOW]
Chippindale, C (1989) ‘Editorial’, Antiquity 63, 409-420
Fowler, P (2001) ‘Time for a last quick one?’ Antiquity 75, 606-608
Miles, D, and Brindle, S, 2005 Case Study: The Rose Theatre, Bankside, London. “Display
and conservation”, Urban Pasts and Urban Futures: Bringing Urban Archaeology to
Life. Enhancing Urban Archaeological Remains, International and Interdisciplinary
Symposium – APPEAR, European Union, 41-6. [www.insitu.be/Session2_Miles.pdf]
Wainwright, G (1989) ‘Saving the Rose’, Antiquity 63, 430-435
Wainwright, G (2000) ‘Time Please’, Antiquity 74, 909-943
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ASSESSMENT TASKS
For the first assignment, the Course Co-ordinators are willing to discuss an outline of the
student's approach to the assignment, provided this is planned suitably in advance of the
submission date.
If students are unclear about the nature of an assignment, they should discuss this with the
Course Co-ordinators.
Assignment One: Submission deadline: 30th November, 2012
Please choose ONE of the questions below. Your essay should not be more than 4,000 words
in length. You should use illustrations as appropriate.
Assignment Two: Submission deadline: 22nd March, 2013
Please choose ONE of the questions below. Your essay should not be more than 4,000 words
in length. You should use illustrations as appropriate.
ESSAYS
In this course your essays should examine theoretical issues, using the archaeology of any
particular period or area to illustrate your discussions.
Like most academic writing, your essays should present an argument supported by analysis.
Typically your analysis will include a critical evaluation (not simply description) of concepts
in some subset of archaeology’s theoretical literature. Remember, you must draw upon
readings from multiple class sessions, examine some of the primary literature in addition to
secondary literature and use references to support your assertions. The course co-ordinators
will be willing to discuss an outline of your approach to the assessment, provided this is
planned suitably in advance of the submission date.
A range of possible topics is suggested below, but students are also invited to identify an
original topic in consultation with the course coordinators (the essay title will be subject to
their approval). The topic should be clearly related to at least one of the themes covered in the
classes. Students wishing to write on topics that have not yet been covered in lectures are
invited to seek additional guidance from the coordinators.
Suggested topics:
1. To what extent does complex systems theory provide a research framework for examining
urban systems? Give critical examples of its application.
2. How does urban morphology provide insights into a society’s organisation? Illustrate
your answer with examples drawn from one or more archaeological cases.
3. Discuss how archaeological and textual evidence can support each other in order to
promote a broader understanding of urbanisation, supporting your argument with two or
more case studies.
4. Using case studies, how does the evidence from cemeteries throw light upon urban
communities?
5. How have sacred landscape been constructed in urban spaces? Discuss this in association
with state-formation.
6. How far do current theoretical approaches to the understanding of ‘landscape’ help us to
understand the interplay of sacred, economic and political authority in ancient cities?
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7. How would you expect empire-systems to affect the nature of urbanism? How would the
archaeological record differ from other types of states or societies?
8. Using one chronological period, explore the role of cities as a tool for conquest or
imperial expansion.
9. How did elite society express power through cities and urban institutions?
10. Discuss the concepts of creolization and acculturation in urban communities: how can we
archaeologically study these issues?
11. How easily can we distinguish political power from commercial power in the formation
of urban landscapes? Can this be achieved from the archaeological evidence alone?
12. How does the archaeology of urban households contribute to our understanding of the
nature of the urban experience?
13. The ‘consumer city’ model has been a powerful explanatory framework for considering
the relationship between urban centres and hinterlands. Do alternative models simply
represent subtle nuances on this paradigm?
14. Are harbour cities a different form of urbanism?
15. Hydraulic civilizations: discuss the role of water management in the development of
urbanisation.
16. How can archaeology explore the transition of urban centres at times of major political
upheaval?
17. How can we study the urban poor? What has been achieved and how should the urban
poor be reflected in urban research agendas?
Examples of period and/or geographically framed topics:
18. What factors led to the development and form of the early Mesopotamian city?
19. Can Greek urbanization be understood in isolation from the urbanization of other
geographically contiguous areas? Can we analyse it as a uniform phenomenon?
20. What is a ‘city-state culture’? Is it a suitable and satisfactory alternative to the polis
approach?
21. Theories relating to expanding trading networks and technological developments have
figured prominently in debates regarding the rise of urban centres in the Indian subcontinent. Discuss these and other factors, including the rise of religious traditions, in the
shaping of the urban culture
22. How did the decline of Roman Empire an impact on the nature of urban centres? How can
we assess this impact? Use examples from one region?
23. What do you view as the most significant factors underlying the change in cities in the
Eastern Mediterranean after the arrival of Islam?
24. How much importance would you attach to interregional trade in explaining the
development of urban society in Central Asia during the late first millennium BC and the
early first millennium AD?
25. Discuss the idea of the city in China, with particular reference to non-elite urban
populations.
26. What factors led to an intensification of urban development in England in the early
medieval period? Discuss the archaeological evidence for competing theories.
27. In what ways was the early medieval city in Europe an inheritor of classical urbanism?
28. Discuss the ways in which Maya architecture was used to ‘frame spaces’ and define a
sense of place.
29. Explore the distinctive paths taken by neotropical cities in Mesoamerica: are these less
complex than urban centres in other areas of the world?
30. Discuss the relationship of urbanism with state power in the development of West African
cities. In what way did this relationship shape the urban fabric and how do we read this as
archaeologists?
31. How can archaeological approaches and theory contribute to our understanding of early
modern cities, with their wealth of historical sources?
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Communication
The primary channel of communication within the Institute of Archaeology is e-mail. If you
wish to be contacted on your personal or work e-mail address, please arrange for e-mail sent
to your UCL address to be forwarded to your other address, since staff and other students will
expect to be able to reach you through your College e-mail, which they can find on the UCL
web-site. Students must consult their e-mail regularly, as well as the student pigeon-holes in
the Basement Common Room for written communications. Please also ensure that you keep
your contact details (especially your telephone number) up to date on Portico, in case you
need to be contacted.
Attendance
Registers will be taken at all classes, and Departments are required to report the attendance of
each student to UCL Registry at frequent intervals throughout each term. If you are unable to
attend a class, please email the course co-ordinator to explain, in order to ensure that there is a
record of the reasons for your absence.
It is a College regulation that attendance at lectures, seminars and practicals be monitored. A
70% minimum attendance at all scheduled sessions is required (excluding absences due to
illness or other adverse circumstances, provided that these are supported by medical
certificates or other documentation, as appropriate).
Students should also be aware that potential employers seeking references often ask about
attendance and other indications of reliability.
Libraries and other resources
In addition to the Library of the Institute of Archaeology, other libraries in UCL with
holdings of particular relevance to this degree are the Anthropology and Bartlett libraries.
Information for intercollegiate and interdepartmental students
Students enrolled in Departments outside the Institute should collect a hard copy of the
Institute’s coursework guidelines from Judy Medrington’s office.
Health and Safety
The Institute has a Health and Safety policy and code of practice which provides guidance on
laboratory work, etc. This is revised annually and the new edition will be issued in due
course. All work undertaken in the Institute is governed by these guidelines and students
have a duty to be aware of them and to adhere to them at all times. This is particularly
important in the context of the laboratory/field/placement work which will be undertaken as
part of this degree.
Feedback
In trying to make this degree as effective as possible, we welcome feedback during the course
of the year. Students will be asked to fill-in Progress Forms at the end of each term, which
the Degree Co-ordinator will discuss with them, which include space for comment on each of
their courses.
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At the end of each course all students are asked to give their views on the course in an
anonymous questionnaire, which will be circulated at one of the last sessions of the course.
These questionnaires are taken seriously and help the Course Co-ordinator to develop the
course. The summarised responses are considered by the Degree Co-ordinator, the Institute's
Staff-Student Consultative Committee, Teaching Committee, and by the Faculty Teaching
Committee.
If students are concerned about any aspect of a specific course, we hope they will feel able to
talk to the relevant Course Co-ordinator, but if they feel this is not appropriate or have more
general concerns, they should consult their Degree Co-ordinator, Personal Tutor, or the
Graduate Tutors (Kevin MacDonald and Sue Hamilton). They may also consult the
Academic Administrator (Judy Medrington), the Chair of Teaching Committee (Karen
Wright), or the Director (Stephen Shennan).
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