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Transcript
INTRODUCTION TO
GEODETIC ASTRONOMY
D. B. THOMSON
December 1981
TECHNICAL
REPORT
LECTURE NOTES
NO.
49217
PREFACE
In order to make our extensive series of lecture notes more readily available, we have
scanned the old master copies and produced electronic versions in Portable Document
Format. The quality of the images varies depending on the quality of the originals. In
this version, images have been converted to searchable text.
INTRODUCTION TO GEODETIC
ASTRONOMY
Donald B. Thomson
Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering
University of New Brunswick
P.O. Box 4400
Fredericton, N.B.
Canada
E3B SA3
September 1978
Reprinted with Corrections and Updates December 1981
Latest Reprinting January 1997
PREFACE
These notes have been written for undergraduate students
in Surveying Engineering at the University of New Brunswick.
The
overall objective is the development of a set of practical models
for the determination of astronomic azimuth, latitude and longitude
that utilize observations made to celestial objects.
It should be
noted here that the emphasis in these notes is placed on the socalled second-order geodetic astronomy.
This fact is reflected
in the treatment of some of the subject matter.
To facilitate
the development of models, several major topics are covered, namely
celestial coordinate systems and their relationships with terrestrial
coordinate systems, variations in the celestial coordinates of a
celestial body, time systems, timekeeping, and time dissemination.
Finally, the reader should be aware of the fact that much
of the information contained herein has been extracted from three
primary references, namely Mueller [1969], Robbins [1976], and
Krakiwsky and Wells [1971].
These, and several other's, are referenced
extensively throughout these notes.
D.B. Thomson.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PREFACE • • • •
ii
LIST OF TABLES
v
LIST OF FIGURES
vi
1.
INTRODUCTION • • • • •
1.1 Basic Definitions
2.
CELESTIAL
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.
COORDINAT~
1
2
SYSTEMS
14
The Celestial Sphere • •
• • •
Celestial Coordinate Systems •
••••••
2.2.1 Horizon System • • • • • • • • • • • • .
2.2.2 Hour Angle System
•••••••••
2.2.3 Right Ascension System.
• •••
2.2.4 Ecliptic Sys tem
• • • •
2.2.5 Summary • • • •
• • • •
Transformations Amongst Celestial Coordinate Systems •
2.3.1 Horizon - Hour Angle • • • • •
2.3.2 Hour Angle - Right Ascension •
2.3.3 Right Ascension - Ecliptic ••
2.3.4 Summary • • • • • • •
Special Star Positions
2.4.1 Rising and Setting of Stars
2.4.2 Culmination (Transit)
2.4.3 Prime Vertical Crossing.
2.4.4 Elongation • • • • • • •
TIME DISSEMINATION, TIME-KEEPING, TIME RECORDING
4.1 Time Dissemination • • • • • • •
4.2 Time-Keeping and Recording.
4.3 Time Observations • • • • •
5.
26
29
32
34
36
42
44
47
47
50
59
61
64
TIME SYSTEMS
3.1 Sidereal Time • • • • • •
3.2 Universal (Solar) Time • • •
3.2.1 Standard(Zone) Time
3.3 Relationships Between Sidereal and Solar Time Epochs
and Intervals •• • • • • •
3.4 Irregularities of Rotational Time Systems •
3.5 Atomic Time System. • • • •
4.
14
20
20
23
STAR CATALOGUES AND EPHEMERIDES
5.1 Star Catalogues
.5.2 Ephemerides and Almanacs ••
iii
67
75
80
80
93
93
....
95
. . •.
95
99
• • • 100
...
• • • • 106
• 108
Page
6.
7.
8.
9.
VARIATIONS IN CELESTIAL COORDINATES· • • • • • • • • • •
117
6.1 Precession, Nutation, and Proper Motion·
6.2 Annual Aberration and Parallax • • • • • • • • • •
6.3 Diurnal Aberration, Geocentric Parallax, and
• • ••
••••
Astronomic f'1.~(~~'~:.ton
6.4 Polar Motion • • • • • • • • • • • • •
118
127
DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH
134
138
........
147
7.1 Azimuth by Star Hour Angles ••
7.2 Azimuth by Star Altitudes
148
154
DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE •
163
8.1 Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances ••
8.2 Latitude by Polaris at any Hour Angle ••
164
165
DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LONGITUDE • • •
170
9.1 Longitude by Meridian Transit Times· •
REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• 172
• 175
APPENDIX A
Review of Spherical Trigonometry ••
176
APPENDIX B
Canadian Time Zones
183
APPENDIX C
Excerpt from the Fourth Fundamental Catalogue
(FK4)
APPENDIX D
. . • . . • . . • . • .,. . • ... . .
184
Excerpt from Apparent Places of Fundamental
Stars •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 186
iv
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1
Celestial Coordinate Systems [Mueller, 1969] . •
33
Table 2-2
Cartesian Celestial Coordinate Systems [Mueller, 1969]
33
Table 2-3
Transformations Among Celestial Coordinate Systems
[Krakiwsky and Wells, 1978J .
Table 6-1
Description of Terms • .
Table 7-1
Azimuth by Hour Angle:Random Errors in Latitude 60 0
133
155
[Robbins, 1976]
Table 7-2
49
Azimuth by Altitude: Random Errors in Latitude 60 0
[Robbins, 1976] • • • • • •
v
158
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1
Biaxial Ellipsoid • . • • • •
4
Figure 1-2
Geodetic Latitude, Longitude, and Ellipsoidal Height
5
Figure 1-3
Orthometric Height
6
Figure 1-4
Astronomic Latitude
Figure 1-5
Geoid Height & Terrain Deflection of the Vertical • . .
Figure 1-6
Components of the Deflection of the Vertical
10
Figure 1-7
Geodetic Azimuth • •
12
Figure 1-8
Astronomic Azimuth
13
Figure 2-1
Cele,stial Sphere
16
Figure 2-2
Astrono~ic
Figure 2-3
Sun's Apparent Motion
Figure 2-4
Horizon
Figure 2-5
Horizon System
Figure 2-6
Hour Angle System.
24
Figure 2-7
Hour Angle System
25
Figure 2-8
Right Ascension System
27
Figure 2-9
Right Ascension System
28
(~)
and Longitude (A)
8
••
Triangle. .
9
17
.......
System . . . . . . . . . .
....
....
....
19
21
22
Figure 2-10 Ecliptic System.
30
Figure 2-11 Ecliptic System.
31
Figure 2-12 Astronomic Triangle •
35
Figure 2-13 Local Sidereal Time •
37
vi
List of Figures Cont'd
Figure 2-14
Horizon and Hour Angle System Transformations •
39
Figure 2-15
Horizon
41
Figure 2-16
Hour Angle - Right Ascension Systems •
43
Figure 2-17
Right Ascension-Ecliptic Systems • •
45
Figure 2-18
Celestial Coordinate System Relationships [Krakiwsky
and Hour Angle Systems • • • • • • •
and We.lls, 1971] •.
48
Figure 2-19
Circumpolar and Equatorial Stars •
51
Figure 2-20
Declination for Visibility • •
52
Figure 2-21
Rising and Setting of a Star • •
54
Figure 2-22
Hour Angles of a Star's Rise and Set
55
Figure 2-23
Rising and Setting of a Star
Figure 2-24
Azimuths of a Star's Rise and Set.
58
Figure 2-25
Culmination (Transit) • •
60
Figure 2-26
Prime Vertical Crossing •
62
Figure 2-27
Elongation. •
65
Figure 3-1
Sidereal Time Epochs •
70
Figure 3-2
Equation of Equinoxes (OhUT , 1966) [Mueller, 1969]
71
Figure 3-3
Sidereal Time and Longitude
72
Figure 3-4
Universal and Sideral Times fAA, 1981] •
74
Figure 3-5
Universal (Solar) Time • • • . • • • • •
76
Figure 3,...6
Equation of Time (Oh UT , 1966) [Mueller, 1969] •
78
Figure 3-7
Solar Time and Longitude • • •
79
Figure 3-8
Standard (Zone) Time [Mueller, 1969]
81
Figure 3-9
Relationships Between Sidereal and Universal Time Epochs
83
vii
..
..
...
..
57
List of Figures Cont'd
Figure 3-10
[SALS~-.i98ir.
Sun - February. 1978
• •
86
Figure 3-11 Mutual Conversion of Intervals of Solar and
.Siderea1 Time [SALS, 19811 •
87
Figure 3-12a Universal and Sidereal Times, ·1981 [AA,1981J •
88
Figure 3-12b Universal and Sidereal Times, 1981 cont'd.
[AA, 1981] • • • • • • • • •
89
Figure 3-12c Universal and Sidereal Times, 1981 cont'd.
90
Figure 4-1
Code for the Transmission of DUT1
97
~econd...
Figure 4-2 ,:·pating. of Events in the Vicinity of A Leap
Figure 5-1
Universal and Sidereal Times, 1981 [AA ,1981'
.
J
Figure 5-2
Bright Stars, 1981.0
[AA,··r9S1]
.........
····
.··.
.,- .
98
109
110
..
Figure 5-3
Bright Stars, 1981.0 cont'd. [AA" 1281]
Figure 5-4
Sun - February, 1981 [SALS ,1981 L ..
Figure 5-5a
Right Ascension of Stars, 1981 [BALS, 1981 ]
Figure 5-5b
Declination of Stars t 1981, [SALS, 1981].·
Figure 5-6
Pole Star Table, 1981 [SALS, 1-981]
Figure 6-1
Variations of the Right Ascension System •
Figure 6-2
Motion of the Celestial Pole
121
Figure 6-3
Mean Celestial Coordinate
123
Figure 6-4
True and Mean Celestial coordinate Systems
Figure 6-5
Aberration
Figure 6.;;.;6
Annual (Stellar) Parallax ••
Figure 6-7
Position Updating M.Co T to A.Po T
./
..
0
.
0
0
0
Geocentric Parallax
0
....
viii
. . ..
··
.
0
0
0
·
115
.'
····
0
0
0
. ·
0
0
0
0
0
116
119
126
···.
0
113
114
. . . · · · . . . ..
Systems .
·..·.····
0
Figure 6-8
III
129
130
0
0
..·..·
0
132
0
0
0
0
0
0
136
List of Figures cont'd
Figure 6-9
Astronomic Refraction • • • • • • • • • • .
137
Figure 6-10
Observed to Apparent Place
139
Figure 6-11
Transformation of Apparent Place
141
Figure 6-12
Transformation from Instantaneous to Average Terrestrial
System • • • •
Figure 6-13
143
Celestial Coordinate Systems and Position Updating
[Krakiwsky, Wells, 1971] •
. •••
146
Figure 6-:-14
Coordinate Systems Used in Geodesy •
Figure 7-1
Azimuth by the Hour Angle of Polaris [Mueller, 1969]
152
Figure 7-1
Cont'd • •
153
Figure 7-2
Azimuth by the Sun's Altitude • • • • • • • • • • • . •
159
ix
••••
145
1.
INTRODUCTION
Astronomy is defined as
study of the universe beyond the
[Morris~
earth~
19751 "The scientific
especially the observation,
calculation, and theoretical interpretation of the positions, dimensions,
distribution~
phenomena".
motion, composition, and evolution of celestial bodies and
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences dating back to
ancient Chinese and Babylonian civilizations.
Prior to 1609, when the
telescope was invented, the naked eye was used for measurements.
Geodetic astronomy, on the other hand, is described as [Mueller,
1969] the art and science for determining, by astronomical observations,
the positions of points on the earth and the azimuths of the geodetic lines
connecting such points.
When referring to its use in surveying, the terms
practical or positional astronomy are often used.
The fundamental concepts
and basic principles of "spherical astronomy", which is the basis for geodetic
astronomy, were developed principally by the Greeks, and were well established
by the 2nd century A.D.
The treatment of geodetic astronomy in these notes is aimed at
the needs of undergraduate surveying engineers.
To emphasise the needs, listed
below are ten reasons for studying this subject matter:
(i)
a knowledge of celestial coordinate systems, transformations
amongst them, and variations in each of them;
(ii)
celestial coordinate systems define the "linkll between satellite
and terrestrial coordinate systems;
(iii) the concepts of time for geodetic purposes are developed;
(iv)
tidal studies require a knowledge of geodetic astronomy;
1
2
(v)
when dealing with new technologies (e.g. inertial survey systems)
an understanding of the local astronomic coordinate system is
essential;
(vi)
astronomic coordinates of terrain points, which are expressed
in a "natural" coordinate system, are important when studying
3-D terrestrial networks;
(vii)
astrondmically determined azimuths provide orientation for
terrestrial networks;
(viii) the determination of astrogeodetic deflections of the vertical
are useful for geoid determination, which in turn may be required
for the rigorous treatment of terrestrial observations such as
distances, directions, and angles;
(ix)
geodetic astronomy is useful for the determination of the origin
and orientation of independent surveys in remote regions;
(x)
geodetic astronomy is essential for.the demarcation of astronomically defined boundaries.
1.1
Basic definitions
In our daily work as surveyors,
we commonly deal with three different
surfaces when referring to the figure of the earth:
(i) the terrain, (ii)
an ellipsoid, and (iii) the geoid.
The physical surface of the earth is one that is extremely difficult
to model analytically.
It is common practice to do survey computations on a
less complex and modelable surface.
The terrain is, of course, that surface
on or from which all terrestrially based observations are made.
The most common figure of the earth in use, since it best approximates the earth's size and shape is a biaxial ellipsoid.
It is a purely
3
mathematical figure, defined by the parameters a (semi-major axis) b (semiminor axis) or a and f (flattening), where f=(a-b)/a (Figure 1-1).
This figure
is commonly referred to as a "reference ellipsoid", but one should note that
there are many of these for the whole earth or parts thereof.
The use of a
biaxial ellipsoid gives rise to the use of curvilinear geodetic coordinates <P
(latitude), A(longitude) ,and h (ellipsoidal height) (Figure 1-2).
Obviously,
since this ellipsoid is a "mathematical" figure of the earth, its position and
orientation within the earth body is chosen at will.
Conventionally, it has
been positioned non-geocentrically, but the trend is now to have a geocentric
datum (reference ellipsoid).
Conventional orientation is to have
parallel~m
of
the tertiary (:Z) axis with the mean rotation axis of the earth, and parallelism'
of the primary (X)
axis with the plane of the Greenwich Mean Astronomic
Mer:t.dian.
Equipotential surfaces (Figure 1-3),
of which there are an infinite
number for the earth, can be represented mathematically.
physical properties
They account for the
of the earth such as mass, mass distribution, and rotation,
and are "real" or physical surfaces of the earth.
The common equipotential
surface used is the geoid, defined as [Mueller, 1969] " t hat equipotential
surface that most nearly coincides with the undisturbed mean surface of the
oceans".
(Figure
Associated with these equipotential surfaces is the plumhline
1~3).
It is a line of force that is everywhere normal to the equipo-
tential surfaces; thus, it is a spatial curve.
We now turn to definitions of some fundamental quantities in geodetic
astronomy namely, the astronomic latitude (4)), astronomic longitude (A), and
orthometricheight (H).
These quantities are sometimes
referred to as
"natural" coordinates, since, by definition, they are given in terms of the
·4
z
p
pi
Figure 1-1
Biaxial Ellipsoid
5
..
z.
ELLIPSOIDAL
NORMAL
~~-r------~~Y
o·
(A=90)
Figure 1-2
Geodetic Latitude,Longitude, and r.llipsoida1Height
,
6
PLUMBLINE
EQUIPOTENTIAL
SURFACES
TERRAIN
GEOID
r
ELL~
Figure 1-3
Orthometric lIeieht
7
"real" (physical) properties of the earth.
Astronomic latitude
(~)
is defined as the angle between the
astronomic normal (gravity vertical) (tangent to the plumb1ine a.t the point
of interest) and the plane of the instantaneous equator measured in the
astronomic meridian plane (Figure 1... 4).
Astronomic longitude (/I.) is the
angle between the Greenwich Mean Astronomic Meridian and the astronomic
meridian plane measured in the plane of the instantaneous equator (Figure
1... 4).
The orthometr1c height (H), is the height of the point of interest
.above the geoid, measured along the plumbline, as obtained from spirit
leveling and en route gravity observations (Figure 1-3).
reductions of
~
Finally, after some
and A for polar motion and plumb line curvature, one obtains .
the "reduced" astronomic coordinates
(~,
A, H) referring to the geoid and the
mean rotation axis of the earth (more will be said about this last point in
these notes).
We are now in a position to examine the relationship between the
Geodetic and Astronomic coordinates.
This is an important step for surveyors.
Observations are made in the natural system; astronomic coordinates are expressed
in the same natural system; therefore, to use this information for computations
in a geodetic system, the relationships must be known.
The astro-geodetic (relative) deflection of the vertical (a) at a
point is the angle between the astronomic normal at that point and the normal
to the reference ellipsoid at the corresponding point (the point may be on
the terrain (at)
t~o
components,
or on the geoid{s g ) (Figure 1-5).
~
n-
- meridian and
e
is normally split into
prime vertical (Figure 1-6).
Mathema-
tically, the components are given by
~
n
= ~- !fl,
= (A-A) cos !fl,
(1-1)
(1-2)
8
TRUE. -
Z'T'
ROTATION
'AXIS
INSTANTANEOUS
POLE
PlUMBliNE
GRAVITY
VERTICAL
Figu.re 1-4
Astronomic Latitu.de (4)) and Longitude (A)
9
ELLIPSOIDAL
PLUMBLINE
NORMAL-~
EQUIPOTENTIAL
SURFACE'
~~~--
- --
"'ERRA.IN
GEOID
ELLIPSOID
Fieure 1-5
Geoid Ueieht & Terrain Deflection of the Vertical
z
liZ
10
liZ
0
ELLIPSOIDAL
NORMAL
UNIT SPHERE
7J =(1\. - 'A.) cos <P
Figure 1-6
Components of the Deflection of the Vertical
11
which yields the geodetic-astronomic coordinate
relationships we were seeking.
The geoida1 height (N) is the distance between the geoid and a
reference ellipsoid, measured along an ellipsoidal normal (Figure 1-5).
Mathematically, N is given by (with an error of less than 1mm) tie1sianen
and Moritz, 1967]
N = h-H.
(1-3)
Finally, we turn our attention to the azimuths of geodetic lines
between points.
A geodetic azimuth (a), on the surface of a reference
ellipsoid, is the clockwise angle from north between the geodetic meridian
of i and the tangent to the ellipsoidal surface curve of shortest distance
(the geodesic) between i and j (Figure 1-7).
The astronomic azimuth (A)
is the angle between the astronomic meridian plane of i and the astronomic
normal plane of i through j (Figure 1-8), measured clockwise from north.
The relationship between these
A and a
Laplace Azimuth equation [e.g. Heiskanen and
(A-a)
= ntan~ +
(~sina
in which z is the zenith distance.
Moritz~
- ncosa) cot z,
is given by the
1967]
(1-4)
Note that the geodetic azimuth, a, must
also be corrected for the height of target (skew-normal) and normal section geodesic separation.
12
ZG
#4-----'--4-
GEODES I C
kc::--t----=~-----l~-l--
XG
Figure 1-7
Geodetic Azimuth
YG
13
ZLA
Z
AT X
CIO
LA
~ASTRONOMIC
.
NORMAL
NORMAL PLANE OF
THROUGH j
VLA ,
ASTRONOMIC'
MERIDIAN
Figure 1-R
Astronomic Azimuth
2.
CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS
Celestial coordinate systems are used to define the coordinates of
celestial bodies such as stars.
There are four main celestial coordinate
systems - the ecliptic,'rightascelision, hour angle, and horizon of which are examined in detail in this chapter.
each
There are two fundamental
differences between celestial coordinate systems and terrestrial and orbital
coordinate systems.
First, as'a consequence of the great distances involved,
only directions are considered in celestial
coordinate sytems.
This means
that all vector quantities dealt with can be considered to be unit vectors.
The second difference is that celestial geometry is spherical rather than
ellipsoidal which simplifies the mathematical relationships involved.
2.1
The Celestial Sphere
The distance from the earth to the nearest star is more than 10 9
earth radii, thus the dimensions of the earth can be considered as negligible
compared to the distances to the stars.
For example, the closest star is
estimated to be 4 light years (40xl0 12 km) from the earth (a CENTAURI), while
"
others are VEGA at 30 light years, a USAE MINORIS (Polaris) at 50 light
years.
Our sun is only 8.25 light minutes (155xl0 6 km) from the earth.
As
a consequence of those great distances, stars, considered to be moving at
near the velocity of light, are perceived by an observer on earth to be moving
very little.
Therefore, the relationship between the earth and stars can be
closely approximated by considering the stars all to be equidistant from the
earth and lying on the surface of a celestial sphere, the dimension of which
is so large that the earth, and indeed the solar system, can be considered
to be a dimensionless point at its centre.
14
Although this point may be
15
considered dimensionless, relationships between directions on the earth
and in the solar system can be extended to the· celestial sphere.
The instantaneous rotation axis of the earth intersects the
celestial sphere at the north and south celestial poles (NCP and SCP
respectively) (Figure 2-1).
The earth's equitorial plane extented outwara
intersects the celestial sphere at the celestial equator (Figure 2-1).
The vertical (local-astronomic normal) intersects the celestial sphere at
a point above the observer, the zenith, and a point beneath. the observer,
the nadir (Figure 2-1).
A great circle containing the poles, and is thus
perpendicular to the celestial equator, is called an hour circle (Figure 2-1).
The observer's vertical plane, containing the poles, is the hour circle through
the zenith and is the observer's 'celestial meridian
(~igure
2-1).
A small
circle parallel to the celestial equator is called a celestial parallel. Another
very important plane is that which is normal to the local astronomic vertical
and contains the observer (centre of the celestial sphere);
celestial horizon (Figure 2-1).
The plane normal to the horizon passing
through the zenith is the vertical plane.
celestial horizon is called an
it is the
almucantar~
A small circle parallel to the
The vertical plane normal to the
celestial meridian is called the prime vertical.
The intersection points of
the prime vertical and the celestial horizon are the
~
and west points.
Due to the rotation of the earth, the zenith (nadir), vertical
planes, almucantars, the celestial
horizon and meridian continuously change
their positions on the celestial sphere, the effects of which will be studied
later.
If at any instant we select a point S on the celestial sphere (a star),
then the celestial meridian
and the hour and vertical circles form a spherical
triangle called the astronomic triangle of S.
Its verticies are the zenith
16
NCP
I
.I .
. I .
SCP
Figure 2-1
Celestial S
.. p h ere
17
I
-
I
-
.
Figure 2-2
A~tronoIlU.. c
Triangle
18
(Z), the north celestial pole (NCP) and S(Figure 2-2).
There are also some important features on the celestial sphere
related the revolution of the earth about the sun, or in the reversed concept,
the apparent motion of the sun about the earth.
The most important of these
is the ecliptic, which may be described as the approximate (within 2" [Mueller,
1969]) apparent path of the sun about the earth.(Figure 2-3).
The ecliptic
intersects the celestial equator in a line connecting theeqtiinoxes.
The
vernal equinox is that point intersection where the apparent sun crosses the
celestial equator from south to north.
equinox.
The other equinox is the autumnal
The acute angle between the celestial equator and the ecliptic is
termed the obliquity of the ecliptic (e:=23°27') (Figure 2-3).
The points at
90 0 from either equinox are the points where the sun reaches its greatest
angular distance from the celestial equator, and they are the summer solstice
(north) and winter solstice (south).
In closing this section we should note that the celestial sphere
is only an approximation of the true relationship between the stars and an
observer onthe earth's surface.
Like all approximations, a number of corrections
are required to give a precise representation of the true relationship.
corrections represent the facts that:
These
the stars are not stationary points
on the celestial sphere but are really moving (proper motion); the earth's
rotation axis is not stationary with respect to the stars (precesion, nutation);
the earth is displaced from the centre of the celestial sphere (which is taken
as the centre of the sun) and the observer is displaced from the mass centre
of the earth (parallax); the earth is in motion around the centre of the
celestial sphere (aberration); and directions measured through the earth's
atmosphere are bent by refraction.
All of these effects are discussed in
19
I
AUTUMNAL I .". .". _ ~QLEN~X\_I __
....
.".
'"
SUMMER
SOLSTICE
-
---
"'" I
.~
1\
\-----o::~--I-OBL IQ U ITV
---~~~~V~E-R-NAL
I
EQU INOX (¥)
t
I
I
I
SCP
. Figure 2-3
Sun's Apparent Motion
OF THE
ECLIPTIC
20
detail in these notes.
2.2
Celestial Coordinate Systems
Celestial coordinate systems are used to define the positions of
stars on the celestial sphere.
Remembering that the distances to the stars
are very great, and in fact can be considered equal thus allowing us to
treat the celestial sphere as a unit sphere, positions are defined by directions
only.
One component or curva1inear coordinate is reckoned from a primary
reference plane and is measured perpendicular to it, the other from a
secondary reference
p1an~·
and is measured in the primary plane.
In these notes, two methods of describing positions are given.
The
first is by a set of curvalinear coordinates, the second by a unit vector
in three dimensional space expressed as a function of the curva1inear
coordinates.
2.2.1
Horizon System
The primary reference plane is the celestial horizon, the secondary
is the observer's celestial meridian (Figure 2-4).
This system is used to
describe the position of a celestial body in a system peculiar to a topographically located observer.
The direction to the celestial body S is defined
by the a1titude(a) and azimuth (A) (Figure 2-4).
The altitude is the angle
between the celestial horizon and the point S measured in the plane of the
vertical circle (0° - 90°).
zenith distance.
The complimentary angle z =90-a, is called the
The azimuth A is the angle between the observer's celestial
meridian and the vertical circle through S measured in a clockwise direction
(north to east) in the plane of the celestial horizon (0° - 360°).
21
~~NORTH
POINT
Figure 2-4
Ilorizon System
22
NCP
ZH
I
I
I
Z
S
X
x
~SIN a=Z/1
:o-..~SIN A=Y/COS
A_ ~
Y
a
."
A=X/COS a
Figure 2-5
J!orizon
System
ZH
COS a
. COS a
COS A
SIN A
SIN a
23
To determine the unit vector of the point S in terms of a and A, we
must first define the origin and the three axes of the coordinate system.
The origin is the he1iocentre (centre of mass of the sun [e.g. Eichorn, 1974]~.
The primary pole (Z) is the observer's zenith (astronomic normal or gravity
vertical).
The primary axis (X) is directed towards the north point.
The
secondary (Y) axis is chosen so that the system is left-handed (Figure 2-5
illustrates this coordinate system).
Note that although the horizon system
is used to describe the position of a celestial body in a system peculiar to
a topographically located observer, the system is heliocentric and not
topocentric.
The unit vector describing the position of S is given by
cosa
[ cosa
COSAJ
sinA
(2-1)
sina
Conversely, a and A, in terms of [X,Y,Z]
a
= sin-1 Z,
A = tan
2.2.2
-1 Y
T
are (Figure 2-5)
(2-2)
(IX).
(2-3)
Hour Angle System
The primary
refer~nce
plane is the celestial eguator, the secondary
is the hour circle containing the zenith (obserser's celestial meridian).
The
direction to a celestial body S on the celestial sphere is given by the
declination (0) and hour angle (h).
The declination is the angle between the
ce1ectia1 equator and the body S, measured from 0 0 to 90 0 in the plane of the
hour circle through S.
polar distance.
*
The complement of the declination is called the
The hour angle is the angle between the hour circle of S
Throughout these notes, wemake'the valid approximation heliocentre
barycentre of our solar system.
=
24
NCP
Figure 2-6
Hour Angle System
25
ZHA
XHA
x
Y
Z
=
HA
COS 6 COS h
COS 6 SIN h
SIN 6
Figure 2-7
Hour Angle System
26
and the observer's celestial meridian (hour circle), and is measured from
oh
h
to 24 , in a clockwise direction (west, in the direction of the star's
apparent daily motion) in the plane of the celestial equator.
Figure 2-6
illustrates the hour angle system's curva1inear coordinates.
To define the unit vector of S in the hour angle system, we define
the coordinate system as follows (Figure 2-6).
The origin is the he1iocentre.
The primary plane is the equatorial plane, the secondary plane is the celestial
meridian plane of the observer.
The primary pole (Z) is the NCP, the primary
axis (X-axis) is the intersection of the equatorial and observer's celestial
meridian planes.
The Y-axis is chosen so that the system is left-handed.
The hour angle system rotates with the observer.
XL
[Y •
Z
and
~
[coso: COSh]
cos& sinh
sinS
,
(2-4)
and h are given by
o = sin- 1 Z
-1
h = tan
2.2.3
The unit vector is
,
(2-S)
(Y/x).
(2-6)
Right Ascension System
The right ascension system is the most important celestial system
as it is in this system that star coordinates are published.
It also serves
as the connection between terrestrial, celestial, and orbital coordinate
systems.
The primary reference plane is the celestial equator and the secondary
is the equinocta1 co1ure (the hour circle passing through the NCP and SCP
and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes){Yigure 2-8).
The direction to a star
S is given by the right ascension (a) and declination (6), the latter of which
27
NCP
Figure 2-8
Right Ascension System
28
ZRA
YRA
XRA
COS 6 COS
COS 6 SIN
SIN 6
Figure 2-9
Ri~ht
Ascension System
~
OC
29
has already been defined (RA system).
The right ascension is the angle
between the hour circle of S and the equinoctal colure, measured from the
vernal equinox to the east (counter clockwise) in the plane of the celestial
h
equator from 0
h
to 24 •
The right ascension system coordinate axes are defined as having
a heliocentric origin, with the equatorial plane as the primary plane, the
primary pole (Z) is the NCP, the primary axis (X) is the vernal equinox,
and the Y-axis is chosen to make the system right-handed (Figure 2-9).
The
unit vector describing the direction of a body in the right-ascension system
is
: ...
cos' 0 cos<~
X
-
Y
Z
RA
cos 15 sino.
,
(2-7)
sino
and a and 0 are expressed as
-1/<"
(Y!X) ,
a
- tan
15
= sin-lz
(2-8)
(2-9)
2.2;4 Ecliptic System
The ecliptic system is the celestial coordinate system that is closest
to being inertial, that is, motionless with respect to the stars.
However,
due to the effect of the planets on the earth-sun system, the ecliptic plane
is slowly rotating (at '0".5 per year) about a slowly moving axis of rotation.
The primary reference plane is the ecliptic, the secondary reference plane is
the ecliptic meridian of the vernal equinox (contains the north and south
ecliptic poles, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes) (Figure 2-10).
The direction
30
SCP
Figure 2-10
Ecliptic System
31
x
COS ~ COS A..
COS ~ SINA.
Y
Z
E
SIN ~
Figure 2-11 :.
Ecliptic System
32
to a point S on the celestial sphere .is given by the ecliptic latitude (B)
and ecliptic longitude (A).
The ecliptic latitude is the angle, measured
in the ecliptic meridian plane of S, between the ecliptic and the normal OS
(Figure
2~10).
The ecliptic longitude is measured eastward in the ecliptic
plane between the ecliptic meridian of the vernal equinox and the ecliptic
meridian of S (Figure 2-10).
The ecliptic system coordinate axes are specified as follows
(Figure 2-11).
The origin is heliocentric.
The primary plane is the ecliptic
plane and the primary pole (Z) is the NEP (north ecliptic pole).
The primary
axis (X) is the normal equinox, and the Y-axis is chosen to make the system
right-handed.
The unit vector to S is
x
=
Y
cosB
COSA
cosS
sinA
Z
,
(2-10)
sinS
while B and A are given by
2.2.5
-1
S
=
sin
A
=
tan
-1
Z,
(2-11)
(y/X)
(2-12)
Summary
The most important characteristics of the coordinate systems,
expressed in terms of curva1inear coordinates, are given in Table 2-1.
The
most important characteristics of the cartesian coordinate systems are shown
in Table 2-2 (Note:
~
and u in Table 2-2 denote the curvilinear coordinates
measured in the primary reference plane and perpendicular to it respectively).
33
Parameters Measured from the
Reference Plane
System
Primary
Secondary
Primary
Secondary
Horizon
Celestial horizon
Celestial meridian (half Alti.tude
-90~!:a !:+900
containi.ng north pole)
(+toward zenith)
Hour
Angle
Celestial equator
Hour circle of observer's zentth (half
containing zenith)
Azimuth
00<A<3600
(+east)
Hour
Declination
-90°<15< +90°
(+north)
an~le
Oh~h~24h
00~h~360°
(-+west)
Right
Ascension
Celestial
equator
Equinoctical colure
(half containing
vernal equinox)
Declination
-90°s.15s.+90°
(+north)
\
Right Ascen
sion
Oh<a.<24h
00~a.~360°
(+east)
Ecliptic
Ecliptic
Ecliptic meridan
equinox (half containing vernal
equinox)
(Ecliptic)
Longitude
0°<:>'<360°
(Ecliptic)
Latitude
90°<6<+90°
(+~a~t)
(+n~rth)
CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS [Mueller, 1969]
TABLE 2-1
System
Horizon
Hour angle
Orientation of the Positive Axis
X
Y
Z
(Secondary pole)
(Primary pole)
u
A
a
left
North point
A .,. 90°
Intersection of
the zenith's hour
circle with the
celestial equator
on the zenith's
side.
h = 90°. 6h North celestial h
pole
15
left
a. .,. 90°= 6h North celestial a.
pole
15
right
6
right
Right ascension Vernal equinox
Ecliptic
Left or Right
handed
)J
Vernal equinox
= 90°
Zenith
North ecliptic
pole
:>.
CARTESIAN CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS [Mueller, 1969]
TABLE 2-2
34
2.3
Transformations Amongst Celestial Coordinate Systems
Transformations amongst celestial coordinate systems is an important
aspect of geodetic astronomy for it is through the transformation models that
we arrive at the math models for astronomic position and azimuth determination,
Two approaches to coordinate systems transformations are dealt with here:
(i) the traditional approach, using spherical trigonometry, and (ii) a'more
general approach using matrices that is particularly applicable to machine
computations.
The relationships that are developped here are between (i)
the horizon and hour angle systems, (ii) the hour angle and right ascension
systems, and (iii) the right ascension and ecliptic systems.
With these math
models, anyone system can then be related to any other system (e.g. right
ascension and horizon systemS).
Before developing the transformation models, several more quantities
must be defined.
To begin with, the already known quantities relating to the
astronomic triangle are (Figure 2-12):
(i)
from the horizon system, the astronomic azimuth A and the
altitude a or its compliment the zenith distance z=90-a,
(ii)
from the hour angle system, the hour angle h or its compliment 24-h,
(iii) from the hour angle or right ascension systems, the declination 0, or its compliment, the polar distance 90-0.
The new quantities required to complete the astronomic triangle are
the astronomic latitude
longitude
~
or its compliment
90-~,
the difference in astronomic
6A =As- Az (=24-h), and the parallactic angle p defined as the
angle between the vertical circle and hour circle at S (Figure 2-12).
The last quantity needed is Local Sidereal Time.
(Note: this is
35
EQUATOR
Figure 2-12
Astronomic Triangle
36
not a complete definition, but is introduced at this juncture to facilitate
coordinate transformations.
A complete discussion of sidereal time is presented
in Chapter 4).
To obtain a definition of Local Sidereal Time, we look at three
meridians:
(i) the observer's celestial meridian, (ii) the hour circle
through S, and (iii) the equinoctal colure.
from the NCP, we see,
2-13):
Viewing the celestial sphere
on the equatorial plane, the following angles (Figure
(i) the hour angle (h) between the celestial meridian and the hour
circle (measured clockwise), (ii) the right ascension (a) between the equinoctal colure and the hour circle (measured counter clockwise), and (iii)
a new quantity, the Local Sidereal Time (LST) measured clockwise from the
celestial meridian to the equinoctal colure.
LST is defined as the hour
angle of the vernal equinox.
2.3.1
Horizon - Hour Angle
Looking first at the Hour Angle to Horizon system transformation,
using a spherical trigonometric approach, we know that from the hour angle
system we are given h and
~,
and we must express these quantities as functions
of the horizon system directions, a (or z) and A.
formation is a knowledge of
Implicit in this trans-
~.
From the spherical triangle (Figure 2-14), the law of sines yields
sin(24-h)
sinz
=
sinA
~~77~~
sin(90-~)
,
(2-13)
or
-sinh
sinz
sinA
= ---cos~
(2-14)
and finally
sinA sinz = -sinh
cos~
(2-15)
37
....JZ
<!
~9
wr:t:
....J
w
W:E
u
Figure 2-13
Local Sidereal Time
38
The five parts formula of spherical trigonometry gives
cosA sinz
= cos(90-~)sin(90-~)-cos(90-~)sin(90-~)cos(24-h),
(2-16)
or
cosA sinz = sin6
-
cos~
sin~
cos6 cosh
(2-17)
Now, dividing (2-15) by (2-17) yields
sini\. sinz
cosA sinz
-sinh cos~
sin6 cos~ -sin~ coso cosh
=
(2-18)
which, after cancelling and collecting terms and dividing the numerator and
denominator of the right-hand-side by coso yields
tanA =
-sinh
tan~ cos~ -sin~
,
cosh
(2-19)
or
tanA
=
sin~
sinh
cosh - tano
cos~
(2-20)
Finally, the cosine law gives
cosz
= cos(90-~)cos(90-9) +
sin(90-~)sin(90-9)COs(24-h),
(2-21)
+
(2-22)
or
cost
= sin~
sino
cos~
coso cosh
Thus, through equations (2-20) and (2-22), we have the desired
results - the quantities a (z) and A expressed as functions of 0 and h and a
known latitude
~.
The transformation Horizon to Hour Angle system (given a (=90-z),
A,
~,
compute h, 0) is done in a similar way using spherical trigonometry.
The sine law yields
coso sinh
= -sinz
sinA
,
(2-23)
sin~
(2-24)
and five parts gives,
coso cosh
= cosz
cos~
-sinz cosA
39
EQUATOR
Figure 2-14
llorizonand Hour Angle System
Transformations
40
After dividing (2-23) by (2-24), the result is
__~__s7i=nA~________~
tanh _
cosA
-cotz
cos~
+ sinz cosA
cos~
sin~
(2-25)
Finally,the cosine law yields
sineS
= cosz
sin~
(2-26)
Equations (2-25) and (2-26) are the desired results - hand eS expressed
solely as functions of a(=90-z),A, and
~.
Another approach to the solution of these transformations
is to use rotation matrices.
handed.
First, both systems are heliocentric and left-
From Figure 2-15, we can see that YHA is coincident with -YH (or YH
coincident with -YHA), thus they are different by 180°.
2-15,
ZH
~,
an~ ~
ZH' ZHA' and
~
Also from Figure
all lie in the plane of the celestial meridian.
are also separated by
(90-~)
and are different by 180°.
The
transformation, then, of HA to H is given simply by
x
x
y
=
(2-27)
Z H
Z
HA
or giving the fully expanded form of each of the rotation matrices
X
Y
Z
=
cos180° sin1800
0
-s.in1800 cos180°
0
0
H
1
0
cos(90-~)
0
sin(90-~)
0
-sin(90-~)
X
1
0
Y
0
cos (90-11»
. (2-28)
ZHA
The effect of the first rotation, R2 (90-11», is to bring ZHA into coincidence
with ZH' and
~
into the same plane as
rotation, R3 (1800), brings
~
~
(the horizon plane).
and YHA into coincidence with
respectively, thus completing the transformation.
~
The second
and YH
41
NCP
EAST
POINT
Figure 2-15
Angle Systems
Horizon and Hour
.
42
The reverse transformation - Horizon to Hour Angle - is simply
the inverse* of (2-27), namely
=
(2-29)
H
2.3.2
Hour Angle - Right Ascension
Dealing first with the spherical trigonometric approach, it is
evident from Figure 2-16 that
LST = h
+ a.
(2-30)
Furthermore, in both the Hour Angle and Right Ascension systems,
the declination 0 is one of the star coordinates.
To transform the Hour Angle
coordinates to coordinates in the Right Ascension system (assuming LST is
known) we have
a
= LST-h
(2-31)
(2-32)
0=0
Similarly, the hour angle system coordinates expressed as functions of right
aS,cension system coordinates are simply
h
=
(2-33)
LST-a
0=0
(2-34)
For a matrix approach, we again examine Figure 2-16.
are heliocentric, ZHA= ZRA' and
*Note:
~,
YHA ,'
~,
Note that both systems
and YRA all lie in the plane
For rotation matrices, which are orthogonal, the .. f~t1owing rules
apply. If x=Ry, then y=R-1x ; also (Ri Rj )-l = ~lRi'
and
'R- 1 '(S) == R(-S).
43
Figure 2-16
Hour Ang1e·- Right Ascension Systems
44
of the celestial equator.
The differences are that the HA system is left-
handed, the RA system right-handed, and
LST.
XHA
and
~
are separated by the
The Right Ascension system, in terms of the hour angle system, is
given by
(2-35)
or, with R3 (-LST) and the ,reflection matrix P2 expanded,
[x] [
~
~] [~
cos(-LST) sin(-LST)
~ -Sin(~LST) COS(~LST)
o
(2-36)
-1
o
The reflection matrix, P2 , changes the handedness of the hour angle system
(from left to right), and the rotation R3 (-LST) brings
cidence with
~
XHA
and YHA into coin-
and YRA respectively.
The inverse
trans~ormation
is simply
(2-37)
2.3.3
Right Ascension - Ecliptic
For the spherical trigonometric approach to the Right Ascension -
Ecliptic system transformations, we look at the spherical triangle with vertices
NEP, NCP, and S in .Figure
B, 6
2~17.
The transformation of the Ecliptic coordinates
(€ assumed known) to the Right Ascension coordinates a, 0, utilizes the
same procedure as in 2.3.1.
45
Z
RA
SUMMER
SOLSTICE
YE
-o
h:. .I
~
CELESTIAL
Figure 2-17
ystems
Right Ascension-Ec1ipti c S'
· 46
The sine rule of spherical trigonometry yields
coso cosa ==
cos~
(2-38)
cosA
and the five parts rule
coso sina
= cos~
(2-39)
sinA COSE - sinS sinE
Dividing (2-39) by (2-38) yields the desired result
tana
sinA COSE cosA
=
tanS SinE
(2-40)
From the cosine rule
sino
= cos~
sinA sinE + sinS COSE
,
(2-41)
which completes the transformation of the Ecliptic system to the Right
Ascension system.
Using the same rules of spherical trigonometry (sine, five-parts,
cosine), the inverse transformation (Right Ascension to Ecliptic) is given
by
cosS co.sA == coso cosa
cosS sinA
= coso
,
sina COSE + sino sinE ,
(2-42)
(2-43)
which, after dividing (2-43) by (2-42) yields
tanA ==
sina COSE + tano sinE
cosa
(2-44)
and
sinS
= -coso
sina sinE + sino COSE •
(2-45)
From Figure 2-17, it is evident that the difference between the
E and RA cartesian systems is simply the obliquity of the ecliptic, E, which
separates the ZE and ZRA' and YE and YRA axes, the pairs of which lie in the
same planes.
47
The transformations then are given by
[:lll
= R1 (-e:)
[~L
[:]
== Rl(e:)
[~]
(2-46)
and
2.3.4
E
(2-47)
II
Summary
Figure 2-18 and Table 2-3 summarize the transformations amongst
celestial coordinate systems.
Note that in Figure 2-18, the quantities that
we must know to effect the various transformations are highlighted.
In addition,
Figure 2-18 highlights the expansion of the Right Ascension system to account
for the motions of the coordinate systems in time and space as mentioned
the introduction to this chapter.
in
These effects are covered in detail in
Chapter 3.
Table 2-3 highlights the matrix approach to the transformations
amongst celestial coordinate systems.
2.4
Special Star Positions
Certain positions of stars on the celestial sphere are given "special"
names.
As shall be seen later, some of the math models for astronomic position
and azimuth determination are based on some of the special positions that
stars attain.
I-~--­
I
ECliptic
If'1ea:~elestial
@T
o
Right Ascension
Mean Celestial
@T
Hour Angle
•
II Horlzon
True Celestial
@T
CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
RELATIONSHIPS [Krakiwsky and Wells, 1971J
FIGURE 2-18
Apparent
@T
.::.
0:>
,
Original System
Ecliptic
Ecliptic
IrXl . .
l:J
10
I-'
Right
Ascension
Cf)
«:
iiI
Horizon
,
RI (E:)
E
'"%j
...,-
::s
Hour Angle
Right Ascension
(-~)
,/:>0
fXi
l:j
1.0
R3 tLST) P2
R.A.
(Jl
c+
(j)
a
Hour
Angle
P2 R3 (tLST)
[:J
R3 (1800)
Horizon
TRANSFO~~TIONS
R2(~-900)
H.A.
R2(900-~)
AMONG CELESTIAL COORDINATE
SYSTEMS (Krakiwsky and Wells, 1971) .•
TABLE 2-3
R3 (1800)
[:L,
50
Figure 2-19 shows the behavior of stars as they move in an apparent
east to west path about the earth, as seen by an observer (Z) situated somewhere between the equator and the north pole (0~~S9d).
Referring to Figure
2-19:
1.
North Circumpolar Stars that (a) never cross the prime vertical,
(b) cross the prime vertical.
These stars, (a) and (b), are visible at all times to a
northern observer.
2. Equatorial
(a)
(b)
(c)
3.
stars rise above and set below the celestial horizon
more time above the horizon than below,
equal times above and below the horizon,
more times below the horizon than above.
South Circumpolar Stars never rise for a northern observer.
For an observer in the southern hemisphere (O~~~;:99i,
of 1, 2, 3 above are reversed.
the explanations
Two special cases are (1) Z located on the
equator, thus the observer will see 1/2 the paths of all stars, and (2) Z
located at a pole, thus the observer sees all stars in that polar hemisphere
as they appear to move in circles about the zenith (=po1e).
2.4.1
Rising and Setting of Stars
The ability to determine the visibility of any star is fundamental
to geodetic astronomy.
To establish a star observing program, one must ensure
that the chosen stars will be above the horizon during the desired observation
period.
Declination
From Figure 2-20, we see that for an observer in the northern
hemisphere, a north star, to be on or above the horizon -
must have
a declination given by
o
c5~90-~
,
(2-48)
51
Figure 2-19
Circumpolar and Equatorial Stars
52
CELESTIAL
EQUATOR
I
I
I
I
I
I
-----------r----------"'ull
.'"
..
II>
..
011
..
0
..
.. III'"
""..
'.
III
..
'"
III
..
..
I._
..
..
.."
.. '" .111
..
e..
..
I
.. ..
III..
It
. .. ".."
SO':ITH
\J,I
....
..
....
..'
8....
'It
...
..
It
..
..
.'
~
....
......
~
. ."f
.
~'
..:'::~ ::~I~CU~POL~R.:: ': .. :. ~~
'e. e.. e 'ST ARS ' .....
~
It....
""
........ •
"'-v
:
.. ".. " I . : : .. "
~\r
I·
C'E.~'E.S
SCP
Figure 2-20
!
Declination for Visibility
53 .
and a south star that will rise at some time, must have a declination
(2-49)
Thus, the condition for rising and setting of a star is
o
0
90-IP>e>4>-90.
(2-50)
For example, at Fredericton, where IP= 46°N, the declination of a star must
always satisfy the condition (2-50), namely
in order that the star will be visible at some time; that is, the star will
rise and set.
If 15>44°, the star will never set (it will always be a visible
circumpolar star), and if 15<-44°, the star will never rise (a south circumpolar
star).
Hour Angle
Now that the limits for the declinations of stars for rising and
setting have been defined, we must consider at what hour angle these events
will occur.
From the transformation of the Hour Angle to Horizon curvalinear
coordinates (Section 2.3.1, (2-22»
cosz
= sine sin4> + cose cosh cos4> •
For rising and setting,· z=90o, and the above equation reduces to
sine sin IP + cose cosh coslP = 0,
(2-51)
which, after rearrangement of terms yields
cosh = -tane tan4> •
(2-52)
The star's apparent motion across the celestial sphere is from east
to west.
(2-52):
For a star that rises and sets, there are two solutions to equation
the smaller solution designates setting, the larger solution designates
rising (Figures 2-21, 2-22).
The following example illustrates this point.
Figure 2-21
. g
Rising and Settl.n
0f
a Star
55
Figure 2-22
Hour Angles of a Star's Rise and Set
56
At
~=46°,
we wish to investigate the possible use of two stars for
an observation program. Their declinations are 01=35°,
02=50°.
From equation
(2-50),
44°<°2< - 44°.
The first star, since it satisfies (2-50), will rise and set.
The second star,
since 02> 44°, never sets - it is a north circumpolar star to our observer.
Continuing with the first star, equation (2-52) yields
= -tan35°
cosh l
tan46°
or
which is the hour angle for setting.
hr
1
=
The hour angle for rising is
(24h_£s) = l4h 54m 05~78.
1
Azimuth
At what azimuth will a star rise or set?
From the sine law in the
Hour Anglet:o Horizon system trans-fomtion. (equation (2-15»
sinz sinA = -coso sinh.
With z=900 for rising and setting, then
sinA = -coso sinh.
There are, of course, two solutions (Figures 2-23 and 2-24):
using
hr and one using h S •
(2-53)
one
Using the previous example for star 1 (01=35°,
~=46°, h~ = 9h 05 m 54~22, h~ = 14h 54m 05~78), one gets
SinA~
=
-cos 35° sin 223~524l,
Ar
=
34° 20' 27~64.
1
Similarly
AS = 325° 39' 32~36.
1
57
I
I
NORTH \
I
POINt
,
Figure 2-23
Ri s~ng
.
and Setting of a
Star
58
:Fisure 2-24
Azimuths of a Star's Rise and Set
59
The following set of rules apply for the hour angles and azimuths of rising
and setting stars [Mueller, 1969]:
Rise 12h<h<18h
Northern Stars ·t<5>OO)
Set
Equatorial Stars (<5=0°)
Southern Stars
270 0<A<360°
Rise
h=18 h
A=900
Set
h= 6h
A=270°
Rise 18h <h<24h
90 0<A<l800
Oh<h< 6h
180 0<A<2700
Set
2.4.2
6h <h<12h
00<A<900
Culmination (Transit)
When a star's hour circle is coincident with the observer's celestial
meridian, it is said to culminate or transit.
Upper culmination (UC) is defined
as being on the zenith side of the hour circle, and can occur north or south
of the zenith (Figure 2-25a and 2.-25b).
When UC occurs north of Z, the zenith
distance is given as (Figure 25a)
= <5-~
•
(2-54)
z = 41-<5 •
(2-55)
z
The zenith distance of UC south of Z is
Lower Culmination (LC) (Figure 2-25c) is on the nadir side of the hour circle,
and for a northern observer, always occurs north of the zenith.
The zenith
distance at LC is
z = 180- (<5+41 ) •
Recalling the examples given in 2.4.1
then for the first star
which is south of the zenith, and
(~=46o,<51
(2-56)
=35°, <5 2=50°),
60
(A) UPPER
CULMINATION
(8) UPPER
CULMINATION
.' , ,
I '
,,
(C) LOWER
Figure 2-25
Culmination (Transit)
CULMINATION
61
LC
zl
= 180
= 99°
-(ol+~)
which means that the star will not be visible (z>900).
For the second star, one obtains
UC
z2 = 02-~
= 4°
,
both of which will be north of the zenith.
is h
= Oh
The hour angle at culmination
= l2h
for all upper culminations, and h
The azimuths at culmination are as follows:
for all lower culminations.
= 0°
A
for all Upper Culminations
north of Z and all Lower Culminations; A = 180° for all Upper Culminations
south of the zenith.
Recalling the Hour Angle - Right Ascension coordinate transformations,
we had (equation (2-30)
LST
= h+a •
= l2h
Since h = Oh for Upper Culminations and h
LSTUC
LC
LST
2.4.3.
=
(l
for Lower Culminations,
(2-57)
,
=
(2-58)
Prime Vertical Crossing
For a star to reach the prime vertical (Figure 2-26)
(2-59)
To compute the zenith distance of a prime vertical crossing, recall
from the Horizon to Hour Angle transformation (via) the cosine rule, equation (2-26)
that
sino
= coszsin~
+ sinz cosA
cos~
For a prime vertical crossing in the east, A=90°
~ltitude
increasing), and
for a prime vertical crossing in the west, A=270° (altitUde decreasing),
62
PRIME VERTICAL·
CROSSING (WEST)
Figure 2--26
Prime Vertical Crossine
63
we get
'sino
=-sin\l>
COSE
=
sin~
(2-60)
cosecl%>
The hour angle of a prime vertical crossing is computed as follows.
From the
cosine rule of the Hour Angle to Horizon transformation (equation (2-22»
cosz
= sino
sinl%> + coso cosh cosl%> •
Substituting (2-60) in the above for cosine z yields
sino
sinl%>
= sino
sinl%>
+ coso cosh cosl%> •
or
sino = sino
2
sin~
+ coso cosh
cos~
Now, (2-61) reduces to
(2-61)
sinl%> •
2
sino sin I%>
coso cosl%> sinl%>
sino
cosh = --~~~~--~~
coso cqsl%> sinl%>
or
2
cosh
=
tano (
cos I%>
)
cosl%> sinl%>
and finally
cosh
=
(2-62)
tano cotl%>
As with the determination of the rising and setting of a star, there are two
values for h - prime vertical eastern crossing (18h <h<24h) and prime vertical
western crossing (Oh<h<6 h ).
O2
=
Continuing with the previous examples (01
=
35°,
50°), it is immediately evident that the second star will not cross the
The first star will cross the prime vertical
(0<0 1 < 46°), with azimuths A=900 (eastern) and A=270° (western).
The zenith
distance for both crossings will be (equation 2-60)
cosz 1
=
sin 35°
sin 46°
z 1 = 37° 07'
14~8.
The hour angles of western and eastern crossings are respectively (equation 2-62)
64
W
cosh2
=
=
tanl5
cot~
tan 35° cot 46° ,
~I = 47~45397 = 3h09m48~9
and
2.4.4.
Elongation
When the parallactic angle (p) is 90°, that is, the hour circle and
vertical circle are normal to each other, the star is said to be at elongation
(Figure 1-27).
Elongation can occur on both sides of the observer's celestial
meridian, but only with stars that do not cross the prime vertical.
Thus,
the condition for elongation is that
15>!%> •
(2-63)
From the astronomic triangle (Figure 2-27), the sine law yields
sinA
sinp
sin(90-15)= ~s~in~(9~0~-~!%>~) ,
or
sinA
= sinp
cos!%>
cosl5
(2-64)
Since at elongation, p=900, (2-64) becomes
sinA
= cosl5
sec!%> •
(2-65)
For eastern elongation, it is obvious that 00<A<900, and for western
elongation 270 0<A<360° •.
To solve for the zenith distance and hour angle at elongation, one
proceeds as follows.
Using the cosine law with the astronomic triangle
(Figure 1-27), one gets
cos(90-!%»
= cos(90-o)cosz+sinz
sin(90-o)cosp ,
(2-66)
65
CELESl iAl
I
EQUATOR
Figure 2-27
Elongation
66
and when p=90°, cosp=O, then
sin~cosec~
cosz =
(2-67)
•
Now, substituting the above expression for cosz (2-67) in the Hour
Angle to Horizon coordinate transformation expression ,(2-22), namely
= sin~
cosz
sin~
+
cos~
cosh
cos~
,
yields
sin~
= sin~
sin&
sin~
+
cos~
sin~
-
sin,~ sin~
cosh
cos~
which, on rearranging terms gives
cosh =
2
cosl5 sinl5
,
cos~
:(2-68)
Further manipulation of (2-68) leads to
cosh =
tan~
(
~ ( cos 20
)
cos& sin&
l-sin 26
) =
cos6sin&
tan~
,
and finally
cosh =
tan~
(2-69)
cot& •
Note that as with the azimuth at elongation, one will have an eastern and
western value for the hour angle.
Continuing with the previous examples
we see that for the first star,
star~ &2>~ (500~46°),
&l<~'
~ ~1=35°,
02=50°, and
thus it does not elongate.
~=46°
-
For the second
thus eastern and western elongations will occur.
The
azimuths, zenith, distance, and hour angles for the second star are as follows:
SinA~ = cos6 sec~
==
cos 50° sec 46° ,
AE == 67° 43' 04~7 ,
2
W
A = 360° _AW == 292° 16' 55~3';
2
2
cosZ
z2
== sin~ cosec~
= sin
46° cosec 50°. ,
== 20° 06' 37~3 ;
tan~
coto == tan 46° cot 50°
3•
TIME SYSTEMS
In the beginning of Chapter 2, it was pointed out that the
position of a star on the celestial sphere, in any of the four coordinates
systems, is valid for only one instant of time T.
Due to many factors
Ce.g. earth's motions, motions of stars), the celestial coordinates are
subject to change with time.
To fully understand these variations, one
must be familiar with the time systems that are used.
To describe time systems, there are three basic definitions that
have to be stated.
An epoch is a particular instant of time used to define
the instant of occurance of some phenomenon or observation.
A time
interval is the time elapsed between two epochs, and is measured in some time
scale.
For civil time (the time used for everyday purposes) the units of
a time scale (e.g. seconds) are considered fixed in length.
time systems, the units vary in length for each system.
With astronomic
The adopted unit
of time should be related to some repetitive physical phenomenon so that it
can be easily and reliably established.
The phenomenon should be free, or
capable of being freed, from short period irregularities to permit
interpolation and extrapolation by man-made time-keeping devices.
There are three basic time systems:
<.1)
Sidereal and Universal Time, based on the diurnal rotation of
the earth and determined by star observations,
(2)
Atomic Time, based on the period of electro magnetic oscillations
produced by the quantum transition of the atom of Caesium 133,
(3)
Ephemeris Time, defined via the orbital motion of the earth about
the sun.
Ephemeris time is used mainly in the field of celestial mechanics
and is of little interest in geodetic astronomy.
67
Sidereal and Universal
68
times are the most useful for geodetic purposes.
other via ri90rouS formulae, thus the
a matter of convenience.
They are related to each
use of one or the other is purely
All broadcast time si9na1s 'are derived from Atomi
time, thus the relationship between Atomic time and Sidereal or universal
time is important for geodetic astronomy.
3.1
Sidereal Time
The fundamental unit of the sidereal time interval is the mean
sidereal day.
This is defined as the interval between two successive upper
transits of the mean vernal equinox (the position of T for which uniform
precessional motion is accounted for and short period non-uniform nutation
is removed) over some meridian (the effects of polar motion on the
meridian are removed).
The mean sidereal day is reckoned from Oh at upper
transit, which is known as sidereal noon.
1m
s
= 60 ss
•
The units are 1h = 60m ,
s
s
Apparent (true) sidereal time (the position of T is affected
by both precession and nutation), because of its variable (non-uniform)
rate, is not used as a measure of time interval.
Since the mean equinox
is affected only be precession (nutation effects are removed), the mean
sidereal day is 0~0084 shorter than the actual rotation period of the
s
earth.
From the above definition of the fundamental unit of the
sidereal time interval, we see that sidereal time is directly related to
the rotation of the earth - equal an9les of an9Ular motion correspond to
equal intervals of sidereal time.
The sidereal epoch is numerically
measured by the hour angle of the vernal equinox.
The hour angle of the
true vernal equinox (position of T affected by precession
is termed Local Apparent Sidereal Time (LAST).
and nutation)
When the hour angle
69
measured is that at the Greenwich mean astronomic meridian (GHA), it is
called Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time (GAST).
Note that the use of the
Greenwich meridian as.a reference meridian for time systems is one of
convenience and uniformity.
This convenience and uniformity gives us
the direct relationships between time and longitude, as well as the
simplicity of publishing star coordinates that are independent of, but
directly related to, the longitude of an observer.
The local hour angle
of the mean vernal equinox is called Local Mean Sidereal Time (LMST), and
the Greenwich hour a,ng1e of the mean vernal equinox is the Greenwich Mean
Sidereal Time (GMST).
The difference between LAST and LMST, or equivalently,
GAST and GMST, is called the Equation of the Equinoxes (Eq. E), namely
Eq.E
= LAST
~
LMST
= GAST - GMST.
(3-1)
LAST, LMST, GAST, GMST, and Eq.E are all shown in Figure 3-1.
The equation of the equinoxes is due to nutation and varies
periodically with a maximum amplitude near 1 s (Figure 3-2).
f,;
It is
tabulated for Oh U.T. (see 3.2) for each day of the year, in the Astromica1
Almanac (AA), formerly called the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (AENA)
[U.S. Naval Observatory, 1980].
To obtain the relationships between Local and Greenwich times,
we require the longitude
(II.)
of a place.
Then, from Figure 3-3, it can
be seen that
LMST
= GMST +
A
( 3-2)
LAST
= GAST +
A ,
(3-3)
in which A is the "reduced" astronomic longitude of the local meridian
(corrections for polar motion have been made) measured east from the
Greenwich meridian.
70
Figure 3-1
Sidereal Time Epochs
71
s
-0.65
s
-0.70
s
-0.75
s
-0.80
s
-0.85
s
-0.90
s
-0.95
~-"+---+---;---~--~--~---r---r-"-+-"-+--~--~--~
JAN.
MAR.
MAY
JULY
SEPT.
Figure 3-2
Equation of Equinoxes (OhUT , 1966)
[Mueller. 1969]
NOV.
JAN.
72
NCP
¥
TRUE
Figure 3-3
Sidereal Time and Lorigitude
73
For the purpose of tabulating certain quantities with arguements
of sidereal time, the concept of Greenwich Sidereal pate (G.S.D.) and
Greenwich Sidereal Day Number are used.
The G.S.D. is the number of mean
sidereal days that have elapsed on the Greenwich mean astronomic meridian
since the beginning of the sidereal day that was in progress at Greenwich
noon on Jan. 1, 4713 B.C.
The integral part of the G.S.D. is the Greenwich
Sidereal Day Number, and the fractional part is the GMST expressed as a
fraction of a day.
AA shows the G.S.D.
Figure 3-4, which is part of one of the tables from
74
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES, 1981
Date:
OhU.T,
lulian
Date
G. SIDEREAL TIME
(G. H. A. of the Equinolt)
Apparent
Mean
Equation of
Equinoxes
atOhU.T.
G.S.D.
OhG.S.T.
244
4604.5
4605.5
4606.5
4607.5
4608.5
.h
m
0
1
2
3
4
6
6
6
6
6
38
42
46
50
54
17.1886
13.7431
10.2993
06.8575
03.4174
17.9594
14.5148
11.0702
07.6255
04.1809
-0.7708
.7717
.7708
.7681
.7635
245
1299.0
1300.0
1301.0
1302.0
1303.0
5
6
7
8
9
4609.5
4610.5
4611.5
4612.5
4613.5
6
7
7
7
7
57
01
05
09
13
59.9787
56.5407
53.1023
49.6626
46.2207 .
60.7363
57.2916
53.8470
50.4024
46.9577
-0.7576
.7510
.7447
.7398
.7370
10
11
12
13
14
4614.5
461S.5
4616.5
4617.5
4618.5
7
7
7
7
7
17
21
25
29
33
42.7763
39.3297
35.8817
32.4335
28.9864
43.5131
40.0685
36.6238
33.1792
29.7346
15
16
17
18
19
4619.5
4620.5
4621.5
4622.5
4623.5
7
7
7
7
7
37
41
45
49
53
25.5415
22.0994
18.6598
15.2219
11.7843
20
21
22
23
24
4624.5
4625.5
4626.5
4627.5
4628.5
7
8
8
8
8
57
01
05
08
12
25
26
27
28
29
4629.5
4630.5
4631.5
4632.5
4633.5
8
8
8
8
8
30
31
Feb. 1
2
3
4634.5
4635.5
4636.5
4637.5
4638.5
4
5
6
7
8
Ian.
I
•
I
U.T. at OhG.M.S.T.
(Greenwich Transit of
the Mean Equinox)
h
m
I
0
1
2
3
4
17
17
17
17
17
1851.3829
14 55.4734
10 59.5639
07 03.6545
0307.7450
1304.0
1305.0
1306.0
1307.0
1308.0
5
6
7
8
9
16
16
16
16
16
59 11.8356
55 15.9261
51 20.0166
4724.1072
43 28.1977
-0.7368
.7387
.7421
.7457
.7481
1309.0
1310.0
1311.0
1312.0
1313.0
10
11
12
13
14
16
16
16
16
16
39 32.2882
35 36.,3788
31 40.4693
2744.5598
23 48.6504
26.2899
22.8453
19.4006
15.9560
12.5114
-0.7484
.7459
.7409
.7341
.7271
1314.0
1315.0
1316.0
1317.0
1318.0
IS
16
17
18
19
16
16.
16
16
16
19 52.7409
IS 56.8314
1200.9220
0805.0125
04 09.1030
08.3457
04.9050
01.4618
58.0160
54.5682
09.0667
05.6221
02.1775
58.7328
55.2882 .
-0.7210
.7171
.7157
.7168
.7199
1319.0
1320.0
1321.0
1322.0
1323.0
20
21
22
23
24
16
15
15
15
IS
0013.1936
56 17.2841
52 21.3746
48 25.4652
4429.5557
16
20
24
28
32
51.1192
47.6698
44.2208
40.7728
37.3264
51.8436
48.3989
44.9543
41.5097
38.0650
-0.7243
.7291
.7335
.7368
.7386
1324.0
1325.0
1326.0
1327.0
1328.0
25
26
27
28
29
15
15
15
15
15
40 33.6462
36 37.7368
3241.8273
2845.9178
24 50.0084
8
8
8
8
8
36
40
44
48
52
33.8818
30.4389
26.9975
23.5571
20.1168
34.6204
31.1758
27.7311
24.2865
20.8418
-0.7386
.7368
.7336
.7294
.7251
1329.0
1330.0
1331.0
1332.0
1333.0
30
31
Feb.' I
2
3
15
15
15
15
15
20 54.0989
1658.1894
1302.2800
09 06.3705
05 10.4610
4639.5
4640.5
4641.5
4642.5
4643.5
8
·9
9
9
9
56
00
04
08
12
16.6755
13.2323
09.7865
06.3381
02.8879
17.3972
13.9526
10.5079
07.0633
03.6187
-0.7217
.7203
.7215
.7252
.7307
1334.0
1335.0
1336.0
1337.0
1338.0
4
5
6
7
8
15
14
14
14
14
01
57
53
49
45
9
10
11
12
13
4644.5
4645.5
4646.5
4647.5
464S.5
9
9
9
9
9
15
19
23
27
31
59.4372
55.9872
52.5392
49.0938
45.6509
60.1740
56.7294
53.2848
49.8401
46.3955
-0.7369
.7422
.7455
.7463
.7445
1339.0
1340.0
1341.0
1342.0
1343.0
9 14 41 35.0042
10 14 37 39.0948
11 14 3343.1853
12 14 2947.2758
13 14 2551.3664
14
15
4649.5
4650.5
9 35 42.2098
9 39 38.7693
42.9509
39.5062
-0.7411
-0.7369
1344.0
1345.0
14 14 21 55.4569
15 14 1759.5474
Ian.
Figure 3-4.
[M, 1981*]
(*This and other dates in figure titles refer to year of
application, not year of publication).
14.5516
18.6421
22.7326
26.8232
30.9137
75
3.2
Universal (Solar) Time
The fundamental measure of the universal time interval is the
mean solar day defined as the interval between two consecutive transits
of a mean (fictitious) sun over a meridian.
The mean sun is used in place
of the true sun since one of our prerequisites for a time system is the
uniformity of the associated physical phenomena.
The motion of the true
sun is non-uniform due to the varying velocity of the earth in its
elliptical orbit about the sun and hence is not used as the physical
basis for a precise timekeeping system.
The mean sun is characterized
by uniform sidereal motion along the equator.
The right ascension (a )
m
of the mean sun, which characterizes the solar motion through which mean
solar time is determined, has been given by Simon Newcomb as IMueller, 1969]
a
+ 0~0929 t 2 + •••
m
m
in which t
m
is elapsed time in Julian centuries of 36525 mean solar days
which have elapsed since the standard epoch of UT of 1900 January 0.5 UT.
Solar time is related to the apparent diurnal motion of the sun
as seen by an observer on the earth.
This motion is due in part to our
motion in orbit about the sun and in part to the rotation of the earth
about its polar axis.
The epoch of apparent (true) solar time for any
meridian is (Figure 3-5)
TT
in which h
s
= hs
is the hour angle of the true sun.
h
convenience so that 0
(3-5)
The l2h is added for
TT occurs at night (lower transit) to conform with
civil timekeeping practice.
The epoch of mean solar time for any meridian is (Figure 3-5)
MT
= hm
(3-6)
(3-4)
76
X
AT
TRUE SUN·
MEAN SUN
Figure 3-5
Universal (5 o 1 ar )
T~me
.
77
in which h
m
is the hour angle of the mean sun.
If the hour angles of the
true and mean suns are referred to Greenwich (h G
s'
h G ), the times are
m
Greenwich True Time (GTT) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Universal Time (UT)
respectively (Figure 3-5).
The difference between true and mean solar times at a given
instant is termed the Equation of Time (Eq.T.). From Figure 3-5
and
Eq.T.
= TT-MT
(3-7)
Eq.T.
= GTT
(3-8)
- UT.
m
The equation of time reaches absolute values of up to 16.
Figure 3-6
shows Eq.T. for a one year interval.
Mean and true solar times are related to the astronomic longitude
of an observer by (Figure 3-7)
MT=UT+A
and
TT
= GTT
(3-9)
+ A
(3-10)
The time required by the mean sun to make two consecutive
passages over the mean vernal equinox is the tropical year.
The time
required by the mean sun to make a complete circuit of the equator is
termed the sidereal year.
These are given by
1 tropical year
= 365.242 198 79 mean solar days,
1 sidereal year
= 365.256
360 42 mean solar days.
Since neither of the above years contain and intergral number of mean
solar days, civil calendars use either a Julian
1 Juliam year
d
= 365.25
yea~
mean solar days
in which
= 365d 6 h ,
or the presently used Gregorian calendar which has 365.2425 mean solar days.
For astronomic purposes, the astronomic year begins at Oh UT on 31
December of the previous calendar year.
d
astronomic date January 0.0 UT.
This epoch is denoted by the
78
m
-12
m
--16
~---r---r--~---r---r---r---r---r---r---r---r---r--~
Figure 3-6
Equation of Time (Oh UT, 1966)
[Hueller, 1969]
79
TRUE SUN
MEAN SUN
Figure 3-7
Solar Ti me and Longitude
so
corresponding to the Greenwich Sidereal Date (GSD) is the Julian
Date (JD).
The"JD is the number of mean solar days that have elapsed
since l2h UT on January 1 (January l~S UT) 4713 Be.
d
astronomic epoch of 1900 January 0.5 UT, JD
For the standard
= 2 415 020.0.
The conversions
between GSD and JD are
GSD
JD
3.2.1
= 0.671
= -0.669
+
1.00273790~3
(3-11)
JD ,
(3-12)
+ 0.9972695664 GSD •
Standard (Zone) Time
To avoid the confusion of everyone keeping the mean time of
their meridian, civil time is based on a "zone" concept.
The standard
time over a particular region of longitude corresponds to the mean time
of a particular meridian.
of 150
(61\.)
each.
In general, the world is divided into 24 zones
Zone 0 has the Greenwich meridian as its "standard"
o
meridian, and the zone extends 7)2 on either side of Greenwich.
The time
zones are numbered -1, -2, •••• , -12 east, and +1, +2, ••• , +12 west.
Note that zone 12 is divided into two parts, 7~°in extent each, on either
side of the International Date Line (lSOoE).
All of this is portrayed in
Figure 3-S.
Universal time is related to Zone Time (ZT) by
UT = ZT + liZ ,
(3-13)
in which liZ is the zonal correction. Care should be taken with liZ,
particularly in regions where summer time or daylight saving time is used
during the spring-summer-fall parts of the year.
The effect is a lh
advance of regular ZT.
3.3
Relationships Between Sidereal and Solar Time Epochs and Intervals
We will deal first with the relationship between time epochs.
40"
••• t, •
. ,.,t.
......
20"
;'::::1
..
....
.....
,.
o·
~
(0
•• & ~
.
.
I-'
-zo'H: :
-40'
i;?::
.,
I:
I
·co·
"0; .9
100'
c::J
~
...
., ...
........
".
•
:::F
~f.l\~.
'd::
•• C ••
~'::c::
•• , t t .
., ...
+0
'10'
:~:~:
t. ....
....
~;:::
I:· .. ·
~
• 1 (;(;'
.5
no'
.4 1+3
;
+2
ao'
I:
:::~:
."5.
*t.,.
OIl.
:;:t:
:::E: ::
t'on~t:It.O"l S
+,
J
I)
I·!
Q
t.ONG1Tu~t
;;.:::":
f,
.. "'1
I
1
._",t'
"'"
.t"t_
:::::
:'
.'..... ....
l
, ..
, ...
~.
·s
,\t .
;~
It,-'t.
~
::::::,'
......
...
-5
-K~i
~
• • t •
I:
-3 f -4
.......
.....
••••••1
E
·-2
...
!....
..... ..
.
1-1
....
...
.. ..
.....
.., ...
:: I
• " •
,
~
e
..'
., :..:l~
::\
::1
·12'
40
ADO 0.5 HOUR TO ZONAl. COnneCTIons AS INDICATEO.
IAIlECUt.AR ZONES
STANDARD
(ZO~~)
TIME {Mueller, 1969].
FIGURE 3-8
Note:
Since the preparation of this map, the standard time zones in Canada have
been changed so that all parts of the Yukon Territory now observe Pacific
Standard Time (Zone designation U or +8). See Appendix II.
82
Equation (3-6) states
MT
= 12h + h111 .
,
where hm is the hour angle of the mean sun while from' Figure 3-9
(3-14)
which yields
(3-15)
or
LMST
= NT
h
(3-16)
+ (am - 12 )
Equations (3-15) and (3-16) represent the transformations of LMST to MT and
G
vice-versa respectively.
If we replace MT,hm, and LMST with GMT,nm ' and.
GMST respectively, then
or =
and·
..
GMST -
(3-17)
GMST= UT +
(3-18)
- --.
For practical computations we used tabulated quantities.
..... h
. -
For example-c - (am -. ·12 ). is tabulated in the Astronomcal Almanac (AA) ;_.
and the quantity' (am
">12h +
Eq.· E) is tabulated in the
Star Almanac for Land Surveyors (SALS).
Thus for simplicity we should
always convert MT to UT and LMST to GMST.
We should note. of course, that the
relationships shown (3-15), (3-16), (3-17), (3-18) relate mean solar and
mean sidereal times.
To relate true solar time with apparent sidereal time:
(i) . compute mean solar time (MT
(ii)
(iii)
= TT
- Eq.T or OT
= GTT
- Eq.T.),
compute mean sidereal time «3-16) or (3-18»,
compute apparent sidereal time (LAST
= Eq.E +
LMST or GAST =
•
Eq.E. + GMST).
To relate apparent sidereal time with true solar time, the inverse procedure
is used.
For illustrative purposes, two numerical examples are used.
,
,
,
,
83
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
g~de~ea1 and un~~e~sa1 ~ime ~poc~s
'figure 3- 9
n
~e1at~ons~~Ps ~et~ee
•
S4
(note that the
appropriate tabulated values can be found in Figures
3~lO,
3-11, 3-12,
and 3-13).
Example #1 (using SALS)
Given:
MT
= ISh
21m
Feb. 14,
II.
compute:
=
4l~OO
1981
66 0 3S- 2S" W
LAST
MT
Ish 21m
4l~OO
A (_66 0 3S' 28")
"'4h 26m
33~S7
R(a
m
- 12
22h 4Sm l4~87
II.)
UT (=MT -
h
h
+ Eq.E.) at IS
~R for 4h 4Sm l4~S7:
(a
m
- 12
h
UT:9
47~4
+ Eq.E.)
GAST (=UT + ( am - 12h) + Eq.E)
h
38
m
s
.39.6
, ..: :~'
-
~~:. ::---.-: ~
gh
3f'
27~O
32h -2m 41~87
_24h
sh
GAST
11. (_66 0 38' 2S")
LAST (GAST
+
II.)
2f1
41~87
_4h 26 m 33~S7
4h .Om
8~OO
85
Example #2 (using AA)
Given:
h
MT = 18
21
m
s
41.00
Feb. 14, 1981
A = 66° 38' 28"W
Compute: . LAST
MT
ISh 21m 4l~00
A (-66° 3S' 2S")
-4 h 26 m 33~S7
UT (=MT - A)
22h 4Sm l4~87
(a
m
-
l2h) (GMST) at Oh UT:
9h 35m 42~95
Add
Sidereal interval equivalent to
(multiply UT interval by 1.002 737 9093):
22h 51 m 59~64
GMST at 22h 4Sm 14~S7 UT
32h 27m 42~59
24h
GMST
Eq. E
GAST (= GMST + Eq. E)
A (-66° 3S' 2S")
LAST (= GAST + A)
8h 27m 42~59
- 0~74
Sh 27m 4l~S5
- 4h 26m 33~S7
4h 01m 07~9S
86
SUN-FEBRUARY, 1981
R
U.T.
ta
it
0
eI
1
II
45 26•1
4625'3
47 2 4-4
84823,6
49 22 -7
12
18
0
Mon. 6
][2
5021 •8
18
51
...
21-0
](8
57 IS-S
58 15- 0
859 1 4. 1
0
900 13'2
ll2
5
Thur.6
01
%2
02
%8
03
.6 0
Fri. 6
%2
II
x8
II
8 0
Sun. 6
X2
%8
X2
Thur.6
4601'414
12
4600'1 13
13
18
:!
X3
10•6
4556'3
u
45 5S'! II
Fri. 6
x:z
n·s
114554'0 10
4553'0 10
. 45 p·o 10
455 1 •0 9
II 45 50 '1 8
°3.8
II
0
8
.X
X"I
J2
x8
IS
0
4,5 49'3 8
454 8'5 8
4547-7 7
Sun. 6
45 47'° 6
454 6'4 6
4545. 8 6
](6 0
Mon. 6
4545'2
.114544"
9 2 35 2 -5
245 1 '7
114542 -5
454 2 '5
45 42 -5
4542-5
so· 1ft'
40·
II
I>
II
II
'"
IH
4'5
4-7
4'7
4,g
4'9
S·o
5- 2
5'2
5'2
S-3
s-!
S-l{
"
5-5
20·
h
of ,
4544'7
u 4545. 1
4545'7
454 6 '3
4546'9
: .
II
6'
6i
6'
7
4547·6
4548'3 7
45 49'0 ~
4549- 8
JO·
..
o·
h
.o',·:we
"
)0"
II
455°'7
455 1•6 9
455 2 '5 9
4553-5'°
II
45 54. 6 "
h."
40·
,
'Uit
50"
h
55°
'"
60"
iii
S'S
5.8
5-7
5-7
6'0
6-0
6-0
6·2
6,2
6·2,
6-3
6·S
6'3
6'3
6-4
6'4
6'7
6·6
6·S
6'9
6·8
6'7
7- 0
6'9
6-7
7. 2
7-0
6·8
7'3
7';:
7-0
"1
6·1
6'2
6'2
6'3
6-4
6·S
6·6
6'7
6·8
6'9
S'O
5.8
5'9
5'9
5'9
5'3
S-4
S'S
5-7
S'7
5'9
6·0
6,2
6-2
6,2
6-4
6'4
6'3
6·6
6-6
6'5
6·8
6·8
6'7
7'Z
7'1
7'3
7·6
7-2,
7-5
7'0
7'1
7'3
7'9
7-7
7'S
F:igUrE! 3-10 [SALS, 1981]
I
f
!
9j
5.6
S'S
5'5
5-7
JI
45 43'S
4543,8 J
6·0
6-0
6'0
5'3
5'4
5-5
:7;6
2
3
5-7
5.8
5-3
5-4
4-6
4.8
2
2
North Latitude
.10"
4-9
5.1
5-3
;,u:
I
45 44- 2
94335'3
44 34'5
4533- 6
46 32 -7
9473 1 -9
s
0
4542,6
454 2 -8
4543- 0
4543- 2
3343'9
4 1 37. 0
42 36.2
%8
0
SUNRISE
3'9
4. 2
4-4
H
0
3443- 1
South Latitude
00· . 51"
II
40 37-9
%2
.
I
93542 • 2
36 4 1 '3
3740 '5
38 39'.6
93938 -8
0
Sat. 6
&
45 44'7
4544'3 :
4543'9 ..
4543'5 3
45 43. 2
4543. 0 2
45 4 2 .8 1
454 2 •6 2
II
9 2 749- 1
28 48'2
2947'4
3°4 6'5
93 1 45-7
. 32 44-8
0
m
9 1 956
20 55. 1
21 54-3 .
2253'4
2550 -8
26 5°- 0
%2
45 57-5
Date
6.
0
4602 •8 IS
Sun's S.D. I6!:e
Feb.
x
X2
%8
45 58.8'
II
9 1202-9
13°2 '°
14 01 •2
.15 00 '3
9 IS 59'4
](8
24
4604',3'
II
'°
0
Tues.6
12'4
9 0806 '3
09 oS'S
1004-6
%2
%8
xx
E
It
•
1757'7
IS 56-8
12
IS
Cfl Cfl'2
'1 0
Sat. 6
Mon. 6
10
m
9 IS 59'4
1658.6
4609'016' Wed.6
904 09,8
05 08-9
06 08'1
IS
b
~
9
46 0'.7-1 16
4605.81
85 616 '7 .
Wed. 6
46 17·8
4615'91:
4614'11
46 12-4:~
II 46 10-6 6
0
0
462 5,8
4623'721
462I '7 2O
461 9'7 20
Dec,
R
II
eI
19
II
. 85 220 - 1
Tues. 6
53 19'3
:1[2
54 18 '4
18 . 55 17-5
3.
U.T.
'E
II m ,
S
844 2 7. 0
Sun. 6
2
Dec.
rn
8'2
8,1
7·8
7.6
7'4
87
INTERPOLATION TABLE :FOR R
MUTUAL CO);VERSION OF INTERVALS OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TJ:l..JE
sol31"
4b
LI R sidereal J solar LJR sidereal
4b
4b
4b
In
solar
cr;lir(l/ C'(l;I.'S
LJR sidereal
5b
5h
solar LJR sidereal
Sb
Sb
muntl.
Add.1R to s.olar time intt"n'..l (It"ft-hJnd argument) to oh1 .. in sidereal time inlaya!.
Subtract 111< from sidereal time intcn'"l (ril(ht-h:md argument) to obtain sob. time inten'al,
FIGURE 3-11 [SALS,. 1981]
88
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES, 1981
Date
ObU.T.
Julian
Date
G. SIDEREAL TIME
(G. H. A. of the Equinox)
Apparent
Mean
Equation of
Equinoxes
atOhU.T.
G. S. D.
OhG.S.T.
244
4604.5
4605.5
4606.5
4607.5
4608.5
b
m
0
1
2
3
4
6
6
6
6
6
38
42
46
50
54
17.1886
13.7431
10.2993
06.8575
03.4174
17.9594
14.5148
11.0702
07.6255
04.1809
-0.7708
.7717
.7708
.7681
.7635
•
245
1299.0
1300.0
1301.0
1302.0
1303.0
5
6
7
8
9
4609.s
4610.5
4611.5
4612.5
4613.5
6
7
7
7
7
.57
01
05
09
13
59.9787
56.5407
53.1023
49.6626
46.2207'
60.7363
57.2916
53.8470
50.4024
46.9577
-0.7576
.7510
.7447
.7398
.7370
10
11
12
13
14
4614.5
4615.5
4616.5
4617.5
4618.5
7
7
7
7
7
17
21
25
29
33
42.7763
39.3297
35.8817
32.4335
28.9864
43.5131
40.0685
36.6238
33.1792
29.7346
IS
17
18
19
4619.5
4620.5
462l.S
4622.5
4623.5
7
7
7
7
7
37
41
45
49
53
25.5415
22.0994
18.6598
15.2219 .
11.7843
20
21
22
23
24
4624.5
4625.5
4626.5
4627.5
4628.5
7
8
8
8
8
57
01
05
08
12
25
26
27
28
29
4629.5
4630.5
4631.5
4632.5
4633.5
8
8
8
8
8
30
31
Feb. I
2
3
4634.5
4635.5
4636.5
4637.5
4638.5
4
5
6
7
8
Jan.
•
•
II
U.T. at OhG.M.S.T.
(Greenwich Transit of
the Mean Equinox)
h
m
•
0
1
2
3
4
17
17
17
17
17
1851.3829
1455.4734
10 59.5639
0703.6545
0307.7450
1304.0
1305.0
1306.0
1307.0
1308.0
S
6
7
8
9
16
16
16
16
16
59 11.8356
55 15.9261
5120.0166
47 24.1072
43 28.1977
-0.7368
.7387
.7421
.7457
.7481
1309.0
1310.0
1311.0
1312.0
1313.0
10
11
12
13
14
16
16
16
16
16
39 32.2882
3536.3788
31 40.4693
2744.s598
2348.6504
26.2899
22.8453
19.4006
t5.9560
12.5114
-0.7484
.7459
.7409
.7341
.7271
1314.0
1315.0
1316.0
1317.0
1318.0
15
16
17
18
19
16
16
16
16
16
19 52.7409
15 56.8314
12 00.9220
0805.0125
0409.1030
08.3457
04.9050
01.4618
58.0160
54.5682
09.0667
05.6221
02.1775
58.7328
55.2882
-0.7210
.7171
.7157
.7168
.7199
1319.0
1320.0
1321.0
1322.0
1323.0
20
21
22
23
24
16
IS
15
15
15
00 13.1936
56 17.2841
5221.3746
48 25.4652
4429.5557
16
20
24
28
32
51.1192
47.6698
44.2208
40.7728
37.3264
51.8436
48.3989
44.9543
41.5097
38.0650
-0.7243
.7291
.7335
.7368
.7386
1324.0
1325.0
1326.0
1327.0
1328.0
25
26
27
28
29
15
15
15
15
IS
4033.6462
3637.7368
3241.8273
2845.9178
24 50.0084
8
8
8
8
8
36
40
44
48
52
33.8818
30.4389
26.9975
23.5571
20.1168
34.6204
31.1758
27.7311
24.2865
20.8418
-0.7386
.7368
.7336
.7294
.7251
1329.0
1330.0
1331.0
1332.0
1333.0
4639.5
4640.5
4641.5
4642.5
4643.5
8
.9
9
9
9
56
00
04
08
12
16.6755
13.2323
09.7865
06.3381
02.8879
17.3972
13.9526
10.5079
07.0633
03.6187
-0.7217
.7203
.7215
.7252
.7307
. 1334.0
1335.0
1336.0
1337.0
.1338.0.
9
10
11
12
13
4644.5
4645.5
4646.5
4647.5
4648.5
9
9
9
9
9
15
19
23
27
31
59.4372
55.9872
52.5392
49.0938
45.6509
60.1740
56.7294
53.2848
49.8401
46.3955
-0.7369
.7422
.7455
.7463
.7445
1339.0
1340.0
1341.0
1342.0
1343.0
9 14 41 35.0042
10 14 3739.0948
II 14 33 43.1853
12 142947.2758
13 14 25 51.3664
14
IS
4649.5
4650.5
9 35 42.2098
9 39 38.7693
42.9509
39.5962
-0.74t1
-0.7369
1344.0
1345.0
14 14 21 55.4569
15 14 17 59.5474
16
Figure 3-12a [AA, 1981]
Jan.
30 15 2054.0989
31 15 1658.1894
Feb.
15 1302.2800
2 15 09 06.3705
3 15 05 10.4610
•
4
5
6
7
8
15
14
14
14
14
0I
57
53
49
45
14.5516
18.6421
22.7326
26.8232
30.9137
89
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES 1981
p
G. SIDEREAL TIME
(G. H. A. of the Equinox)
Apparent
Mean
Equation of
Equinoxes
at O~U.T.
U.T. at OhG.M.S.T.
(Greenwich Transit of
tbe Mean Equinox)
Date
OhU.T.
Julian
Date
244
4650.5
4651.5
4652.5
4653.5
4654.5
h
m
Feb. 15
16
17
.18
19
9
9
9
9
9
39
43
47
51
55
38.7693
35.3282
31.8854
28.4403
24.9927
39.5062
36.0616
32.6169
29.1723
25.7277
-0.7369
.7334
.7315
.7320
.7350
•
245
1345.0
1346.0
1347.0
1348.0
1349.0
Feb. 15
16
17
18
19
14
14
14
14
14
1759.5474
1403.6380
1007.7285
0611.8191
02 15.9096
20
21
22
23
24
4655.5
4656.5
4657.5
4658.5
4659.5
9
10
10
10
10
59
03
07
11
15
21.5429
18.0916
14.6396
11.1878
07.7369
22.2830
18.8384
15.3938
11.9491
08.5045
-0.7401
.7468
.7541
.7613
.7676
1350.0
1351.0
1352.0
1353.0
1354.0
20
21
22
23
24
13
13
13
13
13
58 20.0001
54 24.0~07
5028.1812
4632.2717
42 36.3623
25
26
27
28
Mar. 1
4660.5
4661.5
4662.5
4663.5
4664.5
10
10
10
10
10
19
23
26
30
34
04.2874
00.8396
57.3936
53.9492
50.5059
05.0599
01.6152
58.1706
54.7260
51.2813
-0.7725
.7756
.7770
.7768
.7754
1355.0
1356.0
1357.0
1358.0
1359.0
25
26
27
28
Mar. I
13
13
t3
13
13
38 40.4528
34 44.5433
30 48.6339
2652.7244
2256.8149
2
3
4
5
6
4665.5
4666.5
4667.5
4668.5
4669.5
10
10
10
10
10
38
42
46
50
54
47.0631
43.6199
40.1753
36.7284
33.2790
47.8367
44.3921
40.9474
37.5028
34.0581
-0.7735
.7721
.7721
.7743
.•7792
1360.0
1361.0
1362.0
1363.0
1364.0
'2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
4670.5
4671.5
4672.5
4673.5
4674.5
10 58
11 02
11 06
11 10
11 14
29.8272
26.3744
22.9220
19.4715
16.0238
30.6135
27.1689
23.7242
20.2796
16.8350
-0.7863
.7945
.8022
.8081
.8112
. 1365.0
1366.0
1367.0
1368.0
1369.0
7
8
9
10
II
12
12
12
12
12
5921.3581
5525.4487
51 29.5392
47 33.6297
4337.7203
13
14
15
16
4675.5
4676.5
4677.5
4678.5
4679.5
11 18 12.5788
11 22 09.1358
11 26 05.6937
11 30 02.2512
11 33 58.8072
13.3903
09.9457
06.5011
03.0564
59.6118
-0.8115
.8099
.8074
.8053
.8046
1370.0
1371.0
1372.0
1373.0
1374.0
12
13
14
IS
16
12
12
12
12
12
3941.8108
35 45.9013
31 49.9919
27 54.0824
23 58.1729
17
18
19
20
21
4680.5
468t.S
4682.5
4683.5
4684.5
11 37 55.3611
11
II
11
11
41
45
49
53
56.1672
52.7225
49.2779
45.8333
42.3886
-0.8060
.8098
.8158
.8234
.8318
1375.0
1376.0
1377.0
1378.0
1379.0
17
18
19
20
21
12
12
12
12
12
2002.2635
1606.3540
1210.4445
08 14.5351
04 18.6256
22
23
24
25
26
4685.5
4686.5
4687.5
4688.5
4689.5
11
12
12
12
12
57 38.1038
01 34.6515
OS 31.2006
09 27.7515
13 24.3042
38.9440
35.4993
32.0547·
28.6101
25.1654
-0.8402
.8478
.854l
.8586
.8613
1380.0
1381.0
1382.0
1383.0
1384.0
22 12
23 II
24 11
2511
26 11
0022.7161
5626.8067
5230.8972
4834.9877
4439.0783
27
28
29
30
31
4690.5
4691.5
4692.5
4693.5
4694.5
12
12
12
12
12
17
21
25
29
33
20.8585
17.4142
13.9707
10.5270
07.0825
21.7208
18.2762
14.8315
tl.3869
07.9423
-0.8623
.8619
.8609
.8599
.8597
1385.0
1386.0
1387.0
1388.0
1389.0
2711
28 It
29 II
30 II
31 11
4043.1688
3647.2593
3251.3499
2855.4404
2459.5309
1
2
4695.5
4696.5
12 37 03.6363
12 41 00.1877
04.4976
01.0530
-0.8614
-0.8653
1390.0
1391.0
11
12
Apr.
•
51.9127
48.4621
45.0099
4t.S568
•
G.S.D.
O'G.S.T.
Figure 3-12h [AA, 1981]
,
Apr.
. m
•
13· 1900.9055
13 1504.9960
13 11 09.0865
t3 07 13.1771
t3 03 17.2676
1 11 2103.6215
2 11 1707.7120
90
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES. 1981
Date
OhU.T.
Apr.
May
Julian
Date
G. SIDEREAL TIME
(G. H. A. or the Equinox)
Apparent
Mean
•
Equation or
Equinoxes
aIOhU.T.
G.S.D.
OhG.S.T.
U.T. at OhG.M.S.T.
(Greenwich Transit or
the Mean Equinox)
... •
244
4695.5
4696.5
4697.5
4698.5
4699.5
b
m
12
12
12
12
12
37
41
44
48
52
03.6363
00.1877
56.7368
53.2843
49.8316
04.4976
01.0530
57.6084
54.1637
50.7191
•
1
2
3
4
5
-0.8614
.8653
.8716
.8795
.8875
245
1390.0
1391.0
1392.0
1393.0
1394.0
6
7
8
9
10
47005
4701.5
4702.5
4703.5
47045
12
13
13
13
13
56
00
04
OS
12
46.3804
42.9320
39.4869
36.0443
32.6032
47.2745
43.8298
40.3852
36.9405
33.4959
-0.8941
.8978
.8983
.S962
.8927
1395.0
1396.0
1397.0
1398.0
1399.0
6
7
8
9
10
II
10
10
10
10
01 24.0742
5728.1647
53 32.2552
49 36.345S
45 40.4363
11
12
13
14
IS
4705.5
4706.5
4707.5
4708.5
4709.5
13
13
13
13
13
16
20
24
28
32
29.1620
25.7194
22.2748
18.8277
15.3785
30.0513
23.1620
19.7174
16.2727
-0.8893
.8872
.8872
.8896
.8942
1400.0
1401.0
1402.0
1403.0
1404.0
11
12
13
14
IS
10
10
10
10
10
41 44.5268
3748.6174.
33 52.7079
29 56.7984
2600.8890
16
17
18
19
20
4710.5
4711.5
4712.5
47135
4714.5
13
13
13
13
13
36
40
44
48
51
11.9276
08.4757
05.0237
01.5724
58.1224
12.8281
09.3835
05.9388
02.4942
59.0496
-0.9005
.9077
.9151
.9218
.9272
1405.0
1406.0
1407.0
140S.0
1409.0
16
17
18
19
20
10
10
10
10
10
22 04.9795
180.9.0700
14 13.1606
1017.2511
06 21.3416
21
22
23
24
25
4715.5
4716.5
4717.5
4718.5
4719.5
13
13
14
14
14
55
59
03
07
11
.54.6740
51.2276
47.7830
44.3399
40.8977
55.6049
52.1603
4S.7157
45.2710
41.8264
-0.9309
.9327
.9326
.9311
.9287
1410.0
1411.0
1412.0
1413.0
1414.0
21 10 02 25.4322
22 9 5829.5227
23 9 5433.6132
24 9 5037.7038
2.S 9 4641.7943
26
27
2S
29
30
4720.5
472t.S
4722.5
4723.5
4724.5
14
14
14
14
14
15
19
23
27
31
37.4556
34.0130
30.5689
27.1229
23.6746
38.3817
34.9371
31.4925
28.0478
24.6032
-0.9261
.9241
.9236
.9249
.9286
1415.0
1416.0
1417.0
1418.0
1419.0
26
27
28
29
30
1
"
5
4725.5
4726.5
4127.5
4728.5
4129.5
14
14
14
14
14
35
39
43
47
51
20.2245
16.7736
13.3235
09.8758
06.4315
21.1586
17.7139
14.2693
10.8247
07.3800
-0.9340
.9403
.9458
.9488
.9485
1420.0
1421.0
1422.0
1423.0
1424.0
6
7
8
9
10
4730.5
4731.5
4732.5
4733.5
4734.5
14
14
15
IS
IS
55
58
02
06
10
02.9904
59.5516
56.1133
52.6741
49.2327
03.9354
60.490S
57.0461
53.6015
50.1568
-0.9450
.9392
.9328
.9274
.9241
1425.0
1426.0
1427.0
1428.0
1429.0
11
12
13
14
15
4735.5
4736.5
4737.5
4738.5
4739.5
IS
IS
IS
IS
IS
14
18
22
26
30
45.7888
42.3425
38.8942
35.4447
31.9949
46.7122
43.2676
39.8229
36.3783
32.9337
-0.9234
.925'
.9287
.9336
.9387
1430.0
1431.0
1432.0
1433.0
1434.0
16
17
4740.5
4741.5
IS 34 28.5456
IS 38 25.0974
29.4890
26.0444
-0.9434
-0.9470
1435.0
1436.0
2
3
•
~6.6066
Figure 3-12c [AA, 1981]
b
Apr.
May
I
2
3
4
5
11 21 03.6215
11 1707.7120
II 13 11.8026
II 09 15.8931
\I OS 19.9836
9
9
9
9
9
4245.8848
3849.9754
3454.0659
3058.1564
2702.2470
1 9
2 9
3 9
4 9
S .9
2306.3375
1910.4280
15 14.5186
11 18.6091
07 22.6996
6
7
8
9
10
9
8
8
8
8
0326.7902
5930.8807
5534.9712
51 39.0618
4743.1523
12
13
14
IS
"
8
8
8
8
8
4347.2428
3951.3334
3555.4239
31 59.5144
2803.6050
16
17
8 2407.6955
8 2011.7S61
91
We now turn our attention to the relationship of the sidereal
and solar time intervals.
The direction of the sun in space, relative to
the geocentre, varies due to the earth's orbital motion about the sun.
The
result is that the mean solar day is longer than the mean sidereal day by
approximately 4 minutes.
After working out rates of change per day, one
obtains
,
~d
(M)
= 24h
Ih
(M)
(M)
,
,
1m
eM)
,
IS
ld
(5)
= 23h
56m 04~09054
(M)
lh
(5)
=
59m 50~17044
(M)
1m
(5)
=
59~83617
1s
(5)
=
s
. 0.99727
5
and
in which
M
03m 56~55536
(5),
=
1h OOm 09~85647
(5),
(M)
=
Olm OO~l6427
(5),
(M)·
=
Ol~OO273
(5),
refer to mean sidereal· and mean solar times respectively.
These numbers are derived from the fact that a tropical (solar) year contains
366.2422 mean sidereal
day~
or 365.2422 mean
so~ar
days.
The ratio·s.are
then
mean solar time interval
=
(365.2422/366.2422)
= 0.997
269 566 4x mean
sidereal time interval,
mean sidereal time interval
= (366.2422/365.2422) = 1.002
737 909x
mean solar time interval.
The usefulness of a knowledge of the intervals is given in the following
numerical example.
92
Example #3 (using 'M)
Given:
LAST
= 4h
OOm 04~30
Feb. 14, 1981
A = 66° 3S' 2S"W
compute:
ZT
4h Oom 04~30
LAST
A (-66 0 38' 28")
"4 h 26m 33~S7
GAST (=LAST - A)
Sh 26m 3S~17
Eq.E.
h
(0
U.T.
-{)~74
Feb. 14, 1981)
Sh 26m 38~9l
GMST (=GAST - Eq.E.)
GMST at Oh U.T., Feb. 14, 1981·
Mean Sidereal Interval (GMST
9h
3? 42:95
ii GMSTl
,,(,LU. T.
U.T.(mean sidereal interval x
0.997 269 566 4)
4h
ZT (= UT -
~Z)
lsh 47'1'f1ll~37
93
3.4
Irregularities of Rotational Time Systems
Sidereal and Universal time systems are based on the rotation of
the earth; thus, they are subject to irregularities caused by (i) changes
in the rotation rate of the earth, we' and (ii) changes in the position of
the rotation axis (polar motion).
The differences are expressed in terms
of Universal time as follows:
UTa
is UT deduced from observations, is affected by changes in W
e
and polar motion, thus is an irregular time system.
UTI
is defined as UTa corrected for polar motion, thus it represents
the true angular motion of the earth and is the system to be
used for geodetic astronomy (note that it is an irregular time
system due to variations in
UT2
w·) •
e
is defined as UTI corrected for seasonal variations in w
e
.
This
time system is non-uniform because w is slowly decreasing due
e
to the drag of tidal forces and other reasons.
UTC
Universal Time Coordinated
is the internationally agreed upon
time system which is transmitted by most radio time stations.
UTC has a defined relationship to International Atomic Time
(IAT), as well as .. to UT2 and to UTI.
More information on UTe, UTI, and UT2, particularly applicable
to timekeeping for astronomic purposes, is given in chapter 4.
3.5
Atomic Time System
Atomic time is based on the electromagnetic oscillations
produced by the quantum transition of an atom.
In 1967, the International
committee for Weights and Measures defined the atomic second (time interval)
as "the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of radiation corresponding to
94
the transition between the two hyper-fine levels of the fundamental state
of the atom of Caesium 133"jRobbins, 1976J.
Atomic frequency standards
are the most acurate standards in current use with stabilities of one or
. 10 12 common, an d
two parts ~n
'1"~t~es
stab~
0
f
.
10 14 a b ta~ne
. d
two parts ~n
from. the mean of sixteen specially selected caesium standards at ·the us
Naval Observatory.
Various atomic time systems with different epochs are in use.
The internationally accepted one is called International Atomic Time,
which is based on the weighted means of atomic clock systems. throughout the
world.
The work required to define IAT is carried out by BIH (Bureau
International de
l'Heure) in Paris IRobbins, 1976].
IAT, through its
relationship with UTC, is the basis for radio broadcast time signals.
4.
4.1
TIME DISSEIUNATION, TIME-KEEPING, TIME RECORDING
Time Dissemination
As has been noted several times already, celestial coordinate
systems are subject to change with time.
To make use of catalogued
positions of celestial bodies for position and azimuth determination at
any epoch, we require a measure of the epoch relative to the catalogued
epoch.
In the interests of homogeneity, it is in our best interest if on
a world-wide bases everyone uses the same time scale.
Time signals are broadcast by more than 30 stations around the
world, with propagation frequencies in either the HF (1 to 50 MHz) or LF
(10 to 100 KHz) ranges.
The HF (high frequency)
tend to be more useful
for surveying purposes as a simple commercial radio receiver can be used.
The LF (low frequency) signal are more accurate since errors due to
propagation delay can be more easily accounted for.
In North America, the two most commonly used time signals are
those broadcast by WWV, Boulder, Colorado (2.5 MHz,S MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz,
20 MHz) and CHU, Ottawa (3.330 MHz, 7.335 MHz, 14.670 MHz).
The broadcast signal is called Universal Time Coordinated (UTC).
UTC is a system of seconds of atomic time, that is IS UTC is lSAT to the
accuracy of atomic time and it is constant •
h
'.At 1972 January lOUT,
. .UTCwas ...deUned ..to. belAT . minus . 1Us .exactly.....,w.'Ihe quantit.,y: ~.(l.AT":,,UTC),
called DAT, will always be an integral number due to the introduction of
the "leap second" (see below).
The time we are interested in is UTI.
denoted DUTI and never exceeds the value 0~9.
and published by BIH.
The value, (UTI-UTe) is
The value DUTl is predicted
Precise values are published one month in
95
arear~.
96
In addition, DUTI can be disseminated from certain time signal transmissions
The code for transmission of DUTI by CHU is given in Figure 4-1.
TAl is currently gaining on UTI at a rate of about one
second per year.
s
To keep DUTI within the specified 0.9, UTe is
decreased by exactly IS at certain time~.
"leap second" is illustrated in Figure 4... 2.
The introduction of this
Note that provisions for a
negative leap second are given, should it ever become necessary.
All major observatories of the world transmit UTC with an error
of less than O~OOI , most with errors less than O~OOO 3.
The propagation
delay of high frequency signals reaches values in the order of O.Sms.
Since geodetic observations rarely have an accuracy of better than
s
0.01 or 10 ms, an error of 0.5 ms is of little consequence.
For further
information on the subject of propagation delay, the reader is referred
to, for example, Robbins [1976].
The various time signals consist
essentially of:
(i)
short pulses emitted every second, the beginning of the
pulse signalling the beginning of the second,
,(ii)
each minute marked by some type of stress (eg. for CHU, the
zero second marker of each minute is longer; for
wwv,
the
59th second marker is omitted)p
(iii)
at periodic intervals, station identification, time, and date
are announced in morse code, voice, or both,
(iv)
DUTl is indicated by accentuation of an appropriate number
of the first 15 seconds of every minute.
97
A positive value of DUT1 will be indicated by emphasizing a number (n)
of consecutive seconds markers following the minute warker from seconds markers
one to seconds marker (n) inclusive; (n) being an integer from 1 to 8 'inclusive.
DUT1
=
(n x O.l)s
A negative value of DUT1 will be indicated by e~phasizing a'number
(m) of consecutive seconds markers following the minute marker from seconds
marker nine to seconds marker (8 + m) inclusive; (m) being an integer from
1 to 8 inclusive.
DUT1
=-
{m x O.l)s
A zero value of DUTI will be indicated by the absence of emphasized
seconds markers •
The appropriate seconds markers may be emphasized, for example,
by lengthening, doubling, splitting, or tone modulation of the normal
seconds markers.
EXAMPLES
DUTI
MI NUTE
MARKER ,___
=
+ 0.55
EMPHASIZED
SECONDS
MARKERS
----A. . .---..,.,
o
I
DUTI = - 0.25
MINUTE
M'ARKER
EMPHASIZED SECONDS MARKERS
r-A-.
LIMIT OF CODED SEQUENCE
Figure 4-1
Code for the Transmission of DUT1
I
I
I
--I
I
98
A positive or negative leap second, when required, should be the
last second of a UTe month, but;,preierenceshould be,' given to the end of December
and June and second preference to the end of March and September. 1(,. positive leap
second begins at 23 h 59,m. 60 S a~d ends.~tOh Om O\of~he ~ir~t day of' the following
month~
In the case of anegat1.ve leap second, 23 59 58 w:Lll be followed one
second
later
by Oh Om Os of
the first.
day of the.
following month ..
.
.
Taking account of what h~s been said in t~e preceding paragraph,
the dating of events in the vicinity of a leap second shall be effected in
the manner indicated in the following figures:
POSITIVE LEAP SECOND
EVENT
DESIGNATION OF THE
DATE OF THE EVENT
t
~lEAP SECOND
I
56
I
51
58
I
59
I :I
60 I 0
30 JUNE, 23h59m
~
I
1
2
I
3
~h
.
m
s
.
30 JUNE, 23 59 60.6 UTe
4s
1 JULY OhOm
NEGATIVE LEAP SECOND
DESIGNATION OF THE
DATE OF THE EVENT
EVENT
I
56
I .I
57
58
30 JUNE, 23h59m
t
a0 1I
~I~
I
2
1 JULY
I
I
4
3
5
I
t
m
s
30 JUNE, 23 59 58.9
6
ohom
Fir.;ure 4-2
Dating of Events in the Vicinity of A Leap Second
UTC
99
4.2
Time~Keeping
and Recording
Time reception, before the advent of radio, was by means of the
telegraph.
Since the 1930's, the radio receiver has been used almost
exclusively in geodetic astronomy.
Time signals are received and amplified,
after which they are used as a means of determining the exact time of an
observation.
Direct comparison of a time signal with the instant of
observation is not made in practice - a clock (chronometer) is used as an
intermediate means of timekeeping.
Usually, several comparisons of clock
time with UTe are made during periods when direction observations are not
taking place.
The direction
obs~rvations
are subsequently compared to
clock time.
The most practical receiver to use is a commercial portable
radio with a shortwave (HF) band.
In areas where reception is difficult,
a marine or aeronautical radio with a good antenna may become necessary.
The chronometer or clock used should be one that is very stable,
that is, it should have a constant rate.
There are three broad
categories of clock that may be used:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Atomic clocks,
Quartz crystal clock,
Mechanical clock.
Atomic clocks are primarily laboratory instruments, are very
costly, and have an accuracy that is superfluous for geodetic purposes.
Quartz crystal clocks are the preferred clocks.
They are portable, stable
(accuracy of 1 part in 10 7 to 1 part in 10 12 ), but do require a source of
electricity.
This type of time-keeper is normally used for geodetic
purposes, in conjunction with a time-recorder, (e.g. chronograph) where
an accuracy of O~OOI or better is required.
Mechanical clocks, with
100
accuracies in the order of 1 part in 10 6 , suffice for many surveying needs
(eg. where an accuracy of O~l is required).
They are subject to
mechanical failure and sudden variations in rate, but' they are portable
and independent of an outside source of electricity.
The most common and
useful mechanical clock is a stop watch, reading to O~l, with two sweep
seconds hands.
One should note that many of the new watches - mechanical,
electronic, quartz crystal - combine the portable-stable criteria and the
stop watch capabilities, and should not be overlooked.
With any of these
latter devices, time-recording is manual, and the observing procedure is
audio-visual.
4.3
Time Observations
In many instances, the set of observations made for the astronomic
determination of position and azimuth includes the accurate determination
and recording of time.
While in many cases,(latitudeand azimuth
mathematical models and associated star observing programs can be devised
to minimize the effects of random and systematic errors in time, the
errors in time always have a direct effect on longitude (e.g. if time is
s
in error by 0.1, the error in A will be
1~'5).
The timekeeping device that is most effective for general
surveying purposes is the stop watch, most often a stop watch with a mean
solar rate
(sidereal rate chronometers are available).
The five desireable
elements for the stop watch are lRobbins, 1976]:
(i)
(ii)
two sweep seconds hands,
a start-stop-reset button which operates both hands together,
resetting them to zero,
101
(iii)
a stop-reset button which operates on the secondary seconds
hand only, resetting it to coincidence with the main hand
which is unaffected by the operation of this button,
(iv)
(v)
reading to 0~1,
a rate sufficiently uniform over at least one half an hour
to ensure that linear interpolation over this period does not
s
give an error greater than 0.1.
A recommended time observing procedure is as follows [Robbins, 1976]:
(i)
start the watch close to a whole minute of time as given by
the radio time signal,
(ii)
stop the secondary hand on a whole time signal second, record
the reading and reset.
A mean of five readings of time
differences (see below) will give the 6T of the stop watch at
the time of comparison.
(iii)
stop the secondary hand the instant the celestral body is in
the desired position in the telescope (this is done by the
observer).
(iv)
(v)
Record the reading and reset.
repeat (iii) as direction observations are made.
m
repeat (ii) periodically (at least every 30 ) so that the
clock rate for each time observation· can be determined.
The clock correction (6T) and clock rate (6 1T) are important
parts of the determination of time for astronomic position and azimuth
determination.
Designating the time read on our watch as T, then the
zone time (broadcast, for example, by CHU) of an observation can be
stated as
ZT =·T
+
t:.T
(4-1)
102
In (4-ll! it is assumed that
~T
is constant.
~T
will usually not be
constant but changes should occur.at a uniform rate, bolT.
Then boT is
given by
(4-2)
where
~T,~T
~lT
o
are clock corrections at times T, T
0
is the change in
~T
,
per unit of time,
the clock (chronometer) rate.
The clock correction,
~T
for any time of observation, is determined via
a simple linear interpolation as follows:
(i)
using the radio and clock comparisons made before, during, and
after the observing program, compute
~T,
1
(ii)
~T
for each by
= ZT, - T,
1
(4-3)
1
Compute the time difference, boZT, '+1 between time comparisons
1,1
by
~ZTi,i+l = ZT i +l - ZT i
(iii)
Compute the differences between successive clock corrections
corresponding to the differences
boT,1.,1.+
, 1=
(iv)
~T '+11.
~ZT,
'+1 ' namely
1,1.
boT,1
(4-5)
Compute the clock rate per mean solar hour by
~
tv)
(4-4)
1
T
=
~T,1,1.'+1
~ZT,1.,1'+1
Record the results in a convenient and usable form
(e.g. table of values, graph).
(4-6)
103
This time determination process is illustrated by the following example.
Clock Correction and Clock Rate
(i)
Determination of ZT of stop watch
ZT (radio)
Stop Watch (T)
~T,
1
gh 13m OO~O
Oh OOm OO~O
gh 13m OO~O
13m 15~0
OOm 14~8
gh 13m 00~2
13m 45~0
OOm 45~2
gh 12m 59~8
gh 14m OO~O
Oh Olm OO~O
gh 13m OO~O
14m 30~0
Olm 29~9
gh 13m 00~1
(Radio-Stop watch)
gh 13m oo~b
i=l 1
This procedure is to be repeated for each time comparison with
ZT of beginning
= (i~T,)/i =
the radio time signal.
(ii)
Record of time comparisons; determination of clock rate.
ZT
(radio)
~
Clock
(stop watch) ~ZT, '+1
1,1
TIME (T)
~T
gh13mOO~O
ohOomOO~O
gh13mOO~0
gh41mOO~0
Oh27m59~2
10h30mOO~0
Ih16m57~7
llh33mOO~0
2h19m55~7
Oh28mOO~0
Oh49mOO~0
Ih03mOO~0
0
gh13mOO~8
gh13m02~3
gh13m04~3
T
~T.1,1'+1
(~/h)
00~8
1.7
01~5
1.8
02~0
1.g
104
Graph of Clock (stop watch) Correction ~T
(iii)
--t:i
."..,-
•
CLOCK TIME (To)
(iv)
Determination of the true zone time of a direction observation.
Observed Time (stop watch):
What is true ZT ?
From the graph:
~T at ZT observed = 9
28~8 +
ZT (true) = Oh S2 m
= 10h
Using ~T
6T
= ~To
= gh
+ (T i +1 - Ti)~lT
13m
ZT(true)
OO~8
+
= Oh
S2 m
OSm
gh 13m
01~6
30~4
yields
(O~40803)
= 10h OSm
h 13m 01.6
s
28~8 +
30~3 •
1.8
=
gh 13m
gh 13m
01~6
Ol~S
105
In closing this section, the reader is cautioned that the
methods described here for time determination are not adequate for precise
(e.g. first-order) determinations of astronomic azimuth and position.
s
work requires an accuracy in time of 0.01 or better.
For details, the
reader is referred to, for example, Mueller I1969J or Robbins 11976].
Such
5.
5.1
STAR CATALOGUES AND EPHEMERIDES
Star CataloguesStar catalo9Ues contain the listing of the positions of stars in
a unique coordinate system.
The positions are generally given in the mean
right ascension coordinate system for a particular epoch T.
o
Besides
listing the right ascensions and declinations, star catalogues identify
each star by number and/or name, and should give their proper motions.
Some catalogues also include annual and secular variations.
Other
pertinent data sometimes given are estimates of the standard errors of the
coordinates and their variations, and star magnitudes.
(Magnitude is an
estimate of a star's brightness given on a numerical scale varying from
-2 for a bright star to +15 for a dim star).
There are two main types of catalogues: (i) Observation
catalogues containing the results of particular observing programs, and
(ii)
compilation catalogues containing data from a selection of catalogues
(observation and/or other compilation catalogues).
The latter group are
of interest to us for position and azimuth determination.
Several
compilation catalogues contain accurate star coordinates for a welldistributed (about the celestial sphere) selection of stars.
These
catalogues are called fundamental catalogues and the star coordinates
contained therein define a fundamental coordinate system.
Three of these
catalogues are described briefly below.
The Fourth Fundamental Catalogue (FK4) IFricke and Kopff, 1963]
was produced by the Astronomischen Rechen Institute of Heidelberg,
Germany in 1963.
It was compiled from 158 different observation catalogues
and contains coordinates for 1535 stars for the epochs 1950.0 and 1975.0.
106
107
A supplement to :the FK4, with star coordinates for 1950.0, contains
additional stars.
catalogue.
.!2!!1
These additions were drawn mainly form the N30
It should be noted that the FK4 system ha's been accepted
internationally as being the best available, and all star coordinates
should be expressed in this system.
The General or Boss General Catalogue (Ge, or BC) [Boss, 1937),
compiled from two hundred fifty observation catalogues, contains star
coordinates for 33 342 stars for the epoch 1950.0.
The present accuracy
of the coordinates in this catalogue are somewhat doubtful.
GC-FK4
correction tables are available, but are of doubtful value due to the
errors in the GC coordinates.
The Normal System N30 (N30) IMorgan, 1952] is a catalogue of
5268 Standard Stars with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.
Although
more accurate than the Ge, it is not of FK4 quality.
For geodetic purposes, the most useful catalogue is the
Apparent Places of Fundamental Stars (APFS) IAstronomische RechenInstitutes, Heidelberg, 1979].
This is an annual volume containing the
apparent places of the FK4 stars, tabulated at 10-day intervals.
As the
name implies, the published coordinates have not been corrected for short
period nutation terms that must be applied before the coordinates are used
for position and azimuth determination.
For all but latitude observations
there are sufficient stars in this publication.
For the stringent star-
pairing required for latitude determinations there are often insufficient
stars to fulfill a first-order observation program.
In such cases, the
FK4 supplement should be referred to and the coordinates rigorously updated
from 1950.0 to the date of observation.
108
5.2 . E;phemexoides and Almanacs
Ephemerides and l\lmanacs are annual volumes containing
info:rmation of interest to surveyors and others (e.g. mariners) involved
with "practical" astronomy.
They contain the coordinates of selected
stars, tabulated for short intervals of time, and may also contain some or
all of the following information:
motions of the sun, moon, and planets
of our solar system, eclipses, occultations, tides, times of sunrises and
sunsets, astronomic refraction, conversions of time and angular measures.
The Astronomical Almanac (AA) [U.S. Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac
.
,
, Office, 1980]. ,(formerly,. published ,j;l1.thelJittted" States -as·'the· American Ephemeris and
Nautical Almanac and in 'the United Kingdom as the Astronomical Ephemeris) is the only
one of geodeticinte;-e~t:.· It'contai;lJs~amongst' other things~ the mean I?lac~s of 1475
s'tars- catalogued for the "beginning of theye'ar' of'irtteres"t, (e~ g~ 1981.0), plus the
information required to update the star coordinates to the time of
observation.
All of the information given is fully explained in a
section at the end of each AA.
Parts of three tables are given here -
Figures 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, - that are of interest to us.
Each table is self-
explanatory since the info:rmationhas been previously explained.
note concerning Figure 5-1 is as follows.
GMST
= UT
+
(a
m
-
An
extra
Recall from equation (3-18) that
l2 h ).
Now, since the tabulated values are for
ohUT,
and ST is the hour angle of
the vernal equinox, then
GAST at
OhUT
=
(a
at
OhUT
=
(a
GMST
m
-
l2h
+ Eq. E),
m
For more detailed information, the interested reader should study a recent
copy of AA.
109
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES. 1981
Date
OhU.T.
Jan.
Julian
Date
G. SIDEREAL TIME
(G. H. A. of the Equinox)
Apparent
Mean
Equation of
Equinoxes
atOhU.T.
G.S.D.
OhG.S.T.
U.T. at OhG.M.S.T.
(Greenwich Transit of
the ~fean Equinox)
•
17.9594
14.5148
11.0702
07.6255
04.1809
-0.7708
.7717
.7708
.7681
.7635
•
245
1299.0
1300.0
1301.0
1302.0
1303.0
60.7363
57.2916
53.8470
50.4024
46.9577
-0.7576
.7510
.7447
.7398
.7370
1304.0
1305.0
1306.0
1307.0
1308.0
42.7763
39.3297
35.8817
32.4335
28.9864
43.5131
40.0685
36.6238
33.1792
29.7346
-0.7368
.7387
.7421
.7457
.7481
1309.0
1310.0
1311.0
1312.0
1313.0
10
11
12
t3
14
37
41
45
49
53
25.5415
22.0994
18.6598
15.2219
11.7843
26.2899
22.8453
19.4006
15.9560
12.5114
-0.7484
.7459
.7409
.7341
.7271
1314.0
1315.0
1316.0
1317.0
1318.0
16
17
18
19
IS 16
16
16
16
16
1.9 52.7409
15 56.8314
1200.9220
08 05.0125
04 09.1030
57
01
05
08
12
08.3457
04.9050
01.4618
58.0160
54.5682
09.0667
05.6221
02.1775
58.7328
55.2882
-0.7210
.7171
.7157
.7168
.7199
1319.0
1320.0
1321.0
1322.0
1323.0
20
21
22
23
24
16
15
15
IS
IS
00
56
52
48
·44
4629.5
4630.5
4631.5
4632.5
4633.5
8 16 51.1192
8 20 47.6698
8 24 44.2208
8 28 40.7728
8 32 37.3264
51.8436
48.3989
44.9543
41.5097
38.0650
-0.7243
.7291
.7335
.7368
.7386
1324.0
1325.0
1326.0
1327.0
1328.0
25
26
27
28
29
15
15
15
15
15
40 33.6462
3637.7368
3241.8273
2845.9178
2450.0084
2
3
4634.5
4635.5
4636.5
4637.5
4638.5
8
8
8
8
8
33.8818
30.4389
26.9975
23.5571
20.1168
34.6204
31.1758
27.7311
24.2865
20.8418
-0.7386
.7368
.7336
.7294
.7251
1329.0
1330.0
1331.0
1332.0
1333.0
4
5
6
7
8
4639.5
4640.5
4641.5
4642.5
4643.5
8 56 16.6755
9 00 J3.2323
9 04 09.7865
9 08 06.3381
9 12'02.8879
17.3972
13.9526
10.5079
07.0633
03.6187
-0.7217
.7203
.7215
.7252
.7307
1334.0
1335.0
1336.0
1337.0
1338.0
9
4644.5
4645.5
4646.5
4647.5
4648.5
9 15 59.4372
10
11
12
13
55.9872
52.5392
49.0938
45.6509
60.1740
56.7294
53.2848
49.8401
46.3955
-0.7369
.7422
.7455
.7463
.7445
1339.0
1340.0
1341.0
1342.0
1343.0
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
4649.5
4650.5
9 35 42.2098
9 39 38.7693
42.9509
39.5062
-0.7411
-0.7369
1344.0
1345.0
14 14 21 55.4569
15 14 17 59.5474
244
4604.5
4605.5
4606.5
4607.5
4608.5
.11
III
0
1
2
3
4
6
6
6
6
6
38
42
46
50
54
5
6
7
8
9
4609.5
4610.5
4611.5
4612.5
4613.5
6
7
7
7
7
57
01
05
09
10
11
12
13
14
4614.5
4615.5
4616.5
4617.5
4618.5
7
7
7
7
7
17
21
25
29
33
15
16
17
18
19
4619.5
4620.5
4621.5
4622.5
4623.5
·7
7
7
7
7
20
21
22
23
24
4624.5
4625.5 .
4626.5
4627.5
4628.5
7
8
8
8
8
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
•
17.1886
13.7431
10.2993
06.8575
03.4174
59.9787
56.5407
53.1023
49.6626
13 46.2207·
I
II
Jan.
0
1
2
3
4
17
17
17
17
17
m
1851.3829
1455.4734
1059.5639
07 03.6545
0307.7450
5 16 59 11.8356
6 16 55 15.9261
7 16 51 20.0166
8 16 47 24.1072
9 16 4328.1977
/
Feb.
I
9
9
9
9
36
40
44
48
52
19
23
27
31
Figure 5-1 [AA, 1981]
16
16
16
16
16
39
35
31
27
23
32.2882
36.3788
40.4693
44.5598
48.6504
13.1936
17.2841
21.3746
25.4652
29.5557
30 15 2054.0989
31 15 1658.1894
Feb. I IS 1302.2800
2 15 09 06.3705
3 15 05 10.4610
4 15
14
6 14
7 14
8 14
01 14.5516
57 18.6421
53 22.7326
'4926.8232
45 30.9137
14
14
14
14
14
4135.004·2
37 39.0948
3343.1853
2947.2758
2551.3664
.s
110
BRIGHT STARS, 1981.0
Name
B.S.
Right
Ascension
h
B Ocl
•
. ..
Declination Notes
0
V
B-V
+1.27
+1.63
-0.05
+1.04
-0.11
Spectral
IS
38.2
59.1
46.0
21.7
24.1
-77 10 14
- 607 11
-17 26 30
-54850
+28 59 08
F,V
F,V
F,V
F
F
4.78
4.41
4.55
4.61
2.06
11 fJ Cas
E Phe
22
And
B Sci
88 y Peg
21
25
27
35
39
008
o OS
009
o 10
o 12
09.3
27.0
19.6
46.1
15.3
+59
-45
+45
-35
+15
F.S
F
F
F
F,S,V
2.27 +0.34
3.S8 +1.03
5.03 +0.40
5.25 +0.44
2.83 -0.23
89 " Peg
7
Cet
2S fT And
8 , Cet
t Tuc
45
48
68
74
77
37.0
40.5
19.8
27.5
OS.3
+200604
-1902 17
+36 40 4S
- 8 55 45
-64 59 11
F,S
4.80
4.44
4.52
3.S6
4.23
+1.57
+1.66
+0.05
+1.22
+0.58
41
Psc
27 p And
fJ Hyi
Ie Phe
a Phe
80
82
98
100
99
o 13
o 13
o 17
o 18
o 19
o 19
o 20
o 24
o 25
+ 805
+37 51
-77 21
-43 47
-4224
F
F
F
5.37
5.18
2.80
3.94
2.39
+1.34
+0.42
+0.62
+0.17
+1.09
gK3
F6
Gl
A5
KO
IV
IV
Vn
IlIb
AI Phc
fJlTuc
IS Ie Cas
29 'II' And
118
125
126
130
154
o 29
o 30
25.7 -23 53 34 F
30.1 -48 54 30 F
030 40.8 -63 03 46
o 31 54.5 +62 49 38 F,S
o 35 51.7 +33 3654 F
5.19
4.77
4.37
4.16
4.36
+0.12
+0.02
-0.07
+0.14
-0.14
A5
AO
B9
Bl
BS
Vn
V
V
la
V
153
157
163
165
168
o 35
o 36
54.3 +53 47 33
19.8 +35 17 43
037 32.8 +29 12 32
o 38 18.5 +3045 26
o 39 25.2 +562600
F
S
F
F,S
F,V
3.66 -0.20
5.48 +0.88
4.37 +0.87
3.27 +1.28
2.23 +1.17
B2 IV
G3 11
G8 IlIp
K3 III
KO- IlIa
16 fJ Cel
22 0 Cas
34
And
180
191
188
193
21S
040
042
042
043
046
25.8 -46 11 21 F
30.2 -57 34 02 F,D
38.1 -1805 27 F
39.6 +48 10 50 F
19.7 +24 09 51 F,V
4.59
4.36
2.04
4.54
4.06
G8 III
B9 Vp
Kl JJl
B5 III
KIll
63 8
A
24 ..,
64
35 "
Psc
Hyi
Cas
Psc
And
224
236
219
225
226
19 4I"Cct
Psc
Cet
Psc
33
21 a And
17
t
Cas
30 E And
31 8 And
18 a Cas
". Phe
'1 Phc
,
3
37.1
06.9
46.4
16.2
025 20.S
o 47
02
51
58
14
04
+0.97
+0.00
+1.02
-0.07
+1.12
-104447
+64 OS 40
- I 14 50
-69 37 47
+6036 51
F
F,C
F
F
F,V
5.I9
5.39
4.77
5.45
2.47
+38
+23
-29
+ 7
-46
F
3.87 +0.13
4.42 +0.94
4.31 -0.16
4.28 +0.96
3.31 +0.89
20
Cct
A"Tuc
27 y Cas
235
233
248
270
264
049
049
o 52
o 54
055
37 ". And
38 .., And
a Sci
71 E Psc
fJ Phe
269
271
280
294
322
o 55
o 56
o 57
41.6
11.3
41.4
I 01 57.3
I OS 14.2
F
4.43 +1.50
5.07 +1.37
3.44 +0.57
5.07 +0.51
4.53 -0.15
+ 728
-75 01
+57 42
+16 50
+40 58
10.4
33.6
02.1
18.0
33.0
OS
49
41
07
33
F
F
F
F
F
S
F
F
41.7
56.1
047 56.5
047 58.6
04845.6
o 47
42
08
00
22
41
23
18
27
47
49
Figure 5-2
55
36
55
18
33
48
56
36
17
13
F.S
F
2
[AA, 1981]
+0.50
+0.49
+1.57
+1.09
-0.15
Type
K2 III
M3 III
B9 IV
Kl III
B9p
000
000
002
004
007
30
2
9OS4
90S9
9098
DI
F2 III-IV
KO III
F2 II
dF4
B21V
M2 III
MI 111
A2 V
Kl.S III
F9 V
K5
K4
GO
F8
B5
III
III
V
V
V
F8 V
gGO + A5
MO- Ula
K2 III
BO.S IYel
A5
G8
B7
KO
G8
V
Ill-IV
III (C
III
III
II)
111
BRIGHT STARS, 1981.0
Nama
B.S.
Right
Ascension
II
In
I
.,"
Declination Notes
V
B-V
4.25
5.37
5.21
5.17
3.92
+1.21
+0.88
+0.16
+0.69
-0.08
K2I11
05 III
-A3 IV/V
05 Vp
'B7 V
Spectral
,
Tuc
II Phe
30 p. Cas
, Phe
285
332
331
321
338
1
1
1
1
1
05 54.1
06 33.7
06 55.8
0659.8
07 35.3
+8609
-61 52
-41 35
+54 49
-55 20
31
42
43
33
84
'IJ Cet
<I> And
fJ And
8 Cas
X Psc:
334
335
337
343
351
I
1
1
I
1
07
08
08
09
10
-10 1658 F
+47 08 27
+35 31 13 F
+55 02 57
+205602 F
3.45
4.25
2.06
4.33
4.66
+1.16
-0.07
+1.58
+0.17
+1.03
Kl III
87 III
MO lila
A7 V
08 III
83 T Psc:
86 , Psc:
Ie Tuc:
89
Psc:
90 " Psc:
352
361
377
378
383
1 10 36.6
1 1244.2
I 15 07.6
1 1649.0
1 18 25.1
+295921
+ 728 31
-68 58 37
+ 3 3053
+270953
F
F
F
F
4.51
4.86
4.86
5.16
4.76
+1.09
+0.32
+0.47
+0.07
+0.03
KO
FO
F6
A3
A2
III·IV
Vo
IV
V
V
34
46
45
37
36
Cas
And
Cet
Cas
Cas
382
390
402
403
399
1
1
1
1
1
18
21
23
24
24
52.5
12.9
04.3
33.6
34.4
+5807 56
+45 25 47
- 8 1652
+6008 13
+68 01 53
S,M
F
F
F.S,V
F
4.98 +0.68
4.88 +1.08
3.60 +1.06
2.68 +0.13
4.74 +1.05
FO
KO
KO
AS
KO
Ia
III·IV
IlIb
III·IV
II1
Psc:
And
'Y Phe
48
Cet
3 Phe
414
417
429
433
440
I
1
I
I
1
25
26
27
28
30
39.9
30.7
32.5
41.4
27.7
+1908
+45 18
-43 24
-21 43
-49 10
33
33
55
38
16
F
F
F
F.7
F
5.50
4.83
3.41
5.12
3.95
+1.11
+0.42
+1.57
+0.02
+0.99
99 'I Psc:
50 " And
51
And
40
Cas
a Eri
437
458
464
456
472
1
1
1
1
1
30
35
36
36
37
27.8
40.5
49.1
58.2
00.5
+15
+41
+48
+72
-57
1454
18 39
31 57
56 38
19 59
F,3
F
F
F,D
F
3.62
4.09
3.57
5.28
0.46
+0.97
+0.54
+1.28
+0.96
-0.16
G8
FS
K3
08
83
111
V
III
It·III
Vp
489
490
497
500
496
1
1
1
1
1
40
40
41
41
42
26.4
57.3
17.1
45.8
27.7
+ 5 23
+35 09
-32 25
- 347
+5035
F
F
+1.36
-0.09
+1.04
+1.38
-0.04
K3
B9
gKO
K3
B2
III
IV·V
F,M
F
F,V
4.44
5.40
5.26
4.99
4.07
S3 X Cet
509
510
514
513
531
1
1
1
1
I
43
44
44
45
48
11.1
23.3
45.3
01.9
39.0
-1602 14
+ 903 45
-25 08 50
- 54941
-104648
F
F,S
F
S
F
3.50
4.26
5.31
5.34
4.67
+0.72
+0.96
+0.39
+1.52
+0.33
G8 Vp
G8 III
dFI
K4 III
FlV
55
Cet
2 a Tri
III ( Psc:
til Phe
45 « Cas
539
544
549
555
542
I
I
1
1
1
50
51
52
52
53
31.3
59.6
34.2
53.1
00.8
-102543
+2929 13
+ 3 05 39
-4623 43
+63 34 38
F
F
F
F
F
3.73
3.41
4.62
4.41
3.38
+1.14
+0.49
+0.94
+1.S9
-0.15
K2 111
F6 IV
KO J1l
M4III
B3 Vp
<I>,Phe
6 IJ ,Ari
1)' Hyi
)( Eri
o Hyi
558
553
570
566
1 53 34.7 -42 35 24
I 53 35.2 +2042 56
I 54 27.1 -67 44 26
I 5S 13.1 -SI 42 II
1 58 10.3 -61 3943
F
F
F
F
F
S.1l
2.64
4.69
3.70
2.86
-0.06
+0.13
Ap
+0.95
G8.S 1lI
+0.85
+0.28
G8 nIb
FO V
94
48
106
<I>
(
8
3
til
Co>
I'
Psc:
f'(
Scl
<I> Per
52
llO
T
0
E
Cet
Psc
ScI
,
S91
38.0
23.5
39.8
56.2
25.7
22
36
18
40
50
31
01
21
08
37
F
F
F,D
F
V
Figure 5-3
[AA, 1981}
Type
SKI
FS V
K5+ lIb-lIla
AI V
KO lIIb
II·III
Ve4p
A5 V
CN·2
112
The Star Almanac for Land Surveyor§ (SALS) rH.M. Nautical
Almanac Office, 1_980], published annually, is expressly designed to meet
the surveyor's requirements in astronomy.
(i)
The main tables included are:
the Sun, in which the right ascension, declination, and
equation of time are tabulated for 6-hourly intervals (see
explanations below regarding Figure 5-4),
(ji)
the Stars, in which the apparent right ascension and
declination of 685 stars are given for the beginning of each
~onth
(iii)
h
(e.g. 0 UT, March 1, 1981),
Northern and Southern Circumpolar Stars (five of each), are
listed separately, their apparent right ascensions and declinations being given at lO-day intervals for the year,
(iv)
the Pole Star Table, a special table for Polaris
(n
Ursae
Minoris) for use in specific math models for latitude and
azimuth determinations.
Also included in SALS are several supplementary tables, some of
which are companions to those noted above (for interpolation purposes).
Examples of three SALS tables are given in Figures 5-4, 5-5, and 5-6.
Most of the information given has been explained previously, and the tables
are self explanatory.
Regarding the terms R and E in Figure 5-4, one
should note that
h
R= (n - 12
m
E
+ Eq.E)
= GAST
at ohUT,
= Eq.T. - 12h •
The reader is cautioned that SALS is not suitable for use where
first-order standards mus-t be met.<AA <may be used, but common practice
is to use one of the fundamental catalogues and compute the updated star
coordinates via procedures outlined in Chapter 6.
113
SUN-FEBRUARY, 1981
U.T.
U.T•.
d
1
d
"
0
12
12 '
18
18
12
:12
18
. 18
0
2 35 2 '5
10
0
Tues. 6
3. 0
Tues. 6
II
9
Wed, 6
12
:12
:18
18
1:Z
0
0
Wed. 6
Thur,6
12
12
18
18
5 0
Thur.6
Fri. 6
:12
12
18
18
6
IJ
0
14
0
0
Sat. 6
Fri. 6
7
12
12
18
18
IS
0
Sun. 6
12
12
18
18
16
0
Mon. 6
12
12
18
i8
24
24
Sun"s S.D,
Feb.
5S·
" 4'4"
~
II
~
..
~
II
2
2
3
4543'5
4543,8
4544'2
4544'7
II 4545. 1
4545'7
4546'3
4546'9
II 45 47·6
4548 '3
45 49'0
4549.8
II
3
4
5
4:
6
6
6
7
7
~
9
45 50'7
455 1•6 9
455 2'5 9
4553'S 10
114554.611
II
North Latitude
~
~
~
5'3
5'4
5'5
5'5
5'5
5'7
5'7
5'7
5.8
5'9
5'9
5'9
6'0
6·0
6'0
6,2
6'2
6,2
6'3
6'3
6'3
6'5
6'4
6'4
6'7
6·6
6'5
6'9
6·8
6'7
7'0
6'9
6'7
7,2
7'0
6·8
7'3
7·2
7·0
7·6
7'4
7,1
5'7
5'7
5'9
6'0
6,1
6·%
6,2
6'3
6'4
6'5
6·6
6'7
6-8
6'9
[SALS, 1981J
II
W
5'%
S'J
Figure 5-4
"
~
8,%
8'1
7,8
5'5
•
¢
7'9
7'7
7'5
5'4
II
~
•
5'3
110
~
II
:z6
•
~
7'3 7·6
7. 2 7'5
7-I' 7'3
31
II
~
7'2
7·1
7'0
5-1
5'3
5'4
II
~
6·8
6·8
6'7
4'9
5'1
5-3
"
~
6·6
6,6
6'5
4.6
4.8
5'0
21
2
6'4
6'4
6'J
5.1
5,2
16
I
6,2
6·%
6'2
4'5
4-7
6
0
0
6·0
6·0
6'0
5,2
II
0
5'7
5.8
5,8
4'9
3'9
4'2
4'4
4542 '5
4542'5
4542'5
II 45 42 ,6
4542,8
4543'0
4543. 2
5'5
5'5
5.6
4'7
4.8
5,0
:I
I
93938.8
4°37'9
41 37'0
42 36.2
South Latitude
60-
•
4544'7 '
4544'3 :
4543'9 4
4543'5 3
45 43'2
4543.0 2
454 2 •8 2
4542•6 2
SUNRISE
16=2
Date
m
I 1 454 2 'S
94335'3
44 34'5
4533.6
46 32 '7
9473 1 '9
0
Sun. 6
II
245 1 '7
2550,8
26 5°'°
9 2749. 1
28 48'2
2947'4
3°46 '5
,93 1 45'7
32 44.8
3343'9
3443. 1
93542 • 2
36 41 '3
3740'5
38 39.6
0
Sat. 6
8
II
9 1956,0
20 55'1
21 54'3
2253'4
0
Mon. 6
...
..
9 0
Mon. 6
Sun. 6
2
E
Dec.
R
"
II
114
RIGHT ASCENSION OF STARS, 1981
No.
Mag. R.A.
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan.
•
•
•
•
5'
52
53
54
55
4-3
4'4
4-3
4-0
4'3
221
2. 26
22.7
238
2. 39
25-0
17'3
oS-6
30 -3
18'5
23-3
16·6
oS'3
29'9
16·8
21'7
15.8
07. 8
29'5
15. 2
20·6
15'3
07'5
29.2
14'0
20·2
15'2
07·6
29' 1
13'5
•
20·8 22·2 24.2
15.6 16'5 17'7
oS-o oS·8 09'7
29-5 30'3 31. 2
13'9 15,'2 17.0
26,1 27-5 28'0 27·6
18·8 19'7 20'1 20·0
10·6 11'3 II-7 u·8
32.1 32.8 33'2 33'3
19'0 20'5 21'1 20·8
56
57
58
S9
4'1
3. 6
4. 2
4'4
4'4
2.
2.
39
42
2. 42
2. 43
243
54'4
IS'4
53'4
12'5
54'3
51'4
17'9
54'0
29'5
32
16'7
32.8
24·6
57'0
55'5
53.8 53'3
18'0 17-6
52'7 .52'1
II'7
12'1
53'9 53. 6
53'2
17·6
52.1
II'7
53-5
53-5
IS,O
52.6
12-0
53-9
55'4
19-7
55'0
13'7
55. 6
56 '5
20·6
56 '3
14·6
56'5
57'3
21·2
57·2
15'3
57- 2
50·8
17'0
53. 1
29. 0
31 '3
16'3
32'3
23. 8
56'4
54. 8
S0· 5
16'3
52 '5
28·6
30'7
50'4
16,2
52 '4
2S·6
30 -5
50'9
16·S
52 '9
28'9
30 ;8
15.8
31'7
22'9
55. 8
54. 2
16'2
32
~3'4
53'7
20'9
56.8
31'4
33'7
18'7
34. 6
27'3
59-4
57. 8
54'4
22·0
57-8
32'1
15'9
31.8
23. 1
55'9
54'3
'P'2
15-5
4°- 0
09-9
57·6
40'4
14'9
39'5
09'2
56 -8
39.8
14'4
39'0
oS'5
56 . 1
40'1
14'5
39.1
oS'5
56 '3
46'4 47'1
07'3 oS·o
29'5 30'7
48'4 . 49'0
01'0 01·6
52'7
19'5
55'4
30'5
32.6
17.8
33. 6
25'9·
58'3
56 '7
42'5
16,1
40·6
10'3
58 .6
48.0
oS'9
32'3
50·0
02'5
II
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
6']
68
84
85
86
I
I
57'7
21'7
57'9
15'7
57'7
55-0
22·8
58.6
32.6
35'0
19'9
35.8
29'2
60'9
59'4
45·6
18'4
4 2'9
t 3.0
61·8
I
3.8
3 23
3 26
3 27
3 29
332'
47'4
oS-4
3 2 '2
49'5
02·2
47-1
oS·o
31 '4
49- 1
01·8
46 -6
07·6
300 4
48'7
01'3
46'2
07'2
29'4
48.2
00'9
332. 57'1
54'3
341 34. 6
342 20'4
3 43 07·8
56'7
53'9
34'1
20'1
07-4
56 . 1 55.6
53'5 53. 0
33'3 32'7
19.6 19.1
06·8 06'3
55'4
52'9
32'4
18'9
06,1
55. 6 56'2
53. 1 53'7
32'7 33.6
19'1 19'7
06'4 07'1
57. 1
54.6
34.8
20·6
oS'l
43. 8
17.1
41.6
II'4
59'9
48'9 49.6 50·2
09. 8 10·6 11'1
33'9 35'3 36 '3
50'9 51'7 52'2
03'3 04'1 04·6
58 '1 58.8 59'4
55'5 56.2 56.8
36. I 37'2 38 '0
21'5 22'2 22·8
09'2 10-1 10·8
343
343
343
346
346
44'9
54'4
59.1
02·1
21'4
44·6
54'0
57. 8
01'7
21·1
44. 1
53-3
56'3
01·1
20·6
43.6
52'7
55'0
00·6
20·1
43'4
52'4
54. 1
00'4
19'9
43'7
52'7
54'1
00'5
20'1
45'3
54'7
56'2
01'9
21·8
46 '3
55. 8
58
02'9
22'7
347
348
34f8
352
3 56
34'4
02-1
45- 0
56'4
35-0
3 57
357
3 58
3 59
402
given
oS·8
44.1
28,1
37.8
oS-9
refer
25'9 25.6 26·6 28-6 31. 1 33'5 34'9 35. 1
00'5 00·8 01'5 02'4 03'4 04. 2 04'9 05-3
42'9 43'0 43·6 44-5 45'5 46-4 47'0 47'3
54. 8 55'0 55'7 56'7 57'7 58-7 59'4 59'9
33'1 33'3 34'0 35. 1 36 '3 37'3 38 '1 38.6
oS'5 oS·o 07'5 07- 2 07'4 07'9 oS-7 09.6 10'4 II'I II-4
43.8 43.2 42.6 42'4 42.6 43'3 44'3 45'4 46'4 47'2 47-7
27'0 25'7 24'4 23·6 23'5 24- 1 25'4 26'9 28· 3 29' 3 29.6
37' 5 37'0 36 .6 36 '4 36 '5 37·1 38 38-9 39'7 400 4 40.8
oS·6 oS'I 07'7 07'4 -07·6 oS'2 09- 0 09'9 10'7 1I'4 II·8
to the beginning of the month. and should be interpolated to
actual date by means of the table on page 73-
3'7
4'4
4'3
3- 8
4'3
. 4'4
3. 1
3'7
3'9
90
3'2
3·8
4'2
2'9
3'0
¢
3'2
97
4'0
C)8
4'4
99
3'9
100
3-9
The figures
301
3 01
3 03
3 03
3 06
33S
'°
32'2
01'7
44'5
56.1
34.6
29'7
01·2
43.8
55-5
33-9
'°
56'2
54. 6
54'3
18·8
53'7
12·8
54'7
51'7
18'0
54'0
29.6
31.6
16:9
32'7
24'5
57'1
55'5
4 1-2
15'2
39-7
09'2
,57'3
44'4
53'5
54.8
01'1
20·8
27'4
00-7
43'2
55.0
33'3
Figure 5-5a
,°
[SALS, 1981]
,°
34'S
19'4
35'3
28'4
60'3
58'7
44-9
17'9
42-3
12'4
61'0
47·1
56-9
59' 5
03'7
23.6
47·8
57'7
60'5
04'3
24'3
•
26'4
19.6
II·6
33. 2
'19'7
57'7 57'4
21·8 21'7
58. I 57. 8
15. 8 15'7
57'9 57-8
55. 2 55- I
23'0 22'7
58.8 58.6
32'7 32 •6.
35. 1 34.8
20·1 20·0
36'0 35.8
29'5 29'3
61'2 61·1
59'7 59. 6
46•0 45.8
18·6 18'4
43'1 43'°
13-2 12'9
62·2 62-1
39'7
14'2
38.8
oS'3
55'9
46. 1
07'0
29'1
48.1
00'7
B9
93
94
95
s
3 u:
3 18
3 19
3 Z%
88
9Z
•
30']
S,
91
•
4'2
3'9
3-9
4'3
1'9 '
2·8
69
81
82
83
•
55'0
IS·8
54. 1
12'9
54'7
51'S
IS,S
54-7
29. 8
32 •6
17·1
33'3
25'4
57'5
56-0
41.8
15'9
40'4
10'5
5S-2
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
m
50-5
II'4
50 '5
II'4
36 '9
52.6
04'9
36'7
52 •6
04'9
59'7 59. 6
57- I 57'1
38'5 38'5
23.1 23'1
II·2 II'3
48 '2 48'3
58. 2 58 '2
60-7 60,1
°4. 6 04. 6
24-7 24'7
33'9
°5'4
47'2
59'9
38'7
II'S
47.8
29.2
4°'9
11'9
the
115
DECLINATION OF STARS, 1981
Name
No.
Dec. Jan. F. M. Apr. M. J. July A.
8
51
52
S3
S4
5S
S6
57
58
61
6%
63
64
65·
66
67
68
69
70
'11
'12
'13
74
7S
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
S,
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98'
99
100
•
II
II
S4746 102104101
N 822 25 23 22
N 014 40 38 37
S6820 78 80 76
S 39 5S 91 94 92
N 309 14 12 II
N49 08 61 62 59
,S 1356 33 3S 3S
N 1001 58 56 55
N2'] 10 57 57 55
N SS..s 69 70 68
N 5%40 73 75 72
S 858 36 38 39
S 40 2.Z 69 73 71
N4 00 49 47 46
S2341: 70 73 73
N 5325 63 65 63
N 3845 64 65 63
N40S2 62 63 61
N4932 34 35 34
S29 03 58 62 61
S21: 49 50 54 54
S43 08 50 54 53
N4947 43 45 44
N 857 39 37'36
N 939 55 54 52
N 595% 35 38 38
N 12,52 14 13 12
S 931: 31 34 35
S 21 41 60 64 65
N020 22 20 19
N4743 42 44 44
S949 49 52 53
N 32 x3 43 43 43
N24 03 13 13 12
N 4231 II 13 12
S645X SI 86 85
S23 x8 34 38 39
N24 02 46 46 45
S 7417 73 77 76
N 2359 43 43 42
S J6 IS 43 48 49
N 31 49 39 40 39
N3957 22 24 23
S x333 55 59 60
N3S44 13 14 14
S6126 94 99 99
N x226 08 C1] 06
N 5S6 C1] 05 04
Figure 5-5b
S. Oct. N. D. Jan.
"
29 8" "
,"
27 22" 22"
95 85 75 65 60
22 23 26 31 36
~2
8
38 41 45 51 56
68 58 46 37 31
E
86 78 68 59 52
Eridani
L
II 14 17
Ceti
23 28
'Y
e Persei
54 49 45 44 46
Ceti
'IT
33 28 21 14 08
Ceti
54' 55 58 62 68
j.l.
52 50 50 52' 56
41 Arietis
Persei
63 57 52 50 51
TJ
68 62 57 55 57
Persei
T
Eridani
37 33 27 20 14
TJ
66 58 48 39 32
e Eridani'
(It
Ceti
46 48 51 56 62
T3
Eridani
70 64 56 47 41
59 53 48 46 47
'Y Persei
60 56 53 53 56
p Persei
Algol (13 Persei)
57 53 50 50 52
L
Persei
30 24 20 18 20
(It
Fornacis
57 SO 42 33 26
16 Eridani
51 45 38 30 23
BS 1008 (Eri.)
48 40 30 20 13
(It
Persei
40 35 31 29 30
0 Tauri
36 37 39 43 48
52 53 55 59 64
~ Tauri
BS 1035 (Cam.)
33 27 21 17 17
II 12 13
Tauri
17 21
5
Eridani
E
33 29 23 17 II
Til Eridani
62 56 49 41 34
10 Tauri
19 21 25 31 36
& Persei
40 36 31 29 30
52 48 42 35 29
& Eridani
0 Persei
40 38 36 36 38
10 (1)08 10 13
17 Tauri
00 01
(1) 05 02
v Persei
80 71 60 49 41
13 Reticuli
TI Eridani
36 30 23 15 08
44 43 42 44 47
TJ Tauri
71 61 50 40 32
'Y Hydn
27 Tauri
40 39 39 40 43
BS 1195 (En.)
45 38 29 19 12
37 3S 33 33 3S
t Persei
21 17 14 13 14
Persei
E
58 54 48 41 35
'Y Eridani
12 (1) 06
06C1]
E Persei
& Reticuli
94 86 75 64 56
).
060608 II 15
Tauri
V
Tauri
04 05 08 12 17
No., mag., dist. and p.a. of companion star: 65. 4'4. 8". 880
K
59
60
Hydri
Eridani
Ceti
Ceti
Hydri
•
II
II
S6844 70" 71 66" 58 47 36
G
[SALS, 1981]
59
41
61
31
50
32
52
04
72
.60
56
6%
II
II
63
43
62
37
54
34
S8
05
75
65
63
69
10
32
29
66 68
38 39
5% 58
60 66
57 62
24 30
23 24
19 ,20
10 13
33 39
52 55
68 71
21 26
25 28
3
71
44
61
46
60
34
65
08
76
69
71
76
13
39
68
43
65
71
68
37
30
24
20
45
55
71
34
29
07
06 09
30
40
33
%5
42
17
31
41
38
24
46
20
04
39
04
50
30
47
08
39
17
30
10
53
19
21
35
40
43
27
50
22
09 14
42 50
04 09
54 56
33 42
50 52
,09 IS
42
21
30
14
55
21
23
46
25
33
IS
63
22
22
47
79
43
S9
5S
53
85
42
57
62
68
75
30
32
72
12
75
72
79,
83
17
47
77
17
74
73
84
88
20
54
66 64
50 55
73 78
76 79
73 76
43 48
37 43
30 36
28 35
52 57
54 ' 53
70 69
42 49
29, 28
13 17
41 47
38 35
50 55
31 36
53 ' 55
24, 25
19 23
60 68
15 21
58 59
52 60
54 55
23 31
49 51
30 34
38 43
22 25
73 82
21 20
20 18
116
POLE STAR TABLE, 1981
Jd'
L.S.T.
m
o
3
6
9
12
IS
18
21
24
27
30
33
J6
39
42
45
',.s
51
54
57
60
,
,
,
,
Bo
,
.
.
,
,
-26'5 -4 1 ,6 -14.8 -47'0 - 2·2 -49'2 +10·6 -48,° +22'7 -43'5 +33'2 -36'1
14'2 47.2
23'2
43. 2
26'0 42'0
1'5
II'3 47·8
33.6 35'7
49'2
13·6 47'4
25'4 42 '3
u'9 47'7 23. 8 42 '9
34'1 35'3
°'9 49'2
24,8 42'7
13.0 47·6 - 0·2 49. 2
24'4 4 2.6
34'5 ,34.8
12'5 47'5
24'3 43'0
12'3 47'7 + 0'4 49. 2
13'1 47'3 24'9 42 '2
35'0 34'4
-23'7 -43'3 -I1'7 -47'9 + 1·1 -49'2 +13'7 -47,1 +25'5 -4 1 '9 +35'4 -33'9
II·I
48'0
23'2 43.6
1'7 49'2
14'4 46'9 26'0 41.6
35'9 33'4
22,6 43'9
10'5 48'2
2'4 49.1 15'0 46'7 26·6 41'2
36'3 33'°
22-0 44,2
2']-1 40'9
9,8 48'3
3'0 49. 1 ,15.6 46'5
36 •8 32 '5
2'].6 40 -5
16'2 46'3
37'2 32•0
3.6 49'0
21'4 44'5
9'2 48'4
-20·8 -44'7 - 8·6 -48'5
7'9 48,6
20'3 45'0
19'7 45'3
7'3 48'7
6·6 48.8
19. 1 45'S
6,0 48'9
18'5 45.8
+ 4'3 -49'0 +16·8 -46'1 +28-2 -40,2 +37·6 -3 1 '5
4'9
5.6
6'2
6·8
48'9
48.8
48.8
48'7
17'4
18'0
18·6
19'2
45'9
45'7
45'4
45'2
28'7
29'2
29'7
30'2
39.8
39'4
39'0
38.6
38•0
38 '4
38.8
39'2
31'0
3°·6
3°,1
29'5
-17'9 -46,° - 5'4 -49'0 ,+ 7'S -48.6 +19.8 -44'9 +3°-7 -38 '2 +39.6 -29- 0
8,1 48'5
17'3 46.2
20'4 44·6
31 '2 37·8
39'9 28'5
4'7 49'0
4. 1 49'1
40'3 28,0
16'7 46'4
20'9 44'4 31 -7 37'4
8'7 48'3
16'1 46.6
21'5 44.1
32 •2
37- 0
40'7 27-S
9'4 48 .2
3'4 49'1
22·1
43.8 32'7 36.6
2·8 49'1
10·0 48.1
15'4 46.8
41
26'9
-14.8 -47'0 - 2·2 -49'2 +10·6 -48,° +22-7 -43'5 +33'2 -36 '1 +4 1 '4 -26'4
'°
Lat.
o
o
10
20
30
40
45
50
$5
60
62
64
66
Month
Jan.
-'3
-'3
-·2
-·2
,-·1
-·1
·0
+·1
+,2
+·2
+·2
+'3
'0
-'1
-'1
-·2
-'2
-'3
-'4
-'3
-'3
-'4
-'4
-'3
-·2
-·2
-·1
-'4
-'3
-'3
-'1
-'3
-'3
-'2
-'2
-·2
-·2
-·2
-'1
-·1
-I
'0
-·1
'0
-·1
-·1
-'1
·0
-·1
,0
·0
·0
'0
oQ
+·1
·0
·0
·0
'0
+·1
+'1
-'1
-'1
+'2
+·2
+'3
+'4
+·1
+.J
-·1
-·1
·0
·0
'0
+·1
+'2
+'2
+'3
+'4
-·1
-·1
B2
+·1
+-2
+'1
+'2
+'2
+'3, +'2
+'3 +'2
b2
B2
b2
'0
'0
'0
-'4
-'3
-'2
-'2
-'3
-'2
-·1
-·1
-'1
-·1
-·1
·0
·0
,0
'0
+.J
,0
+·1
-'4
-'4
-'3
-'2
-'1
-·1
+'2
+'2
+'3
+'3
+'2
+'2
+'3
+'4
B2
hI
bl
+2
. +-2
+'3
-·2
-·2
-'3
-'1
-·2
--I
. -·1
·0
-·1
-'3
-·1
-'3
·0
+-1
+·1
'0
Feb.
Mar.
+·1
-·1
·0
·0
,0
'0
-0
'0
·0
-.J
'0
'0
Apr.
JuJy
Aug.
-'4
-'5
-·1
'-'5
-'5
-'4
+·1
+,2,
+'2
+.J
-.J
'0
+·1
+·1
+·1
-'1
-'2
June
·0
-·1
-'2
-'3
-'5
-'S
-·S
+,2
+·2
+'3
+'2
-'3
-'5
-'4
May
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
·0
-·1
-·1
-'3
-'3
·0
-·1
-'3
-'4
-'3
-'4
-'3
-'3
-'4
-'5
-·6
-'4
-'3
-·6
+'2
+'4
-·2
-'2
-·6
'0
-·6
-'5
+'2
+'4
+'5
-'4
'0
-·1
'0
-·2
-'3
-'5
-·6
-·6
-'4
-'4
-'3
--I
-·2
-'4
-'5
-·6
-'4
-·1
-'2
-'3
-.6 -·2
--6
-·1
-·6 +-1
-·6
-'5
Latitude = Corrected observed altitude of Polaris + a. + a, + 82
+'1
+·2
-·1
Azimuth of Polaris = (bo + b l + b2 l sec (latitude)
Figure 5-6
[SALS, 1981]
-0
·0
-·1
-'3
·0
-·2
-'4
-'S
-'S
-'3
--S
-'4
-·6
-·s
-'2
6.
VARIATIONS IN CELESTIAL COORDINATES
The mathematical models for the determination of astronomic
latitude, longitude, and azimuth require the use of a celestial bodies
apparent (true) coordinates for the epoch of observation.
The coordinates
(a,S) of the stars and the sun (the most often observed celestial bodies
for surveying purposes) are given in star catalogues, ephemerides, and
almanacs for certain predicted epochs that do not (except in exceptional
circumstances) coincide with the epoch of observation.
requirements stated previously, the coordinates
(a,~)
To fulfill the
must be updated.
As
was indicated in Chapter 5, the updating procedure has been made very
simple for users of annual publications such as
,".,,~.j
SALS, and APFS.
The
question is, how are the coordinates in the annual publications derived,
and how should one proceed when using one of the fundamental star
catalogues (eg. FK4).
The aim of this chapter is to answer this
question.
In previous discussions in these notes, coordinates in the Right
Ascension system have been considered constant with respect to time, and
in the Hour Angle and Horizon systems, changes occurred only as a result
of earth rotation.
In this chapter, we consider the following motions in
the context of the Right Ascension system:
(i)
precession and nutation:
motions of the coordinate system
relative to the stars;
(ii)
proper motion: relative motion of the stars with respect to
each other;
(iii)
refraction, aberation, parallax: apparent displacement of
stars due to physical phenomena;
117
118
(iv)
polar motion:
motion of the coordinate system with respect to the
solid earth.
Except for polar motion, the above factors are discussed in terms
of their effects on a and 0 of a celestial body.
in the Right Ascension coordinate system.
This leads to variations
The definition of the variations
are given below and Figure 6-1 outlines their interrelationships.
(i)
Mean Place: heliocentric, referred to some specified mean
equator and equinox.
(ii)
True Place: heliocentric, referred to the true equator and
equinox of date when the celestial body is actually observed.
(iii)
Apparent Place: geocentric, referred to the true equator and
equinox of date when the celestial body is actually observed.
(iv)
Observed Place: topocentric, as determined by means of direct
readings on some instrument corrected for systematic
instrumental errors (e.g. dislevellment, collimation).
The definitions are amplified in context in the following sections.
6.1
Precession, Nutation, and Proper Motion
The resultant of the attractive forces of the sun, moon, and
other planets on our non-symmetrical, non-homogeneous earth, causes a
moment which tries to rotate the equatorial plane into the ecliptic
plane.
We view this as the motion, of the earth's axis of rotation about
the ecliptic pole.
This motion is referred to as precession.
The
predominant effect of luni-solar precession is a westerly motion of the
equinox along the equator of
50~3
per year.
approximately 26000 years, and its
is approximately 23~5.
The period of the motion is
amplitude (obliquity of the ecliptic)
Superimposed on this planetary precession, which
119
MEAN @ To .
)
I
PROPER MOTION
PRECESSION
(
I
MEAN @ T
I
NUTATION
I
@ T
TRUE
I
ANNUAL 'ABERATION
ANNUAL
PARALLAX
I
APPARENT @ T
I
DIURNAL ABERATION
GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX
REFRACTION
J
OBSERVED @ T
Figure 6,-1
Variations of the Right Ascension
Syste~
120
causes a westerly motion of the equinox of
l2~5
per century, and a change
in the obliquity of the ecliptic of 47" per century.
General precession is
then the sum of luni-so1ar and planetary precession.
Within the long period precession is the shorter period
astronomic nutation.
The latter is the result of the earth's motion about
the sun, the moon about the earth, and the moon's orbit not lying in the
ecliptic plane.
The period of this motion is about 19 years, with an
ampli tude of 9".
General precession, with astronomic nutation superimposed, is
shown in Figure 6-2.
Each star appears to have a small motion of its own, designated
as its proper motion.
This motion is the resultant of the actual motion
of the star in space and of
its. apparent motion due to the changing
direction arising from the motion of the sun.
In Chapter 5, it was stated that certain epochs T have been
o
chosen as standard epochs to which tabulated mean celestial coordinates
(a ,0 ) of celestial bodies refer.
o
0
The mean celestial system is completely
defined by:
a heliocentric origin,
a primary (Z) pole that is precessing (not nutating), and is
called the mean celestial pole,
a primary axis (X) that is precessing (not nutating), following the
motion of the mean vernal equinox,
a Y-axis that makes the system right-handed.
Now, to define a set of coordinates (a,c) for an epoch T, we must update
from T to T, since for every epoch T, a different mean celestial system
o
121
GENERAL PRECESSION
=NUTATION . AT
NT
o
T
To
o PATH OF TRUE
CELESTIAL POLE
P = PRECESSION
I\J T = NUTATION
AT T
PATH OF MEAN
CELESTIAL POLE
Figure 6-2
Motion of the Celestial Pole
122
is defined.
The relationship between mean celestial systems is defined in
terms of precessional elements
(~
o
,e,
z) (Figure 6-3) and proper motion
a d
elements (po,po).
Expressions for the precessional elements were derived by Simon
Newcomb around 1900, and are [e.g. Mueller, 1969]
z;
o
z
=
=
(2304~1250
+ 1~396t ) t + 0~302t2 + 0~018t3
o
z; + 0~179lt2 + 0~100lt3
(6-2)
o
e = (2004~1682
- 0~853t ) t - 0~1426t2 - 0~042t3
o
in which the initial epoch is T = 1900.0 + t
o
T
=
1900.0 + t
o
+ t, in which t
(6-1)
0
0
(6-3)
, and the final epoch
and t are measured in tropical centuries.
The precessional elements L~o' z,e) are tabulated fo;r,tp.~;b~gi1'lp.i~go;f.the
current year in AA.
From Figure 6-3, it can be seen that
x
y
X
=
(6-4)
y
z
z
'Me
T
o
or, setting
(6-5)
then
x
x
y
z
=P
(6-6)
y
z
Proper motion of a star is accounted for in the mean right
ascension system, and its effects on (a ,0 ) are part of the update
o
0
from a mean place at To to a mean place at T.
here without proof) is
The transformation (given
123
NCP (T)
~----.~YMCT
Figure 6-3
Mean Celestial Coordinate
Syste~s
124
x
=
y
(6-7)
in which t
=T
- T
and dV are the annual tangential component of
dt
proper motion and rate of change of that component, and W is the direction
o
(in years),
~
o
(azimuth) of proper motion at T.
o
a
Catalogue such as the FK4 are
~o
The quantities tabulated in a Fundamental
0
' Vo ' the annual components of proper
motion in right ascension and declination, and their rates of change per
a
one hundred years, d Vo / dt,
cS
d~o/dt.
The.~nual~, d~/dt,
and Wo are then
given by
d a
~o
dV/dt
dt - +
=
,
a
( ~o (080 0 ) = cos -1
V
Setting
1
2
(6-8)
(6-7) is rewritten as
x
y
X
=M
(6-9)
y
z
MCT
o
Now, combining (6-6) and (6-9), the complete update from a mean place at T
o
to a mean place at T is given by
125'
x
x
= PM
Y
z
(6-10)
Y
Z
The effects of astronomic nutation, which must be accounted for
to update from the mean celestial system at T to the true celestial system
at T (Figure 6-1), are expressed as nutation in longitude
nutation in the obliquity (6E).
Expressions for
6~
(6~)
and
and 6E have been
developed, and for our purposes, values are tabulated (e.g. AA).
The
true celestial system at T to which (ao'oo) are updated is defined by:
a heliocentric origin,
- a primary pole (Z) that is the true celestial pole following the
precessing and nutating axis of rotation,
- a primary axis
~)
that is the true precessing and nutating
vernal equinox,
- a Y-axis that makes the system right-handed.
The true and mean celestial systems are shown in Figure 6-4,
and from this, we can deduce the transformation
x
x
=
Y
Z TC
T
Z
Y
(6-11)
.Designating
N
=
~(-E-6E)R3(-6~)R1(E)
,
(6-12)
ZTC
A
NCP\JMEAN) "NCP (TRUE)
~
~c
YTC
ECLIPTIC
PLANE
Figure 6-4
True and Uean Celestial Coordinate Systems
......
N
0\
127
(6-11) is written
x
x
Y
=
N
Z
Combining
(6-13)
Y
Z
(6~6),
(6~9),
and
(6~11),
the update from mean celestial at T
o
to true celestial at T is given in one expression, namely
x
x
Y
= NPM
Z
Z
6.2
Y
Annual Aberration and Parallax
The apparent place celestial system is the one in which the astronomic
coordinates (41, h) are expressed, thus it is in this system that the
mathematical models (relating observables, known and unknown quantities) are
formulated.
This requires that the
(no'oo) of a celestial body be updated to
the apparent place system, defined as having:
-
an origin coincident with the earth's centre of gravity,
~
a primary pole (Z) coincident with the earth's instantaneous
rotation axis,
~
a primary axis (X) coincident with the instantaneous vernal equinox,
a Y-axis that makes the system right-handed.
Evidently, the main change is a shift in origin.
This gives rise to two
physical effects (i) annual parallax due to the shift in origin, and (ii)
annual aberration due to the revolution of the new origin about the
heliocentre.
128
Aberration is the apparent displacement of a celestial body caused
by the finite velocity of light propagation combined with the relative
motion of the observer and the body.
The aberration we are concerned with
here is a subset of planetary aberration, namely annual aberration.
general law of aberration depicted in Figure
6~5,
From the
and our knowledge of the
earth's motion about the he1iocentre, the changes in coordinates due to
annual aberration CflaA,M A) are given by Ie.g. Mueller, 1969]
=-
K
flo A = ....
K
fla
In
A
(6~l5)
and
seco
(cosa
cosA
cose
s
+ sina
sin>..
. s ),
(6-15)
(cosh
. s cose [tane coso· ..... s·ina sin·h
. s ).
(6~16),
A is the ecliptic longitude of the sun, a,o are in
s
the true celestial system at T, and
K
is the constant of aberration for the
earth's orbit (assumed circular for our purposes), given numerically as
~
=
20~4958.
In matrix form, the change in the position vector is given by
...-D
c
A=
C
(6-16)
tans
in which C and D are referred to as the aberrational (Besselian) 'day numbers
(Note:
C
=
-K
cose cos>..
s
J
D
= -K
sinA
s
).
These quantities are tabulated, for
example in M:
Parallactic displacement is defined as the angle between the
directions of a celestial Object as seen from an observer and from some
standard point of reference.
Annual (Stellar) Parallax
occurs due to the
separation of the earth and sun, and is the difference between a geocentric
direction and a heliocentric direction to a celestial body (Figure 6-6).
Expressed as changes to (a,o) we have
129
~
____________=A~5----------_.51
~
O~
S-
~
~
i'Q'
9'
~l<;
R
9."
r.:>~
~
~
$.
g,(,j
o
~
S: POSITION OF STAR AT LIGHT EMISSION
0: POSITION OF OBSERVER AT LIGHT
DETECTION
DIREC~ION OF OBSERVER MOTION
VI VELOCITY OF OBSERVER MOTION
S5: PARALLEL TO 00' SUCH THAT
5SI _ V_
SO-C- K
od:
WHERE' C VELOCITY OF LIGHT
IN A VACUUM, AND K CONSTANT
OF ABERRATION
=
----------~-----------·I
o
Figure 6-5
Aberration
130
I
I
\
\
I
\
,
I
" "'" -- ...... '"
9 : HELIOCENTRIC DIRECTION
9' : GEOCENTRIC DIRECTION
:II : ANNUAL (STELLAR) PARALLAX
Figure 6-6
Annual (Stellar) Parallax
131
flo. p
=
flo
= II
p
II
(6",,17)
{COSo. COSE sin},
.
s ..... sino. cos). s ) seco
(coso sinE sinA.
.. coso. sino COSA.
s
s
.. sino. sino COSE sinA. ), (6-18)
s
in which the new quantity II is the annual (stellar) p!irallax.
quantity - for the nearest star it is
effects of aberration, 0.,0 in {6-17}
system at T.
0~76.
II is a small
As for the computation of the
and (6-18) are in the true celestial
Using the Besselian Day Numbers C and D, the changes in the
position vector are given by
R=
-c
seCE
-D
COSE
-D
sinE
(II/K)
To update (0.,0) from the True Celestial system at T to the Apparent Celestial
system at T, we write the expression
x
x
y
=
A
+
R
+
z
y
(6-20)
z
Finally, the complete update from Mean Celestial system at T to Apparent
o
Celestial at T is given by the expression
x
y
z
x
=A
+
R
+ NPM
A.P· T
(6-21)
y
z
MCT
o
This entire process is summarised in Figure 6-7, and all symbols used in
Figure 6-7 are explained in Table 6-1.
132
CATALOGUED
~He1iocentric)
ao'tS o '
(To)
costS cosa
o
0
costS sina
o
0
sintS o
.' -
=
CATALOGUED
XO' Yo' Z0
I
PROPER MOTION -,
M = R3
(-ao)R2(tSo-90)R3(~o)R2(~t+1/2~~t2)
R3 (-~o)R2(90-tSo)R3(ao)
PRECESSION
NUTATION
I
l
ANNUAL ABERRATIONl
ANNUAL PARALLAXt
A
=
ntanE]
[ CseCE ]~/k
R = - Dcose:
Dsine:
X
APPARENT
(X, Y, Z)
APPARENT
a'
a',
tS~
=R
Y
Z
(Geocentric)
X
+ A + NPM
Y
0
0
Zo
=
tan
-1
y/x
= sin- 1 Z = tan- 1 z/(x2+y2)1/2
(T)
FIGURE 6-7
POSITION UPDATING M.e.
To
to A.P. T
133
Description of Terms
Symbol
o0 )
(a ,
0
Description
Where
Obtained
Right ascension and
declination of the star
at epoch T
From Fundamental
Catalogue
Direction numbers of
star at T
From (a , 0
0
(X , Y ,Z )
000
0
)
0
0
II
Annual Tangential component of proper motion
of star at T •
0
Catalogue
Rate of change of proper
motion
t
Time interval in years
t=T-T
ljJo
Direction (azimuth) of
proper motion at T
From Fundamental
Catalogue
Precessional Elements
From Astronomical
z, e)
(6ljJ, 6£)
£
(C,D)
II
K
(X,Y, Z)
!
Fundamental
dll
dt
0
(1;;0'
From
"1 '1
(a,o )
Nutational Elements
Obliquity of the ecliptic
Aberrational Day Numbers
0
Ephemeris
From Astronomical
Ephemeris
Stellar Parallax of
Star
From Fundamental
Catalogue
Constant of annual
Aberration
K=20".4958
Direction numbers of
the star at epoch T
Computed from all the
above parameters
Right ascension and declination of the star
at epoch T, referred to
the Apparent (Geocentric) System.
TABLE 6-1
Computed from
(X,Y,Z) at time T
134
6.3
Diurnal Aberration, Geocentric Parallax, and Astronomic Refraction.
At the conclusion of the previous section (6.2), we had
expressed in the Apparent Place system at T.
(a,~)
At time T, an observer observes
a celestial body relative to the Observed Place system.
The latter is defined
by
an origin defined by the observers position,
a primary pole (Z) parallel to the true instantaneous celestial
pole,
a primary axis (X) parallel to the true vernal equinox,
a Y-axis that makes the system right-handed.
Evidently, the Observed Place is simply a translated Apparent Place system.
Our task now is to move from the Observed Place to the Apparent Place where
our mathematical models for position determination are formulated.
This
requires corrections for (i) diurnal aberration, (ii) geocentric parallax,
and (iii) astronomic refraction.
Diurnal aberration
is the displacement of the direction to a
celestial body due to the rotation of the earth.
The diurnal constant of
aberration, k, is expressed as a function of the earth's rotation (00 ), the
e
geocentric latitude of an observer
geocentric position vector (p).
k
= 0.320
p cos~
= 0.0213
(~),
and the length of the observer's
This yields [e.g. Mueller, 1969]
p cos~
(6-22)
The changes in a celestial objects coordinates are given by
6aD
= kS
1
cosh sec6 ,
(6-23)
~6D
= k"
sinh sin6 l •
(6-24)
135
The convention adopted here for signs is
~aD
~<5D
=
=
a AP
<5 AP
a Op ,
. T
<5 0P •
T
T
T
(6-25)
(6-26)
This same convention applies to the corrections for geocentric parallax and
astronomic refraction that are treated next.
Geocentric parallax is the difference between the observed
topocentric direction and the required geocentric direction (Figure 6-8).
The changes, expressed in terms of the celestial objects right ascension and
declination are
~aG
=-
(6-27)
n sinh cosecz cos~ sec<5'
n
(sin~
cosecz sec<5' - tan <5 , cotz).
(6-28)
It should be noted that for celestial bodies other than the sun,
~<5G
~aG'
are so small as to be negligible.
Astronomic refraction is the apparent displacement of a celestial object
lying outside our atmosphere that results from light rays being bent in passing
through the atmosphere.
In general, the light rays bend downward, thus a
celestial object appears at a higher altitude than is really true
(Figure 6-9).
The astronomic refraction angle is defined by
~z
R
= z - z'
(6-29)
in whichz' is the observed zenith distance, z is the corrected zenith distance.
The effects on a,<5 are
~a
R
~<5R
~zR
=-
~z
=-
~zR
R
sinh cosec z I
(sin~
cosec
Zl
cos~
sec<5'
sec<5 1
-
tan<5 1 cot
(6-30)
Zl).
(6-31)
values are usually tabulated for some standard temperature and pressure
(usually 760mm Hg, T
= 10°C,
relative humidity 60%) •
Corrections to those
values are obtained through determinations of temperature, pressure, and
136
STAR
1T: GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX
Z· : MEASURED DIRECTION
Z : GEOCENTRIC DIRECTION
GEOCENTRE
Figure 6-8
Geocentric Parallax
137
-- -- .......
""'"-
......
"'"
"
"
u
1/
\
DIRECTION
\
\
\
\
\
,
\
Figure 6-9
Astronomic Refraction
..
to S
to S
138
relative humidity at the time of observation (T)o
Finally, we can write the expressions for the right-ascension
and declination of a celestial body as
a
AoPo T
0AoPo
T
= ~AoPo T
-
(~aD
+
~ap
+ ~~
= 0'A.P·
-
(~OD
+
~Op
+
in which a'
~
T
and 0'
~
equation (6-21).
~OR)
(6-32)
,
(6-33)
refer to the Apparent Place coordinates obtained from
This process is summarized in Figure 6-10.
In closing this section, the reader should note the following.
It
is common practice in lower-order astronomical position and azimuth
determinations to correct the observed direction z' for both geocentric
parallax and refraction rather than use (6-32) and (6-33) above.
Thus, in
our math models we use
z
~zp,
=
z' -
(~z
R
+
~z
P
(6-34)
)
the correction to a zenith distance due ..to geocentric parallax,
is tabulated (e.g. SALS).
Note that the effects of diurnal aberration are
neglected.
6.4
Polar Motion
The final problem to be solved is the transformation of astronomically
determined positional coordinates
(~,A)
from the Apparent Place celestial
system to the Average Terrestrial coordinate system.
This involves two
steps: (i) transformation of a AP ' 0AP (Apparent Place) to Instantaneous
Terrestrial and (ii) transformation of WIT' AIT (Instantaneous Terrestrial) to
Average Terrestrial.
In the first step, we are moving from a non-rotating system to a
coordinate system that is rotating with the
~arth.
The Instantaneous
139
APPARENT
PLACE
(GEOCENTRIC)
I
~ =rep-(A~
AP
6
AP
+Arx. +A<X)
AGO
R
=61 -(~6 +A6 +AS )
AP
"
DIURNAL
ABERRATION
AQh,llSD
~
GEOCENTRIC
PARALLAX
A~,A6G
~
ASTRONOMIC
REFRACTION
A~,A6R
~
OBSERVED
PLACE
(TOPOCENTRIC)
Figure 6-10
Observed to Apparent Place .
G
0
R
140
Terrestrial (IT) system is defined by
-a geocentric origin,
-a primary pole (Z) that coincides with the instantaneous terrestrial
pole,
-a primary axis (X) that is the intersection of the Greenwich Mean
Astronomic Meridian and Instantaneous equatorial planes,
-a Y-axis that makes the system right-handed.
Comparing the definitions of the A.P. and I.T. systems, we see that
the only difference is in the location of the primary axis, and futhermore,
that XIT is in motion.
Recalling the definition of sidereal time, we see
that the A.P. and I.T. systems are related through GAST (Figure 6-11), namely
X
Y
z
X
= R3 (GAST)
(6-35)
Y
Z
IT
AP
in which
cos~
X
=
Y
Z
APT
coscx
X
coso sino;
Y
sino
APT
z
cos<S coso.
=
coso sino.
, (6.36)
sino
or, using a spherical approximation of the earth
X
Y
z IT
=
cos~
cosh
cos~
sinh
sin~
I.T.
The reader should note that this transformation is usually
(6-35)
carried out in an implicit fashion within the mathematical models for
position and azimuth determination rather than explicitly as is given here
(see, for example, Chapters 8 and 9).
The results that one obtains are then
Figure 6-11
Transformation of Apparent Place
To Instantaneous Terrestrial
System
142
~,h,A,
all expressed in an Instantaneous Terrestrial coordinate system.
The
final step is to refer these quantities to the Average Terrestrial coordinate
system.
The direction of the earth's instantaneous rotation axis is moving
with respect to the earth's surface.
The motion, called polar motion, is counter-
c1ockWis-e~ 'quas±--frt'egi:J.lar, ha~".:m aml'litude ,of'about· 5m',and' a period
approximately 430 m.s.d.
The motion is expressed in
te~
of
of the
position of the instantaneous rotation axis with respect to a reference point
The point used is the mean terrestrial pole for
fixed on the earth's crust.
the interval 1900-1905, and is called the conventional International Origin
(C.I.O.).
The Average Terrestrial (AT) coordinate system is the one which we
would like to refer astronomic positions
(~,h).
This system differs in
definition from the I.T. system only in the definition of the primary pole the primary A.T. pole is the C.I.O.
Referring to figure 6-12, we can easily
see that
x
x
= R_2
y
z
(-x) R
p
1
(-y)
y
P
z
AT
(6-37)
LT.
Using a spherical approximation for the earth which is adequate for this
transformation, one obtains [Mueller, 1969]
cos~
cosh
cos~
sinh
sin~
= R_{-x
)
-~
P
A.T.
R (-y )
1
P
cos~
cosh
cos~
sinh
sin~
(6-38)
I.T.
143
y
_0-----.--------... CIO
y _ _- - - - - - - - -.. CIO
I
. II
xp I
I
I
I
~
,/'
... -----------Yp
INSTANTANEOUS
TERRESTRIAL
POLE
x
TRANSFORMATION FROM INSTANTANEOUS ·TO AVERAGE
TERRESTRIAL SYSTEM.
FIGURE 6-12
144
Specifically, one obtains after some manipulations, the two equations
[Mueller, 1969]
~~
= ~AT
- ~IT
= yp
~A
= AAT
- AIT
= -(xp
(6-39)
sinAIT - xp cosA IT
sinAIT + yp cosAIT )
tan~IT
(6-40)
The effect of polar motion on the astronomic azimuth is expressed as
[Mueller, 1969]
(6-41)
The complete process of position updating, and the relationship
with all celestial coordinate systems is depicted in Figure 6-13.
The
relationships amongst all of the coordinate systems used in geodesy, with
celestial systems in perspective, is given in Figure 6-14.
Ecliptic
Hour'Angle
Right Ascension
Horizon
"
Mean Celestial"
@To
Mean Celestial
@T
.
True Celestial
@T
CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND POSITION UPDATING
[Krakiwsky and Wells, 1971]
FIGURE 6-13
Apparent
@T
Observed
@T
I-'
-I::'-
VI
TERRESTRIAL
SYSTEMS
CELESTIAL
SYSTEMS
......
.~
0'\
DIURNAL
ABERRATION
GEOCENTRIC
PARALLAX
REFRACTION
-
EULER
ANGLES
CU, i, Sl,
i
ORBITAL"
SYSTEI\~,
HELIOCENTRIC
GEOCENTRIC
I
ITOPOCENTRIC
COORDINATE SYSTEMS USED IN GEODESY
FiBure 6-1L..
7.
DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH
In Chapter 1, the astronomic azimuth was defined as the angle
between the astronomic meridian plane of a point i and the astronomic normal
plane of i through another point j.
In Chapter 2 (Section 2.2.1), this
angle was defined with respect to the Horizon celestial coordinate system
in which the point j was a celestial object.
Obviously, to determine the
astronomic azimuth of a line ij on the earth, we must (i) take sufficient
observations to determine the azimuth to a celestial body at an instant of
time T, and (ii) measure the horizontal angle between the star and the
terrestrial reference object (R.O.).
In these notes, two approaches.to astronomic azimuth determination
are studied: (i) the hour angle method, in which observations of Polaris
(a Ursae Minoris) at any hour angle is treated as a special case, and
(ii) the altitude method, in which observation of the sun is treated as a
special case.
Several alternative azimuth determination methods are treated
extensively in Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
The instruments·used for azimuth determination are a geodetic
theodolite, a chronometer (e.g. stop watch), a HF radio receiver, a
thermometer and a barometer.
To obtain optimum accuracy in horizontal
direction measurements, a striding level should be used to measure the
inclination of the horizontal axis.
Finally, the reader should note that the astronomic azimuth
determination procedures described here yield azimuths that are classified
as being second or lower order.
This means that the internal standard
deviation of several determinations of the astronomic azimuth would be, at
best,
O~5
to
1~5
[e.g. Mueller, 1969].
147
Most often, using a 1" theodolite
148
with a striding 1eve1attachment, the standard deviation of the astronomic
azimuth of.aterrestrial line would be of the order of 5" to 10" [e.g.
Robbins, 1976].
7.1
Azimuth by Star Hour Angles
From the transformation of Hour Angle celestial coordinates
(h,o) to Horizon celestial coordinates (A,a), we have the equation (2-20)
tan A
sinh.
=
sin~
(7-1)
cosh - tano
cos~
To solve this equation for A, we must know the latitude
observation.
~
of the place of
The declination of the observed star, 0, can be obtained from
a star catalogue, ephemeris, or almanac (e.g. FK4, ~Mr SALS) and updated
to the epoch of observation T.
The hour angle of a star, h, can not be
observed, but it can be determined if time is observed at the instant the
star crosses the vertical wire of the observer's telescope.
observes zone time (ZT), then the hour angle
Assuming one
is given by (combining
equations (2-30), (3-11), (3-3), (3-13), (3-18»
h
= ZT
+ AZ + (a
m
h
- 12 ) + Eq.E. + A -
a,
(7-2)
in which ZT is observed, AZ and A are assumed known, a,nd
are cata10guedin AA.
. (or
.0.,
.Eq. E and (~~ .-12 h )
m
\(~m~12h:+_Eq·.E)iS ca.ta1ogued in SALS), and must
be updated to the epoch of observation T.
The minimization of the effects of systematic
for any azimuth determination.
errors are important
This can be done, in part, through the
selection of certain stars for an observing program.
Assuming that the
sources of systematic errors in (7-1) occur in the knowledge of latitude
and the determination of the hour angle, we can proceed as follows.
149
Differentiation of (7-1) yields.
dA
= sinA cotz
d~
+
cos~
(tan~
(7-3)
- cosA cotz)dh.
Examination of (7-3) yields the following:
when A
(i)
when
(ii)
= 0 ° or
tan~
180°, the effects of
= cosA
d~ are~9liminated,
cotz, the effects of dh are "eliminated.
Thus, if a star is observed at transit (culmination), the effects of
minimized, while if
a star
d~
are
is observed at elongation (parallactic angle
°
p = 90 ), the effects of dh are minimized.
Of course, it is not possible
to satisfy both conditions simultaneously; however, the effects will be
elliminated if two stars are observed such that
sinAl cotz1"
=-sinA2
(7-4)
cotz 2
- (COSAl cotz l + COSA2 cotz 2 )
2tan~
=0
(7-5)
As a general rule, then, the determination of astronomic azimuth using the
hour angle method must use a series of star pairs that fulfill conditions
(7-4) and (7-5).
This procedure is discussed in detail in, for example,
Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
A special case can be easily made for cicumpolar stars, the most
well-known of which in the northern hemisphere is Polaris (a. Ursae'Minoris ).
When ~ > 15° Polaris is easily visible and directions to it are not affected
unduly by atmospheric refraction.
eliminated.
cos~
= 0°,
the error d~ is
Furthermore, since in (7-3), the term [Robbins, 1976]
(tan~
then when ~
Since A
- cosA coti)
= 90°
I
= cos~
cosz cosp,
the effects of dh are elliminated.
(7-6)
Then Polaris can be
observed at any hour angle for the determination of astronomic azimuth by
the hour angle method.
150
A suggested observing sequence for Polaris is as follows
[Mueller, 1969]:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Direct on R.O., record H.C.R.,
Direct on Polaris, record H.C.R. and T,
Repeat (ii),
Repeat
(i)~
,
Reverse telescope and repeat (i) through (iv).
The above observing sequence constitutes one azimuth determination;
eight sets are suggested.
Note that if a striding level is 'used, readings
of both ends of the level (e.g. e and w for direct, e " and
Wi
should be made and recorded after the paintings on the star.
for reverse)
An azimuth
correction, for each observed set,is then given by [Mueller, 1969]
I:J.A"
=
d"
( (w +
4
Wi)
-
(e + e ' ) ) cotz
(7-7)
in which d is the value in arc-seconds of each division of the striding
level.
Briefly, the computation of astronomic azimuth proceeds as
follows:
(i)
for each of the mean direct and reverse zone time (ZT) readings
of each set on Polaris, compute the hour angle (h) using (7-2),
(ii)
using (7-1), compute the astronomic azimuth A of Polaris for
each of the mean direct and reverse readings of each set,
(iii)
using the mean direct and mean reverse H.C.R.'s of each set on
Polaris and the R.O., compute the astronomic azimuth of the
terrestrial line,
(iv)
the mean of all computed azimuths (two for each observing sequence,
eight sets of observations) is the azimuth of the terrestrial line,
151
(v)
computation.of the standard deviation of a single azimuth
determination and of the mean azimuth completes the computations.
computations may be shortened somewhat by (i) using the mean
readings direct and reverse for each set of observed times and H.C.R.'s
(e.g. only 8 azimuth determinations) or (ii) using the mean of all time and
H.C.R.'S, make one azimuth determination.
If either of these approaches
are used, an azimuth correction due to the non-linearity of the star's
path is required.
This correction (6A ) is termed a second order
c
curvature correction [Mueller, 1969].
A"
c
It is given by the expression
n
=
I
m.
(7-8)
~
i=l
in which n is the number of observations that have been meaned (e.g. 2
for each observing sequence (direct and reverse), 16 for the total set of
The term CA is given by
observations (8 direct, 8 reverse».
=
2
2
cos h - cos, A
tanA
(7-9)
2
. 2h
cos A
s~n
in which the azimuth A is the azimuth of the star (Polaris) computed
without the correction.
The term m. is given as
~
2
mi
= ~"[i
"[i
=
sin 2"
(7-10)
,
where
(T. - T )
~
0
and
T
0
=
Tl + T2 +
n
,
(7-11)
....
+ Tn
(7-12)
If, when observing Polaris, the direct and reverse readings are
made within 2m to 3m , the curvature correction ~A
c
will be negligible and
152
Instruments: K ern DKM3-A
theodolite (No. 82514);
Hamiltonsidereal chronometer (No. 2EI2304);
Favag chronograph with
manual key; Zenith
transoceanic radio.
Azimuth Mark: West Stadium
Observer: A. Gonzalez-Fletcher
Computer: A. Gonzalez-Fletcher
Local Date: 3-31-1965
Location: OSU old astro pillar
tit e! 40°00'00"
-51132~0·
Ae!
Star Observed: FK4 No. 907
(a Ursae Minoris
[Polaris])
!"\
1. Level Corrections (Sample)
AA
, J cotz
(e+e)
' = 4'd [
,(w+w)
Determination No.
2
3
0'!347
41.7
43.3
-0'!59
0'!347
41.9
42.8
-0'!31
1
d/4 cot z
w+vI
e+ff
AA
d
0'!347
41.8
43.3
-0'!52
= 1 '!6/division
2. Azimuth Computation (Sample)
tan A == sin h/ (sin
If, cos h - cOs c;l) tan 6)
"
0'
..
Determination No.
I
1 j\Iean chronometer reading
~f direct and reverse point1O"'S
12 Chronometer correction
(computed similar to
Example 8.4)
3 AST
4 a(8.J?parentiJ
.'
,,',~
5 h == AST -
a
6 h (arc)
7 6 (apparent
9 tan
2
91:22:02~35
9~6t;,13~85
101111 "38~ 16
-5c51~25
-5"51!28
9"s0"22~ 57
10b05"46~83
9hI6:11~ 10
3
-5rsl~33
Ih57"53~46
Ih57"53~46
ih57rs3~46
7h18c17~64
7~2"29~11
8"o7=S3~37
109~4'24':60 113°07'16'!65 121°58'20'!55
1.
8 cos h
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
6
sin'cp cos h
cos 9 tan 6
(10) - (11)
Sill h
tan A == (13)/(12)
A (at the average h)
89°06'12'!92
-0.33501582
63.91162817
-0.21534402
48.95914742
-49.17449144
0.94221251
-0.01916059
35S054'08'!33
89°06'12':92
-0.39267890
63.91162817
-0.25240913
48-:95914742
-49.21155655
0.91967535
-0.01868820
35S055 '45'!73
89 006'12'!92
-0.529510321
63.91162812
-0.3403626;
48.95914742
-49.299510091'
0.84830350
-0.01720714 i
359°00'51'!12!
AZIMUTH BY THE HOUR ANGLE OF POLARIS [Mueller, 1969]
FIGURE 7-1
I
153
16 Time difference between
direct and reversed
~)ointings (21)
17 Curvature correction
(equation (9;17»
18 A (polaris) (15) + (17)
19 Circle (hor~zontal) reading on Polaris
20 Correction for dislevelment (AA)
21 Corrected circle reading
(19) + (20)
22 Circle reading on Mark
23 Angle between Mark and
Polaris (22) - (21)
24 Azimuth of Mark = (18) +
(23) ..
I
=
=
=
7"12.'4
2D44~5
2~6~5
0'15
35So54 'OS ':S
O'!1
35S055 '45':S
0':1
359000'51'!2
25So..zS '48':9
258°27'28':2
258°32'39'!0 !
-O'!5
-0':6
-0':3
25S~5'4S'!4
00~1'13':7
25S~7 '27':6
00°01 '14'!7
258°32'3S'!7
00001'17'!5
101°35'25'!3
101~3'47'!1
101°28 '3S '!8 .
100~9'34'!1
100~9'32'!9
100~9'30'!0
i
3. Final Observed Azimuths from Eight Determinations
Determination No.
Azimuth of Marlt
1
2
-.
3
4
5
6
7
8
Final (mean)
100°29 '34 '!1
32.9
30.0
31.3
32.0
."
30.3
31.6
31.5
100°29'31':71
v
-2'.'39
-1.19
1.71
0.41
-0.29
1.41
0.11
0.21
[v]=-O'!02
Standard deviation of an azimuth det.ermination:
mA
=jrvv]
n-1
= J12.35
8-1
= 1"33
.
Standard deviation of the mean azimuth:
M
m.
..--....
A=rn
1':33
=18
= 0'.'47
Result:
FIGURE 7-1(continued)
vv
5.71
1.42
2.92
0.17
O.OS
1.99
0.01
0.04
[vv]=12.35
154
could therefore be neglected [Robbins, 1976].
An
example of azimuth
determination by the hour angle of Polaris is given in Figure 7-1.
Azimuth by hour angles is used for all orders of astronomic work.
The main advantages of this method are that the observer has only to
observe the star as it coincides with the vertical wire of the telescope
and since no zenith distance measurement is made, astronomic refraction has
no effect.
The main disadvantages are the need for a precise time-keeping
device and a good knowledge of the observer's longitude.
Table 7-1 summerizes, for several situations, the sources of
errors and their magnitudes in the determination of astronomic azimuth by
stars hour angles.
7.2
Azimuth by Star Altitudes
Azimuth by star altitudes yields less accurate results than
azimuth by star hour angles.
The two reasons for this are (i) the star
must be observed as it coincides with both the horizontal and vertical wires
of the telescope, and (ii) the altitude observation is subject to the
effects of astronomic refraction.
The method does have the advantage,
however, that a precise knowledge of the observer's longitude is not
required and an accurate time-keeping device is not needed.
Azimuths
determined by star altitudes are not adequate for work that requires 0A
to be 5" or less.
155
Stars at
Elongation
.. .. ·. ·. ·.
.. .. ·. ·. ·.
a
15
35°
Polaris
4»
Prime Vertical
15°
Lower
Transit
22°.5
15°
60°
75°
03
sec a (vertical wire
on star)
2".4
2".3
2".6
2".7
2".6
04
(m=asurement of
horizontal angle)
2".5
2".5
2".5
2".5
2".5
05
tan a (reading of
plate level)
3".5
2".9
1".3
2".1
1".3
0".0
0" .1
1".5
111.5
0".8
4".9
4".5
4".1
4".5
3".9
0".9
0".7
0".3
0".5
0".3
3".6
3".5
3',' .9
4".0
3".7
aT (time)
~um
06
(plate
·. ·. ·.
level) ••
·.
tan a (reading of
striding level)
Sum ( striding level)
·.
Azimuth by hour angle: random errors in latitude 30°
Stars at
a
15
.. .. ·.
.. . . ·.
Elongation
64°
Polaris
4»
Prime
Vertical
22°.5
75°
Lower Transit
20°
30°
40°
50°
60°
70°
03
sec a(vertical
wire on star)
4".6
4".0
2".7
2".7
2".9 ,
3".3
04
(measurement
of horizontal
angle)
2".5
2".5
2".5
2".5
2".5
2".5
tan a(reading
of plate level)
10".2
8".7
211.1
1".8
211.9
4".2
0".0
0" .1
2".6
2".1
1".7
1" .3
11".5
9".9
5".0
4".6
5" .1
6" .0
2".6
2".2
0".5
0".5
0".7
1".0
5".9
5".2
4".5
3".3
4".2
4".5
05
aT (time
. ..
Sum (Plate level)
06
tan a (reading
of striding
level
Sum (Striding
level)
Azimuth by hour angle: random errors in latitude 60°
Table 7-1 [Robbins, 1976]
156
From a relationship between the Horizon and Hour Angle coordinate
systems (egn. (2-26), rearranged)
=
cosA
sino - cosz sin4'>
(7-13)
sinz cos4'>
or with z
= 90
- a,
cosA
=
sin6 - sina sin4'>
(7-14)
cosa cos4'>
To
solve either (7-13) or (7-14) for A, the latitude 4'> of the observer must
be known.
The declination, 6, of the observed celestial body is obtained
from a catalogue, ephemeris, or almanac and updated to the time of
observation.
The zenith distance (or altitude) is the measured quantity.
The main sources of systematic 'error with this method include
error in latitude (assumed) and error in the reduced altitude due to
uncorrected refraction.
dAsinA
=
Differentiating (7-14) yields
(tana - cosA tan4'»
+
d4'>
(tan4'> - cosA tana) da
(7-15)
The effects of d4'> are zero when
tana
•
wh1ch occurs when h
= cosA
tan4'>
h
= 90 0
0
(7-16)
h
(6) or 270(18).
The effects of da are zero
when
tan4'>
= cosA tana
(7-17)
which occurs when the observed celestial body is at elongation.
To
minimise the effects of systematic errors, two stars are observed such that
al
= a2
Al
=
360 0
(7-18)
'
-
A2
(7-19)
157
Further details on the selection of star pairs observing procedure and the
computation of azimuths, can be found in, for example, Mueller [1969] and
Robbins [1976].
using Polaris, observations should be made at elongation.
Note that no star should have an altitude of less th~ 15° when using this
method, thus for Polaris, ~>lso.
Estimates of achievable accuracy are given
in Table 7-2.
The method of azimuth determination by altitudes is often used in
conjunction with sun Observations.
Using a I" theodolite and the
observation and computation procedures described here,
order of 20".
0A
will be of the
When special solar attachments are used on an instrument, such
as a Roelofs solar prism [Roelofs, 1950], and accuracy (oA) of 5" may be
attained.
A complete azimuth determination via sun observations consists of
two morning and two afternoon determinations.
It is best if
30° ~ a ~ 40°, and it should never be outside the range 20° ~ a < 50°.
Figure 7-1 illustrates, approximately, the optimum observing times.
A
suggested observing procedure for one azimuth determination is as follows
[Robbins, 1976):
(i)
Direct on RO, record H.C.R. and level (plate or striding)
readings,
(ii)
Direct on Sun, record H.C.R. and V.C.R., and time to nearest
m
1
(for methods of observing the sun, see, for example,
Roelofs (1950), record level readings,
(iii)
Reverse on Sun, record H.C.R. and V.C.R., and time to nearest
m
1 , record level readings,
158
h
= 90°
Prime vertical
Stars at
Elongation
· . ·. ·.
·. ·. ·. ·.
40°
25°
35°
51°
58°
17°
0'1 (pointing of horizontal wire
on star)
0"
1".0
1".7
0'2 (measuring of altitude)
0"
1".3
2".3
O'R (determination of refraction)
0"
0".7
1".2
0'3 sec a (pointing of vertical wire)
2".6
3".3
3".7
0'4 (horizontal angle measurement)
2".5
2".5
2".5
0'5 tan a (reading plate level)
4".2
2".3
3".5
5" • 5
5".1
6".5
0'6 tan a (reading striding level)
1".0
0".6
0".9
pum (Striding level)
3".7
4".5
5".5
let
0
·.
~um (Plate level)
·.
Azimuth by altitude: random errors in latitude 30°
Stars at
a
15
Elongation
·. ·. ·. ·.
· . ·. ·. ·.
0'1 (pointing of horizontal wire
on star)
h
= 90°
Prime vertical
64°
35°
35°
75°
41°
30°
0"
0'2 (measuring of altitude)
-+
-+
O'R (determination of refraction)
-+
0'3 sec a (pointing of vertical wire)
-+
0'4 (horizontal angle measurement)
-+ 2".5
-+ 10".3
-+ 2".5
-+ 3".5
+ 11".6
+ 10".2
-+
0'6 tan a (reading striding level)
+ 2".6
-+ 0".9
-+ 0".9
Sum (striding level)
+ 5".8
+ 9".6
-+
0'5 tan a (reading plate level)
Sum (plate level)
·.
0"
-+
4".8
5".2
-++ 6".8
-+
6".2
-
0"
-+
3".2
-+
3".5
4".6
-+
3".7
-+
3".7
Azimuth by altitude: random errors in latitude 60°
Table 7-2 [Robbins, 1976]
+ 2".5
-+ 3".5
10".8
10".3
159
__Yv_~
."..
."..-"¥
. . . . ...... ,
SUN MOVING
TOO FAST
APPROX.
,,0 AM-2 PM
.....
"
"
,,
,
~"
\
I
\
I
REFRACTION ,
TOO GREAT "
, REFRACTION
TOO GREAT
Figure 7-2
Azi~uth by
the Sun's Altitude
160
(iv)
(v)
Reverse on R.O., record H.C.R., record level readings,
Record temperature and pressure.
The computation procedure resulting from the above observations
is:
(i)
Mean Direct and Reverse horizontal readings to the R.O. and to the
Sun,
(ii)
correct the horizontal directions in (i) for horizontal axis
dislevelment using equation (7-7),
(iii)
(iv)
compute the angle Sun to R.O.,
mean direct and reverse zenith distance (or altitude) measurements
to the Sun, then correct the mean for refraction and parallax,
(v)
determine the time of observation in the time system required to
obtain a tabulated value of 15 of the sun,
(vi)
compute the updated value of 0 for the time of observation
(tabulated 0 plus some correction for time),
(vii)
(viii)
using either (7-13) or (7-14), compute the azimuth to the sun,
using the angle determined in (iii),
co~pute
the azimuth to the
R.O.
The following example illustrates the observing and computation
procedures for an azimuth determination via the altitude of the sun.
161
Ex~~ple:
Azimuth via Sun's Altitude (using SALS).
Instrument: A
Date:
May 6, 1977
B
Time:
Central Daylight Time (90 0 W)
R.O.:
Obs. Procedure:
Inst.
Latitude (~): 38° 10' 10"
Sun observed in quadrants.
V.C.R.
H.C.R.
Sight
Time
Remarks
B
0°
00'
02~0
Direct
Sun
157°
54'
56~0
56°
12'
00"
ISh
40m
Temp. 20°C
Reverse
Sun
339°
05'
30~0
57°
10'
00"
ISh
46m
Pres. 1000 mh.
B
180°
DO'
04~0
Note:
No level readings required.
Means:
H.C.R. Sun:
30'
l3~0
B:
DO'
03~0
30'
10~0
H.C.R.
Horiz. Angle: 158
°
V.C.R.
56°
41'
. 00"
.Sketch:
8 (R.O.)
Reduction of Altitude
Mean Altitude (a)
=
S6°
90°
l-1ean Refraction (r )
°
Correcting factor ( f)
41'
00"
=
33°
19'
~O''
l'
24"
= 88"
= 0.95
Refraction == r xf == 88" xO.95
°
Parallax
=
+
Corrected Altitude
=
33°
==
06"
17'
42"
162
computation of Sun's Declination
15h
Observed (Mean) Time
43m
_Olm
Clock Correction
III
OOm
+ 6h
OOm
20h
42 m
16°
39~0
Correction for Daylight Time
Time Zone
U.T.
Sun's 0 at 6 May 18h U.T.
Change in 0 since 18h
(N)
U.T. (2 h 42 m)
Sun's 0 at 6 May 20h
1!9
+
16°
U.T.
40!9
Azimuth Computation
cosA = sin 0 - sin a sin
cos a cos~
cosA = sin(16°
~
40!9) - sin (33 0
cos (380
(7-14)
17'
17'
42") sin (38 0
42") cos (38 0
10'
10'
10")
10")
- 0.52191
= - 0.0794215
0.657391
+
Azimuth of Sun =cos -1A = 360°- 94° 33' 19"
=
265 0
26'
41"
Mean Horiz. Angle
=
158 0
30'
10"
Azimuth to B (R.O.)
=
106°
56'
31"
=
8.
DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE
Astronomic latitude was defined in Chapter 1.
To deduce procedures
for determining astronomic latitude from star observations, we must examine
an expression that relates observable, tabulated, and known quantities.
Equation (2-22), involving the transformation of Hour Angle coordinates to
Horizon coordinates, namely
cosz
= sin~
sino +
cos~
coso
cosh
,
requires that zenith distance (z) and time (h) be observed, that declination
(0) and right ascension (a) be tabulated, and that longitude
solve for an unknown latitude
(~).
(A)
be known to
The effects of systematic errors in
zenith distance and time, dz and dh'respectively, are shown via the total
derivative of (2-22), namely
d~
When A
(secA
= 0,
= -1,
then
d~
=
= -dz
tanA =0).
- secAdz
(secA
cos~
= 1,
tanA
tanA dh
= 0),
and when A
(8-1)
= 180o
, then
d~
= dz
For this reason, most latitude determinations are
based on zenith distance measurements of pairs of stars (one north and one
south of the zenith such that zn
= -z~)
s
as they transit the observer's
meridian.
The
instrumen~used
for latitude determination are the same as those
for azimuth determination: a geodetic theodolite with a striding level
attachment, a chronometer, an HF radio receiver, a thermometer and a barometer.
Two astronomic latitude determination procedures are given in these
notes: (i) Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances, (ii) Latitude by Polaris
at any Hour Angle.
The accuracy
(o~)
of a latitude determination by either
method, using the procedures outlined, is 2" or better [Robbins, 1976].
For
alternative latitude determination procedures, the reader is referred to, for
163
164
example, Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
8.1
Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances
Equations (2-54)., (2-55), and (2-56), rewritten with subscripts to
refer to north and south of zenith stars at transit are
~
= 5N - z
~
= z
~
= 180 0 -
S
N
- 5s
(UC north of zenith) ,
(8-2)
(UC south of zenith) ,
(8-3)
5 - z (LC north of zenith).
N
N
(8-4)
If a star pair UC north of zenith - UC south of zenith are observed, then a
combination of (8-2) and (8-3) yields
(8-5)
while a star pair LC north of zenith -UC south of zenith gives
~
=~
(5
S
- 15 ) + ~ (z
N
S
- z )
N
+ 90
(8-6)
0
Equations (8-5) and (8-6) are the mathematical models used for latitude
determination via meridian zenith distances.
An important aspect of this method of latitude determination is the
apriori selection of star-pairs to be observed or the selection of a
star programme.
Several general points to note regarding a star programme
are as follows:
(i)
more stars should be listed than are required to be observed (to
allow for missed observations due to equipment problems, temporary
cloud cover, etc.),
(ii)
the two stars in any pair should not
di~fer
in zenith. distance by more
o
than about 5 ,
(iii)
the stars in any pair, and star pairs, should be selected at time
intervals suitable to the capabilities of the observer.
165
For details on star programmes for latitude determination by meridian zenith
distances, the reader is referred to, for example, Robbins [1976].
A suggested observing procedure is:
(i)
set the vertical wire of the instrument in the meridian (this may
be done using terrestrial information e.g. the known azimuth of a
line, or one may determine the meridian via an azimuth determination
by Polaris at any Hour Angle),
(ii)
set the zenith distance for the first north star; when the star
enters the field of view, track it with the horizontal wire until it
reaches the vertical wire,
(iii)
(iv)
record the V.C.R., temperature, and pressure,
repeat (i) to (iii) for the south star of the pair.
This constitutes one observation set for the determination of
Six to eight sets are required to obtain
(J
4>
= 2"
or less.
~.
The computations
are as follows:
(i)
(ii)
correct each observed zenith distance for refraction, namely
for each star pair, use either equation (8-5) or (8-6) and
compute
(iii)
~,
compute the final
~
as the mean of the six to eight determinations.
An example of this approach can be found, for instance, in Mueller [1969].
8.2
Latitude by Polaris at any Hour Angle
Since Polaris is very near the north celestial pole, the polar
distance (P
= 90-~,
°
very close to O.
Figure 8-1) is very small (P<lo), and the azimuth is
Rewriting equation (2-22) (Hour Angle to Horizon
coordinate transformation) with z
sina
= sin~
cosp +
=
(90 - a) and P
cos~
sinp cosh
= 90
-
~
yields
(8-7)
166
Now, setting
~
= (a
+
~a),
in which oa
and P are differentially small, and
'substituting in
(8-7)
gives
Figure 8-1
Astronomic Triangle for Polaris
sin a
= sin
(a + c5a) cosP + cos (a + oa) sinP cosh
.'
= sina cosoa cos.P
+ cosa sinc5a cos P
+ cosa cosoa sinP cosh - sina sin6a sinP cosh.
(8-8)
Then, replacing the small angular quantities
(6 a and P) by their power
.
series (up .to and including 4th order terms), namely
sine
cose
(8-8)
=e
_e 3 +
=1
-
.....
,
-4:6 4
-
3:
62
2:
+
,
becomes
sina
=
. 3
(sina(l-
+ cosa (oa -
+
2!
+ (cosa (1
4!
oa
p2
»
(1-
sina (oa -
+
2!
3!
~~
3
»
p3
(P -
3: ) cosh.
Now, taking only the first-order terms of (8-9) into account yields
sina
= sina
+ oa cosa + Pcosa cosh
(8-10)
.•
(8-11)
or
c5a
= -Pcosh
Replacing the second-order c5a terms in (8-9) with (8-11) above, and
neglecting all terms of higher order gives
(8-9)
167
oa
=
- Pcosh
+
. 2h
tana sJ.n
(8-l2)
Repeating the above process for third and fourth order terms yields the final
equation
~
=a
+ oa
=a
- Pcosh +
sinP tana sin2 h
P
2
P . 3
. 4h
3
. 2P coshsJ.n
' 2h + 8
3P sJ.n
sJ.n P sJ.n
tan a
(8-l3)
Except in very high latitudes, the series (8-13) may be truncated at the
third term.
A suggested observation procedure is as follows:
(i)
observe polaris (horizontal wire) and record V.C.R., time,
temperature and pressure; repeat this three times.
(ii)
reverse the telescope and repeat (i).
This constitutes the observations for one latitude determination.
It should be noted that if azimuth is to be determined simultaneously
(using Polaris at any hour angle), then the appropriate H.C.R.ts must be
recorded (such a programme requires that the observer place Polaris at the
intersection of the horizontal and vertical wires of the telescope).
The computation of latitude proceeds as follows:
(i)
(ii)
compute mean zenith distance measurement for six measurements,
correct mean zenith distance for refraction and compute the mean
altitude (a = 90 - z),
(iii)
compute the mean time for a, then using (7-2), compute the mean
h (note that mean a and (a
m
- 12h) must be computed for this part
of the latitude determination),
168
(iv)
compute a mean
(v)
compute
~,
then P
= 90
- 0
Ip
A mean of 12 to 20 determinations will yield an astronomic latitude
with
= 2"
alp
or less [Robbins, 1976].
The reader should note that the use of a special SALS table (Pole
Star Tables) leads to a simple computation of latitude using this method,
namely
(8-14)
in which a is the corrected, meaned altitude, and a o ' aI' a 2 are tabulated
values.
(8-13)
Using this approach results will not normally differ from those using
by more than O,:~'2 (12"), while in most cases the difference is within
O!l (6") [Robbins, 1976].
Both computation procedures are illustrated in the
following example taken from Robbins [1976].
Example:
(i)
Latitude from Observations of Polaris at any Hour Angle
with SALS tables
Date:
23 August 1969
cj>=57003'
A.= 7° 27' W
=-
Oh 29m 48 s
Mean of Observations:
a
= 56°
57' 24"
Press. = 1009mb.
Computations:
h
RCa -12 +Eq.E)
m
=
169
GAST
::::::
UT
+
R
+
R
""
20h
09m
45~4
oh
29m
48 5
19h
39m
57~4
A
LAST
a :::: 56° 57' 24"
(mean refraction)
r
::::
38 "
°
f
a
~
(refraction factor)
::::::
corr
== a
corr
a - (r
+ a
0
0
1.00
x f) == 56° 56' 46"
+ a l + a 2 == 56° 56 1 46"
~
(if)
:::::
:::: 57 ° 02'
with equation (8-13)
+
5'48"
43"
(first three terms only)
as in (i) plus:
(l
== 2h 03 m 09 5
17"
a.
a :::::
56°
p
3163"
4?
:::::
_.
56'
56° 56' 46 11
46"
+
+ 09"
319~5
~
+
= 57°
36~9
02'
42~'4
+ 00"
9.
DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LONGITUDE
In chapter 3, we saw that
l~ngitude
is related directly with sidereal
time, namely (egn. 3-3 )
(9-l)
A = LAST - GAST
From the Hour Angle - Right Ascension systems coordinate transformations
(egn. 2-31)
LAST
=a
(9-2)
+ h •
Replacing LAST in (9-l) with (9-2) yields the expression
A = a + h - GAST
(9-3)
This equation (9-3) is the basic relationship used to determine astronomic
longitude via star observations.
The right ascension
(a)
is catalogued, and
the hour angle (h) and GAST are determined respectively via direction and time
observations.
Let us first examine the determination of GAST.
Setting TM as the
observed chronometer time (say UTC), and 6T as the total chronometer
correction, then
GAST
= TM
+ 6T
(9-4)
The total correction (6T) consists of the following:
(i)
the epoch difference 6T
o
at the time of synchronization of
UTC and TM times,
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
chronometer drift 6 1 T,
DUTl, given by DUTl
= UTl
- UTC (see Chapter 4),
the difference between UTl and GAST at the epoch of observation
given by
h
LMST
=
MT
LAST
=
LMST + Eq.E.
+ (aM - 12 )
Finally, equation (9-3) reads
A
=a
+ h - (TM + 6T)
170
(9-5)
171
The determination of the hour angle (h) is dependent on the
astronomic observations made.
coordinate transformation
From the Hour Angle - Horizon systems
(eqn. 2-22),
=
cosh
cosz - sino
coso
sin~
(9-6)
cos~
can be used for the determination of a star's hour angle.
and TM as the observed quantities,
~
Now, taking z
as a known quantity, and 0 as
catalogued, the sources of systematic errors affecting longitude determination
will be in zenith distance (dz), the assumed latitude
time (TM) and the chronometer correction (d6T).
(d~),
the observed
Replacing h in (9-5) by
(9-6), and taking the total derivative yields
dA
=-
(sec~
cotA
d~
+
sec~
cosecAdz + dT + d6T) •
(9-7)
Examining (9-7), it is obvious that the errors dT and d6T contribute directly
to dA and can not be elliminated by virtue of some star selections.
other hand,
(i)
and dz can be treated as follows:
when the observed star is on the prime vertical
(A
(ii)
d~
On the
= 90 o or 270 0 ) , then
d~
=0
the effects of dz can be elliminated by observing pairs of stars
such that zl=z2 •
As with azimuth and latitude determination procedures in which pairs of stars
have to be observed under certain conditions, a star program (observing
list) must be compiled prior to making observations.
For details, the
reader is referred, for example, to Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
The primary equipment requirements for second-order (0).
=
3" or
less) longitude determination are a geodetic theodolite, a good mechanical
or quartz chronometer, an HF radio receiver, and a chronograph equipped with
a hand tappet.
172
Finally, before describing a longitude determination procedure, the
reader should note the following.
Since the GAST used is free from polar
motion, LAST must be freed from polar motion effects.
by adding a polar motion correction (6A
p
This is accomplished
: see Chapter 6) to the final
determined longitude (not each observation), such that the final form of
equation (9-5) becomes
A
9.1
=a
(9-8)
+ h + 6Ap - (TM + 6T)
Longitude by Meridian Transit Times
When a star transits the meridian, h
If pairs of stars are observed such that zl =
(9-7) are e11iminated.
= oh
d~
= LAST.
z2' then the effects of dz in
The observation of time (TM) as a star transits the
meridian enables longitude computation using (9-8).
error will be
(or l2h) and a
The main sources of
and the observation of the stars transit of the meridian
(due partly to inaccurate meridian setting and partly to col1iIiiation).
The
"
latter errors cause . :. a timing error.
A correction for this effect is computed
from [Mueller, 1969]
dA
db
or
=
db=
cos 15 cosec z
(9-9)
sin z
cos '8 -dA
(9-10)
where dA is the rate for the star to travel I' (4 s ) of arc in azimuth,
yielding db in seconds.
Example
For dA
= I' = 4s
dbN
s
= 5.85
db
s
=
0~80.
Then, if the longitude difference determined from north and south
s
2.0, the corrections to A are as follows:
stars is
173
(2.0 x 5.85)
5.85 + 0.80
dlLA
s
=
(2.0 x 0.80) =
= --.!.=-:..::.....;:;;:.....;:;..;;....::.=..!-
0 s• 2 4
(5.85 + 0.80)
A suggested field observation procedure for the determination of
longitude by meridian transit times is [Mueller, 1969]:
(i)
make radio-chronometer comparisons before, during, and after each
set of observations on a star pair,
(ii)
set the instrument (vertical wire) in the meridian for the north
star and set the zenith distance for the star; when the star
enters the field of view, track it until it coincides with the
vertical wire and record the time (hand tappet is pressed),
(iii)
set the instrument for the south
reverse the
(iv)
star of the pair (do not
and repeat (ii),
instrumen~
repeat (ii) and (iii) for 12-16 pairs of stars.
The associated computation procedure is as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
compute the corrected time for each observed transit (e.g. TM +
compute the apparent right ascension for each transit,
compute the longitude for each meridian transit using (9-8),
compute dh for each star; compute .hA ~ AN-As
compute the correction to longitude
(dIl)
for each star pair;
for each star of a pair
(see example),
(v)
(vi)
compute the mean longitude from the 12-16 pairs,
apply the correction hA
p
An
11.2] •
~T)
to get the final value of longitude.
example of this procedure is given in Mueller [1969; Example
,
174
In closing, the reader should be aware that there are several other
methods for second order longitude determination.
For complete coverage of
this topic, the reader is referred to Mueller [1969) and Robbins (1976).
175
REFERENCES
Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Heidelbe,rg [1979]. A,Eparent Places of
Fundamental~ta~s',l,981 : Containing 'the-:1535 "Sta~$':"irt;,tbe: Fourth
FtiIidame,tibil ;Catalogue~', (APFS) ~ 'Ver1agG~ Braun; ;Kar1sruhe.
Boss, B. [1937]. General Catalogue of 33342 stars for the epoch 1950.0,
(GC). publications of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 468.
Reissued by Johnson Reprint Co., New York.
Eichorn, 'H. [1974]. Astronomy of Star Positions.
Co., New York.
Frederick Ungar Publishing
Fricke, W. and A. Kopff [1963]. Fourth Fundamental catalogue resulting from
the revision of the Third Fundamental Catalogue (FK3) carried out
under the supervision of W. Fricke and A. Kopff in collaboration
with W. Gliese, F. Gondolatsch, T. Lederke, H. 'Nowacki, W. Strobel
and P. Stumpff, (FK4). Veroeffentlichungen des Astronomischen ReckenInstituts, Heidelberg, 10.
H.M. Nautical Almanac Office [lg8~]. The star Almanac for Land Surveyors for
the year 1981. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. (in Canada:
Pendragon House Ltd. 2525 Dunwin Drive, Mississauga, Ontario',
L5L 1T2.)
Heiskanen, W.A. and H. Moritz [1967].
Company, San Francisco.
Physical Geodesy.
W.H. Freeman and
Krakiwsky, E.J. and D.E. Wells [1971]. Coordinate Systems in Geodesy.
Department of Surveying Engineering Lecture Notes No. 16, University
of New Brunswick, Fredericton.
Morgan, H.R. [1952]. Catalog of 5268 Standard Stars, 1950.0. Based on the
Norman System N30. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of
the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, 13, part 3.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Morris, William (editor) [1975]. The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of the
English Language. American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc.
Mueller, Ivan I. [1969]. Spherical and Practical Astronomy as Applied to
Geodesy. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York.
Robbins, A.R. [1976]. Military Engineering, Volume XIII-Part IX, Field and
Geodetic Astronomy. School of Military Survey, Hermitage, Newbury,
Berkshire, U.K.
Roelofs, R._[1950]. Astronomy Applied to Land Surveying.
Ahrend & Zoon, Amsterdam.
N.V. Wed. J.
U.S. Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac Office [19'801. The Astronomical Almanac
fo"'( the Year 19.81; U.S'.' Governm~nt P"'(intina Offi~, Washington,
, D.C.
176
APPENDIX A
REVIEW OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY
In this Appendix the various relationships between the six
elements of a spherical triangle are derived, using the simple and
compact approach of A.R. Clarke, as given in Todhunter and Leathem
("Spherical Trigonometrytt, Macmillan, 1943).
The 27 relations derived
are
listed
at
the
end
of the
Appendix •
A.1
Derivation of Relationships
In Figure A-l, the centre of the unit sphere, 0, is joined to
the vertices A, B, C of the spherical triangle.
Q and R are the
projections of C onto OA and OB, hence OQC and ORC are right angles.
P is the projection of C onto the plane AOB, hence CP makes a right
angle with every line meeting it in that plane.
OPC are right angles.
Thus QPC, RPC, and
Note that the angles CQP and CRP are equal to
the angles A and B of the spherical triangle.
We
show that OQP is also a right angle by using right
triangles COP, COQ, CQP to obtain
C02 = Op2 + PC 2
(A-1)
C02 = OQ2 + QC 2
(A-2)
QC 2
= Qp2
+ PC2
(A-3)
Equating (A-l) and (A-2), and substituting for QC 2 from (A-3)
Op2 = OQ2 + Qp2
that is OQP is a right angle.
right angle.
Similarly it can be shown ORP is also a
177
c
A
_ _ _ _ _----8
Figure A-1
178
In Figure A-2, on the plane AOB, S is the projection of Q on
OB and T is the projection of R on OA.
Note that the angle AOB is
equal to the side c of the spherical triangle, and that angles AOB
SQP
= TRP.
PC = RC
=
Then from Figure A-1
sin B
= QC
sin A
(A-4)
and from Figure A-2
OR
= OS
QP sin c
(A-5)
RP = SQ - QP cos c
(A-6)
QP = TR - RP cos c
(A-7)
+
We can now make the substitutions
OR = cos a
RC = sin a
OQ = cos b
QC
QP
RP
= sin b
= QC cos
= RC cos
A
= sin
b cos A
B
= sin
a cos B
OS = OQ cos c = cos b cos c
SQ
= OQ
sin c
= cos
b sin c
OT
= OR
= OR
cos c
= cos
= cos
a cos c
TR
sin c
a sin c
to obtain from (A-4) to (A-7)
sin a sin B
cos a
= cos
= sin
b sin A
(A-8)
b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
(A-9)
sin a cos B = cos b sin c - sin b cos c cos A
sin b cos A
= cos
a sin c - sin a cos c cos B
Equation (A-8) is one of the three Laws of Sines.
one of the three Laws of Cosines for Sides.
(A-10)
(A-11 )
Equation (A-9) is
Equations (A-lO) and
179
o
8
c
Figure A-2
180
(A-11) are two of the twelve Five-Element Formulae.
The
Four-Element
Formulae
can
be derived
by multiplying
Equation (A-10) by sin A, and dividing it by Equation (A-8) to obtain
sin A cot B
= sin
c cot b - cos A cos c
rearranged as
cos A cos c = sin c cot b - sin A cot B
(A-12)
Similarly multiplying Equation (A-11) by sin B and dividing by the
transposed Equation (A-B) we obtain
cos B cos c = sin c cot a - sin B cot A
(A-13)
Equations (A-12) and (A-13) are two of the six Four-Element Formulae.
It can be shown that all the above Laws remain true when the
angles are changed into the supplements of the corresponding sides and
the sides into the supplements of the corresponding angles.
Applying
this to Equations (A-8) , (A-12), and (A-13) will not generate new
equations.
cos a
However, when applied to Equation (A-9)
= cos
b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
it becomes
cos(n-A) = cos(n-B)cos(n-C)+sin(n-B)sin(n-C)cos(n-a)
(A-14)
or
cos A
=-
cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a
which is one of the three Laws of Cosines for Angles.
Similarly
Equations (A-l0) and (A-ll) become
sin A cos b = cos B sin C + sin B cos C cos a
(A-15)
sin B cos a = cos A sin C + sin A cos C cos b
(A-16)
which are two more of the twelve Five-Element Formulae.
Equations
relationships.
(A-8)
to
(A-16)
represent one-third of the
The other two-thirds are obtained by simultaneous
181
cyclic permutation of a, b, c and A, Bt C.
For example. from Equation
(A-B)
sin a sin B
= sin
b sin A
we obtain
sin b sin C = sin c sin B
sin c sin A
= sin
a sin C
The entire set of 27 relations obtained this way are stated below.
A.2
Summary of Relationships
A.2.1
Law of Sines
sin a sin B
= sin
b sin A
sin b sin C
= sin
c sin B
sin c sin A = sin a sin C
A.2.2
Law of Cosines (sides)
cos a
= cos
b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
cos b = cos c cos a + sin c sin a cos B
cos c
A.2.3
= cos
a cos b + sin a sin b cos C
Law of Cosines (angles)
cos A = - cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a
cos B = - cos C cos A + sin C sin A cos b
cos C = - cos A cos B + sin A sin B cos c
A.2.4
Four-Element Formulae
cos A cos c
= sin
c cot b - sin A cot B
cos B cos a = sin a cot c - sin B cot C
cos C cos b
= sin
b cot a - sin
C
cot A
cos B cos c = sin c cot a - sin B cot A
182
A.2.5
sin C cot B
cos C cos a
= sin
a cot b
cos A cos b
= sin
b cot c - sin
A cot C
Five-Element Formulae
sin a cos B
= cos
= cos
A = cos
b sin c - sin b cos c cos
A
sin b cos C
c sin a - sin c cos a cos B
sin c cos
a sin b
sin a cos b cos C
sin b cos A = cos a sin c - sin a cos c cos B
sin c cos B
= cos
b sin a - sin b cos a cos C
sin a cos C = cos c sin b
sin A cos b
= cos
sin c cos b cos A
B sin C + sin B cos C cos a
sin B cos c = cos C sin A + sin C cos A cos b
sin C cos a = cos A sin B + sin A cos B cos c
sin B cos a
sin C cos b
sin A cos c
= cos
= cos
= cos
A sin C + sin A cos C cos b
B sin A + sin B cos A cos c
C sin B + sin C cos B cos a
183
APPENDIX B
CANADIAN TIME ZONES
/
I'J
110
I
I
I
120
100
I
(Canada Year Book 1978-79, Dept. of Supply and Services, Ottawa)
184
APPENDIX C
EXCERPT FROM THE FOURTH FUNDAMENTAL CATALOGUE (FK4)
EQUINOX AND EPOCH 1950.0 AND 1975.0
No.
US3
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.- 0.21 5
-0.001
-0.001
13.03
1.2
5
-
'40.006
+0.006
24·37
2.5
II
+0.003
+0.003
-0.002
-0.003
0.000
0.000
36.4 1
:;·9
19
19.07
2·9
IS
12.88
1.8
10
0.000
16.51
1·4
6
4·14.0
4·139
0. 26 9
0.26S
- 0.845
- 0.846
- 0. 289
- 0.259
- o.OIZ
- 0.0:2
- 1.6g6
+0.003
+0.00]
08.Sz
1.0
4
- 1.';07
- 1.40S
-0.006
-0.006
15·45
I.,:
7
- 0.6:5
- 0;6:9
-0.014
-0.014
11.62
9·:;
49
- 1·345
-o.ooS
16·5;
4·-1
zo
-0.001
-0.001
IS·9i
1·4
,.
1.5 12
1·509
1_3S0
+0.010
-10.010
IS·9S
1·9
S
+0.024
:13.4 2
4.,
IS
- 1·3;4
-It'.?:"
17· I g
I.,
9
-,0.0'>1
-0.0.'16
-0.006
I·P9
9·!
39
0.0<»
19·1>~
s·.:!
IS
+
+
-
1·34;
o.IH
0. 134
+ 29S.118
~.
=9S.I:5
~.
0."11j
- 1.104
- 1.1::-';
+ :00.367
+
o·S~7
- 0·3.3
:oo.60~
oj. v.6oS
+ :;5.0 39
+
.•. 27).2,)4
+ 0·433
O~':.!5
0.000
1.695
-
- 5·475
+ 0.(111
+
10..l2
z.6
33.0-17
is
IS
16,50
+ 32 7.034
+ 326.7 1;
+ 319.4 62
+ 3 1 9.21 9
+ 29 2.48,
+ 29 2 .5::
1<'
24.581
10 16 14.il0
-0.003
-0.003
-0.0:6
-0.0:6
z.S
+0.032
+0.033
+ 397·034
+ 277. 137
+ 277.283
+ 29 2• 143
+ 292.IS7
).353
3S·"SS
10 14 25.657
10 16 14.171
10 IS 8.659
10 If> 23.1)19
0·%34
0.235
l!.l6:
2.156
2j·H
- 3·817
- 3.809
+ 0.057
+ 0.05i·
+ .H5·802
+ 345. 11>9
+ 398.561
of·
+
+
-O!OOI
3·9S5
3-955
0.118
0.111
+ 0.48:
+ 0.490
+ :;16.823
+
-0.001
426.403
42-1.418
+ 317.018
37.998
4 1.011
54.75S
Ig.107
+ o!.60
+ 0.160
- :.201
- 2.190
+ 257·';'9
+ 257.6]9
+ 3 11 • 188
+ 3".051
9 57 34·334
9 58 53.564
9 58 8.'.115
9593H89
10 I 17·747
10 2 57.196
10 2 2.261
10 3 11.563
10 :: 41.299
:0 :; 54.340
10 4 36.533
10 S 58•252
10 S 42.647
10 7 2·482
10 S 8.945
10 9 22.070
O!i09
0.70 5
0.0<J6
0.005
386.859
385.7 01
+ 341.140
+ ]40.657
+ 282.989
+ 283.075
+ 298.06:
+ 298.043
. + 535.7 18
+ 530.415
+ 367.318
+ 366.437
+ zlo·696
+
-
- 0·3.4
- 0.116
- ".IIG
-O.OO~
-n.<J?1
0.000
I
185
EQUINOX AND EPOCH 1950.0 AND 1975.0
li
US3
u.ss
370
371
373
1257
372
~j4
375
377
12 59
1260
+JSo 5';'
+18 47
-62 16
-62 23
53~4l
57.86
3"..;%
3 1·9S
+46 IS 18.ll
+46 8 li.i2
+59 16 30.31
+59 9 25.83
- ( o 29.53
-4 7 32•11
-45
-46
+26
+26
-18
-18
35.21
36•08
3 1•2 i
18.u
25-34
31.32
44.86 .
53.70
-35 39 3. 66
-35 46 15.14
+ 3 37 28.41
+ 3 30 Ij·38
+8 17 5-7 6
+8 9 53. 13
+3 2 10 13.66
+3 2 2 50.19
+54 8 4·53
.+54 o 4S.15
-24 :I 3-\.25
-24 9 50·53
379
+17 o 26"7
+ 16 53 6.45
+u 12 44.54
+12 5 23·90
-12 6 22.55
-12 13 48.08
.:62
+43
+43
+65
.. 65
..- 7
-7
H
=9·0~
-28 51 39·5·!·
,n (,,')
GC
N30
'4·0
26
Int-!-
2335
+
+
0·33
0·33
+C.02
11.64
5·9
:15
13.162
233'>
+0.02
9.53
9·S6
-0.18
-0.17
19.20
3. 2
12
13';97
:1345
- 15-55
- 15.48
3. 18
3.18
+ 3.03
+ 3.0';
+0.30
+0·:19
0.00
0.00
09·5'
2.2
8
13540
2355
17·74
2·4
13
13558
2357
+0.03
+0.03
+0.12
+0.12
20.6')
7.2
40
13574
2362
08.03
2.1
8
13590
:l36.;
+0.03
+0.03
+0.01
"0.01
+0.13
"0.13
+0.08
..0.08
+0.01
+0.01
21.81
3.8
21
136.&4
2367
24·43
4·1
26
13674
2371
14-8,
2·5
12
13684
2373
16-42
:l·7
lZ
13700
:1376
10.61
4.6
22
13711
237'1
+0.06
+0.06
19·37
4-5
:z6
13741
2387
19.14
3·3
16
13746
2389
09.71
1·9
7
13755
2390
17-73
3. 2
13
13763
:l391
26.'7
44
.6
1382 7
2397
+
+
--
5·99
5.96
4·22
4·21
0.11
O.ll
4.05
4·0:1
:1·91
2·89
0.46
0·46
2.4 1
2·39
1.6')
-11·39
-1l.26
--
:l.64
-12.25
-12·09
-14·00
-13.76
- 43.3 2
- 43. 24
0.66
0.66
+0.32
+0.32
+0.02
+0.02
-1742 .75
-1747·5°
-1746.4=
-175'.4 2
-1756.12
-176,.65
- 9·5-\
- 9.46
-.0.05
- 9·95
-11.12
-10·99
+
+
+
+
1.83
1.85
+0.06
+0.06
+0.0%
+0.02
0.00
0.00
18.20
4.0
:6
138.;8
'402
12·09
2·7
14
13861
z¥>8
13.83
:l.2
9
13899
:l41:1
-1759·9'
-10·70
-10·57
+
01·35
··7
5
13926
24'4
-1779·73
- 9·57
- 9·47
- 4.3 0
- 4. 27
- 7. 86
- i.SQ
-10.48
-10·33
-11.32
-11.13
-13.65
-13-36
- 9. 18
- 9·07
+0.12
+0.12
+0.10
+0.10
14·0 j
:l·3
II
13982
2424
+0.04
+0.0.0
12·97
4·6
23
14074
2434
+0·09
+0·09
-0.01
-0.01
14.27
4·7
22
14076
::1435
'5·37
2.2
10
14107
::144°
4.26
4. 2 4
1.19
1.17
010
+0.10
+0.10
06.9 1
2·4
S
14113
244%
+0·09
13.14
].0
12
14123
'445
16.67
2·7
IS
'4129
2446
o.oS
+0,"7
13.8.,
5·9
:l4
14133
2448
4·5
25
14144
=45°
-1787-70
-1789.84
-1784047
-li88.39
-1794·55
-1799·75
-179~29
-· ISo3·90
-1;96·54
-IS"3·30
-1798. 22
-1~":·iS
'-17~~.~t;
-11'::>1·:-7
I
(">
+0.03
+0.03
+0.02
+0.02
-li8.;·49
52 25. 2 3
59 51•84
40 1-9~
3 2 3~·65
953·H
2 23.:6
%1 31.58
14 I.h-;)
49 6.;8
56 36.91
711
26.00
-
- 7·59
- 7·55
- 9. 21
- 9. 15
-11.20
-1I.oS
- l i65· 2 3
-61 .. 5j·O'\
.. 61 I: 25. 1;
-·as
-19·98
-19·45
-13·5:1
-13·33
EI" (J)
-0!01
-0.01
-----
-12·94
-1%·i9
-10.51
-10,42
-11.01
-10·90
'rii
.-
l!i6·
,.j6
--
- 8·i6
- 8.7 1
dl,I
---
-11·59
-11·48
-1721·34
-17 2 6.91
-1727.67
-1733·33
-177°·84
-1776.92
-174 2 .04
-1748.gS
-69 47 :!J·35
I"
- 6.36
- 6·33
-15.36
-15. 14
-16..;8,
-16.20
-1713.48
-1717. 2 6
-17 2 3.64
-1728.23
-69 54 4"·54
-41
-4'
+23
+%3
-13!JI
-13. 17
-17°7.41
-17 12•89
-1712.77
-17 22•63
-1714.6')
-1721.40
40.83
-12 49 'j·50
-12 5634-73
- 16SI!!9 1
-1665·53
-1650.65
-1663.82
-1677.S:,
- 1685.44
-1696.01
-17°2·44
-1706.39
-17".5 2
P7
5i·74
1261
! iii>!
-1687·48
-1 693-25
-1684·48
-1688.s,.
- 7 24 26·90
-7 31 34·44
"73 7
+7:1 59
"41 17
+4 1 10
-S.J 19
-54 26
dT'
-1693.85
-17°2.02
57 33·54
4
14
7
46
53
d:')
,111
~1;9"·92
":&-'1. 1 1
-
... 6.00
!
- S·';3
-
S.41
1·70
2.6.J
--
-+
-
0·95
0.96
0.58
0.58
0.26
0.29
9.46
-:- 9·44
+
+
+
+
.----+
+
6.04
•
I
+
+
I
I
0.29
0·3°
3·84
3. 86
1.21
1.21
+0·09
+o.Oj
o·~9
+o.o~
0.30
01- 0.8S
+ 0.5S
..... O.Ol
·to.OI
;C.OI
19."')
I
I
I
I
186
APPENDIX D
EXCERPT FROM APPARENT PLACES OF FUNDAMENTAL STARS
APPARENT PLACES OF STARS, 1981
AT UPPER TRANSIT AT GREENWICH
---·--T---------------r--------------.--------------~---------------
379
1261
No.
Name
IX
Tlleonis
" Hydrae
381
380
Leonis
i. Hydraa
(Regulus)
Mafl·SpeeL
4.7.2
SS
3.58
AOp
1.34
88
3.83
KO
U.T.
RA
Dec.
R.A.
Dec.
R.A.
Dec.
RA
Dec.
b
m
1004
d
1 -7.8
1 2.1
1 12.1
1 22.1
2 1.1
:2. 11.0
2 21.0
3 3.0
3 12.9
3 22.9
+ JOO
S
11.861 .~
12.145 .. 252
12.397 + 2C9
12.600 .. 166
12.772
12.888
12.955
12.976
12.952
12.001
h
0'
-1258
-23)
S
..
+ 16 50
3Zl
14.55 -m 17.535 .. 304 76.96 -157
-136
16.94 -240 17.839 • 273 75.60 -112
19.34 -233 18.112 + 232 74.48 _ 84
21.67 -220 1S".344 .. 187 73.64 - 56
23.87
18.531
73.08
-203
.. 116
.. 67 25.90 -100 18.~7
• 21 27.70 -157 18. i51
_ 24 CJ.27 -130 18.786
18.774
_ 61 30.57
31.59 -102 18.722
,",,,
-n
.. 136
.. 84
.. 35
72.82
- 26
.. 2
72.84 _ 2~
73.08 • .:s
- 12 73.54 .. &l
- 52 74.14
- 64
5 1.8
5 11.8
12.802 _ 115 "".36 • 49 18.638 _ 111 74.85 : ~
12.687 _ 128 32.85 _ 24 18.527 _ 126 75.63 + 79
12.559 137 33.09 _ 1 18.401 _ 134 76.42 ·78
12.422 33.10
18.267 _ 139 77.20 .. 74
12.282 - 140 32.86 .. 24 18.128
77.94
5 21.8
5 31.7
G 10.7
I; 20.7
6 30.6
'2.148
12.020
11.905
11.806
11.723
1 10.6
7 20.6
1 30.6
11.660 _
11 621 _
4·
1.9
4 11.9
4 21.8
8
9.5
8 19.5
8 29.5
9 8.5
9 18.4
9 28.4
10 8.4
- 89
- 134
- 128
_ 115
_ 99
_ 83
- 63
39
17
11.604.. 9
11.613 .. 38
11.651
11.717
11.816
11.947
12.112
12.313
32.40 .. 66 17.997 =:~
31.74 -as 17.874 _ 110
30.88 -102 17.764
29.86 +116 17.674 - 90
17.601 - 73
28.70
+46
+128
...
..
+115
..
.. 89 20.94 .. 9S 17.673
.. 131 19.99 .. 10 17.784
.. 165 19.29 .. 42 17.925
.. :<Dl 18.87 .. 7 18.098
18.306
18.80
.. Zl2
-
27.42 +133 17.551
26.09 .138 17.525
24.71 +135 17.521
23.36 -127 17.545
17.595
22.00
.. 66
h
mOl
10 06
..
..
•
..
78.60
79.18
79.66
80.03
80.30
.,
..
..
...
m
10 01
-171
2'"350 •
.
21.647
21.914
22.140
22.322
22.454
22.535
22.570
22.557
22.507
22.425
22.317
22.194
22.063
21.928
66
58
48
37
21.800
.21.680
21.573
• 27 21.483
21.411
50
..
14
21.361
26 80.44 + 0
4 80.44 .• 12 21.334
24 80.32 - 28 21.328
50 80.04 - 44 21.349
79.60
21.397
78
9
- a::
111 7.00 _ 79 21.472
141 78.21 _ 93 21.578
173 77.23 -116 21.714
2C8 76.07 -135 21.883
74.72
22.085
317
• 297
m
h
0'
+ 12 03
10 09
S
-
:m
",
-12 15
35.65 -155 39.573 237 29.85
.267 34.10 -135 39.800 : eli 32.21
~ 226 32.75 -110 40.115 • 215 34.59
• 182 31.65 _ 64 40.330 • 170 36.89
39.07
30.81
4O.ECO
.. 1!2
-m
'"
40.622
•
lZ2
... 81 30.26
~
72 41.07 -m
.. 35 29.97 - 5 40.694 • 27 42.84 -Is:!
- 13 29.92 • 18 40.721 _ 19 44.37 -128
- 50 30.10 • 3' 40.702 _ ::0 45.65 -IOJ
40.647
30.44
46.65
--
- 82
_ 100 30.92
_ 123 31.51
_ 131 32.16
135 32.83
33.51
·48
• 59
_ €C
• 67
• €a
.• ;28
- 120
- 107
- 90
- 72
34.16 ..• as
62
34.78 .. 55
35.34 • EC
35.84 .. t'
,
36.27
- 50
-3.;
36.61 • Zl
- 6 36.84 .. 13
.. 21 36.97 _ 1
.. 48 36.96 - ~6
36.80
- 27
i'5
-!2
,;::.0
35.97 _ 71
+
• '00 36.48 - 51
oj.
·-84
- 110
- l:iS
- 134
- 138
40.563
40.453
40.328
40.194
40.0"...0
39.923
39.796
39.680
39.E80
39.496
39.431
47.40 -49
47.88 -23
48.11 • a
48.11 • 23
47.88
- 133
_ 127 47.43 -63
- 116 46.80 • 8-1
_ 100 45.96 • sa
_ o. 44.98 .m
"'" 43.87
22
42.63
41.35
6
32
38.73
37.52
=:
39.388
3936639372:
39.404
39.465 •
39 1':59 •
4O.m
61
!i4
.. 126
'110
36.42 -00
35.52
34.80
34.43
34.44
3188 ·t:;:: '".2''''' +. ~ 34 6
.
-153 '+V uo
""'"
.7
30.35 -tea 40.528 • «a 35.45
.",
_ 163 35.26 _ 92 39.685 • 1~
_ 202 34.34 ,,- 39.844 11:'6
33.21 - • 40 Q4{)'.
10
10
11
11
11
18.3
28.3
7.3
17.3
272
12.545 + 264
12.809 .. 230
13.COO .. :lOO
13.408 .. 323
13.731
• 239 7321 -151 22319 • 23-1
19.10 - 67 18545
.
• 211
.
-166
.
• 264
19.77 -107 18.816 .298 71.55 -m 22.583 • 293
20.84 -142 19.114 • 319 69.78 -182 22.876 .311 28.67 -tIS 40.816 • X6 36.53
22.26 -175 19.433 • 334 67.96 -las 23.187 • 328 26.89 -is:: 41.122 • 323 37.96
24.01
19.767
66.11
23.515
25.03
41.445
39.70
12
12
12
12
7.2
17.2
27.2
37.1
14.057::
14.375 .. 303
14.678 .. 274
14.952 .. 239
26.03'
28.25 -230
30.61 -241
33.02 -238
20.108
20.443
20.765
21061
______ ____
~,.
--~~
=:
__
11.872
-'.026
19.85
-0.230
17.852
OO('I'~ dli(1;1)
+() 0"'...3
date). di{<l
-0.013
'-0.35
-0,48
-<l.C65
-0018
february 21
64.32
62.65
61.13
59.85
ow
•
•
33
~
-
32
S
-H:6
-1£3
-1;!
::~
23.B4S : : 23.18 ::: 41.771 :;: 41.72 =~
24.177 + 315 21.39 -16; 42.000 • 1:6 43.92 -Z3-l
24.492 • 2S9 19.72 -14S 42.395 • 278 46.26 -2!O
=,02 24.781 • 255 18.23 -127 42.673 • :14: 48 66 -:35
1:.2
',28
--~~----~~----~+_----~~----~~----~L-----~
Me." 1'1"""
see 0, tanS
Db1e.Tran•.
: ~
• 322
• 296
• 261
::~
·1.045
80.71
-<l.303
21.633
-1023
37.95
-<l214
39 622
-1023
35 i8
-0.35
-<l.004
-<l013
-0.35
-o.OSS
'0.47
-0013
-0.35
-<l46
-<l.4B
February 21
February 22
-0.217
February 22