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Mr. Torres Period 5 United States History Test Review Chapter I&II Chapter 1, Section: 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Who were the Paleo-Indians? What change allowed the Paleo-Indians to begin the first migration to the Americas? Early societies first settled in which three regions of the Americas? What was the name of the strip of land that connected present day Asia and Alaska during the last Ice Age between 38,000 and 10,000 BCE? The movement of peoples from one region to another is called? What is culture? People who hunted animals and gathered wild plants for food are called? What were the four major civilizations of early Mesoamerica and South America? Chapter 1, Section: 2 1. Peoples of the North American Southwest who developed a complex agricultural system, which included irrigation and grew maize, beans and squash? 2. Aboveground houses made of heavy clay called adobe? 3. Kivas were underground chambers used by the Anasazi for what purpose? 4. What were the main reasons the Anasazi began to abandon their villages after 1300 CE? 5. Who were the two main mound building peoples of North America? 6. Ceremonial burial mounds were used for what purpose? 7. What are the four Native American Culture Areas? 8. What was the Iroquois League, what it did, and what was its main goal? 9. North American culture shared which religious and property beliefs? Chapter 2, Section: 1 1. Who were the first Europeans to embark in transatlantic voyages, eventually reaching the North American continent? 2. When Leif Eriksson sailed in the year 1000 from Norway, what caused him to go offcourse and landed in which part of present day Canada? 3. Why did the Vikings abandon their settlement in North America? 4. During the 1400’s Prince Henry the Navigator became the leader in world exploration, what where some of the advances made under his rule that made this possible? 5. What three factors motivated Portuguese explorer to embark in long distance voyages of discovery? 6. What is a Caravel and an astrolabe? 7. Who was the Portuguese explorer who led an expedition from Portugal to the Southern tip Africa, also known as the Cape of good Hope in 1488? 8. In 1497, Vasco da Gama reached which modern day country winning the European race for a sea route to Asia? 9. Why was the Age of Exploration considered a turning point in World History? Chapter 2, Section: 2 1. Who was Christopher Columbus? 2. Christopher Columbus went around Europe looking for someone to endorse his voyage of exploration to which many refused. Who and from where were the monarchs who finally agreed to pay for his expedition 1492? 3. Upon his arrival at the Americas Christopher Columbus immediately encounter the natives whom he wrongly labeled as? 4. What were the three main motivations for Columbus, and in fact for many of the explorers that came after him? (G, G, G) 5. Discuss what were some of the direct impacts of Columbus’ voyage to the Americas. 6. What was the Line of Demarcation and the Treaty of Tordesillas? 7. Explain what we know of as the Columbian Exchange and how it transformed the word, especially for the natives of the Americas? Chapter 2, Section: 3 1. Who were the conquistadors and what role did they play in the history of the Americas? 2. Hernan Cortes led a military expedition into modern day Mexico against which civilization? Whom were led by? 3. Explain what factors gave the advantage to the Spaniards even though they were heavily outnumbered by both the Aztecs and the Incan Empires? 4. Compare and contrast one of the images shown in the PowerPoint presentation. 5. Who was the one directly responsible for the downfall and subjugation of the Inca Empire after killing their Emperor Atahualpa? 6. Who were the two religious groups that were not allowed to settle in any of the territories of New Spain? 7. What were the three types of Spanish settlements in the Americas and what were their purposes? 8. What was Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca responsible for? 9. What was the purpose of the encomienda system implemented by the Spanish in the New World and what impact did it have on the Native population? Chapter 2, Section: 4 1. What was the main cause of disagreement that took place in Europe during the 1500s that eventually lead to wars? 2. Who started and what was the Protestant Reformation? 3. Protestants consisted of which group of people? 4. The printing press is considered one the main innovations of the 14th century, why was it so integral to the Protestant cause? 5. Despite the size of the Spanish Armada, how was England able to defeat such a great number of warships? 6. The defeat of the great Spanish Armada left the kingdom of Spain in a state of disarray, with both their economy and their morale in tatters. How did the rest of the European nations react to this event? 7. A water route through the North Americas that allowed ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans? 8. Who was the English explorer under Dutch employment who first sailed to present day New York in 1609? 9. Sir Walter Raleigh was given a charter by the English crown that allowed him to do what? 10. What and where was the “lost colony”? 11. Why was the founding of Quebec by Champlain in 1564 important to the French Empire? 12. The Dutch were notorious as traders and in order to promote immigration to their settlement they implemented a doctrine that was seemed as “radical” and ahead of their time. Especially when religious intolerance ran rampant in the world. What where the Dutch promoting in the settlement of New Netherlands?