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The Age of Jefferson
The election of 1800 was one of the turning points
in American history. For the first time in modern history,
the political power of a country transferred peacefully
from one political party to another. The presidency of
Thomas Jefferson launched a new era, a time of far-reaching change
and rapid growth for the new nation.
Concepts to Understand
★ How Jefferson’s policies affected the economic development of
Journal Note
Young Ameri
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of those o
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United States
the United States
★ How the United States gained a respected role in world affairs
Read to Discover . . .
★ the opportunities that the Louisiana Purchase brought the
United States.
★ the events leading up
to and during the
War of 1812.
1801 Thomas Jefferson becomes
1804 Lewis and Clark explore
Louisiana Territory
1800 Napoleon Bonaparte becomes
ruler of France
1804 Haiti becomes an independent nation
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
Chapter Overview
Visit the American History: The Early Years to
1877 Web site at and click on
Chapter 11—Chapter Overviews to preview
chapter information.
1807 Embargo Act goes into effect
1808 James Madison elected President
1805 Modern-day Egypt is founded
Perry’s Victory on Lake Erie, 1813
by William Birch
During the War of 1812, a young naval officer, Oliver
Hazard Perry, led 10 small ships on an attack against
the British. The victory on Lake Erie gave Americans
hope of winning the war.
1812 Congress declares war
on Great Britain
1814 War of 1812 ends
1815 Battle of New Orleans
1815 Treaty of Ghent ratified
1815 Napoleon defeated at Battle of
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
Jefferson Takes Control
Read to Learn . . .
Main Idea
Thomas Jefferson, the nation’s third
President, worked to simplify government and give more power to
the people.
Reading Strategy
Sequencing Information As you read
about Jefferson’s presidency, use a diagram
similar to the one shown here to list the
events in the struggle between the judicial
branch and
the President.
★ how Republican views on government
policies differed from Federalist views.
★ how the Supreme Court increased its
power and influence.
Terms to Know
Marbury v. Madison
judicial review
he tall, red-haired Virginian was gifted in many fields. One of the country’s
best architects, he designed the classical
red brick buildings of the University of
Virginia, the Virginia Capitol, and his own
home at Monticello. He was a good musician, too, and enjoyed playing the violin.
As an inventor—still another talent—
he designed a special music stand for the
friends with whom he played chamber
music. He was a gardener, a linguist—a
person who speaks many languages—and
an inspiring writer. With all those talents,
it may be surprising that Thomas Jefferson is remembered mainly as a political
thinker and the third President of the
United States.
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
★ The Jeffersonian
Two days after his inauguration, Thomas
Jefferson wrote a letter to a fellow Republican. (Originally called DemocraticRepublicans, the Jeffersonians were now
commonly called Republicans. They were
not, however, related to the present-day
Republican party.) In the letter, he referred
to his election victory as the “revolution of
1800 . . . as real a revolution in the principles
of our government as that of 1776 was in
form.” By using the word revolution, Jefferson meant that the American people had
voted for changes as great as those they had
fought for in the Revolutionary War.
The peaceful revolution of 1800 proved
to the world that the young republic could
make political changes without violence—
something very unusual at the time. Even
though the Federalists were in despair at
losing the presidency, they peacefully
turned over control of the federal government. This was the first time in modern
history that the political control of a country passed from one political party to
another through a democratic election.
Jefferson’s Inauguration
On March 4, 1801, Thomas Jefferson
became the first President to take the oath
of office in the new capital of Washington,
D.C. Jefferson was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist who was
one of John Adams’s last appointees. At
the time, the city was still unfinished. Its
streets were unpaved, and few buildings
were completed.
If Washington was an odd sort of national capital, Jefferson was in many ways an
odd sort of man to be the founder of a
political party and head of state. He hated
crowds, avoided making speeches, and
was too thin-skinned to enjoy rough-andtumble politics, that is, politics involving
much fighting between people and parties.
H istory
A Call for Unity
The change in leadership brought great
political and philosophical change to the
presidency. Jefferson believed the people
were the source of a government’s power.
He wanted to make government more
democratic, providing all people with
equal rights. Pleading for national harmony
after the bitter election, Jefferson encouraged all citizens to work together, stating:
“All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle . . . that the minority possess their
equal rights, which equal law must protect,
. . . Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with
one heart and one mind. . . . We are all
Republicans, we are all Federalists.”
By this he meant that despite their distrust of democracy, Federalists recognized
that problems are finally settled by the will
of the people, and that despite their distrust of centralized power, the Republicans
did not propose to destroy the federal
★ Simplifying Government
Federalists supported a strong central
government and rule by an elite, or a
wealthier, better-educated small class of
people. Jefferson believed in states’ rights
MONTICELLO Thomas Jefferson had many talents including being a skilled architect. He designed buildings at the University of Virginia and his home at Monticello.
What other talents did Jefferson have?
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
from injuring one another,
shall leave them otherwise
free to regulate their own
pursuits of industry and
improvement, and shall not
take from the mouth of labor
the bread it has earned.
and rule by the majority. He thought state
governments were closer to the people
than the national government. In contrast
to Alexander Hamilton’s idea that the government should actively promote banking,
commerce, and industry, Jefferson advocated a hands-off policy called laissez-faire
(LEH•SAY•FEHR). This French term means
generally, “let people do as they choose.”
Jefferson and the Republicans believed
the federal government’s role should be to
keep people from injuring each other. The
citizens should be “free to regulate their
own pursuits.”
“A Wise and Frugal Government”
Besides limiting the power of the federal government, Jefferson wanted to cut
the federal budget and lower taxes. He
summed up his vision of government in
his Inaugural Address when he said,
A wise and frugal [economical] Government, which
shall restrain [prevent] men
No Internal Taxes
With these savings, Jefferson and the
Republican-controlled Congress could
Footnotes to History
Jefferson Walks to His Inauguration Historians often tell how Jefferson
walked to his own inauguration wearing a simple gray homespun suit. The
simplicity of the third President, though, was completely unintended. Jefferson
walked to the inauguration and wore plain clothes only because bad weather
had delayed the arrival of a new $6,000 carriage and an expensive velvet suit.
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
When George Washington was President, Jefferson had opposed many of
Hamilton’s economic plans. As President,
though, Jefferson did promise to pay off the
national debt, encourage agriculture and
trade, and preserve the country’s credit.
To help cut spending, he appointed
Albert Gallatin as secretary of the treasury. An immigrant from Switzerland,
Gallatin was a brilliant financier who had
been an outstanding member of the
House of Representatives.
Gallatin worked to simplify government and avoid the high costs of war and
defense. He and Jefferson greatly cut military spending. They cut the army from
4,000 to 2,500 men and made similar cuts
in the number of sailors and naval officers. These actions reduced the United
States’s naval fleet from 25 to 7 ships.
Gallatin also cut the staff of the executive branch to reduce government spending. These measures together helped cut
the national debt from $83 million to
about $45 million. Though Jefferson had
opposed the formation of a national bank,
Gallatin convinced him to keep the Bank
of the United States intact, or untouched.
repeal the unpopular excise taxes on
whiskey and other products. They actually ended all internal taxes. The federal
government’s only sources of money were
now tariffs on imports and revenue from
the sale of Western lands.
Proudly, Jefferson said that those revenues—without the addition of taxes—
would be great enough to pay for roads,
education, arts, and other public works.
Beginning his second term, he pointed out
that it was
. . . the pride and pleasure of
an American to ask, what
farmer, what mechanic, what
laborer, ever sees a tax gatherer of the United States?
Out With the
Alien and Sedition Acts
The hated Alien and Sedition acts instituted by the Federalists expired at the end
of 1801. Jefferson did not renew them. Instead, he pardoned those who had been
convicted under the acts, even refunding
the fines that had been paid.
Congress passed a new naturalization
act. It went back to the 5-year residency
requirement for citizenship, instead of the
14 years required by the Alien Acts.
★ Conflict With the
Judicial Branch
The Republicans had gained control of
Congress and the presidency in 1800.
Between the election and Jefferson’s inauguration, Federalists in Congress passed
the Judiciary Act of 1801. This act
increased the number of federal judges.
Outgoing President John Adams then
filled many positions with members of his
own party. These judges were known as
“midnight judges” because Adams supposedly signed appointments for judges
until midnight on his last day in office.
Impeaching the Judges
Republicans argued that this way of
packing the courts with Federalists was
unfair. One of the first acts of Congress
after Jefferson took office was to repeal the
Judiciary Act. After doing away with the
midnight judges by abolishing their positions, the Republicans tried to remove
other Federalist judges by impeachment.
Impeachment means bringing charges
of wrongdoing against a public official.
According to the Constitution, a majority
of the House of Representatives can vote
to bring such charges against any government official. The Senate then acts as a
court to put the impeached official on trial.
If two-thirds of the Senate finds the official
guilty, he or she is dismissed from office.
In March 1804, Republicans in Congress managed to impeach and dismiss a
district judge and critic of Republicans,
John Pickering of New Hampshire. They
next targeted Supreme Court Justice
Samuel Chase, a harsh critic of the Republicans. The House impeached Chase, but
there were not enough Senate votes to
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
convict him. This ended the campaign to
impeach Federalist judges.
★ A Stronger
Supreme Court
Jefferson soon clashed with Chief Justice John Marshall, his distant cousin. The
case, which became famous as Marbury v.
Madison, involved one of Adams’s lastminute judicial appointments.
As one of his midnight judges, Adams
had named William Marbury as justice of
the peace in the District of Columbia.
Marbury’s official commission, however,
was not delivered to him before Jefferson
took office. Because Marbury was a Federalist, Jefferson ordered the new secretary
of state, James Madison, not to send Marbury his papers.
Marbury then petitioned the Supreme
Court to order Madison to carry out his
duties and deliver the commission. The
Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Court the
power to issue such an order. After all,
said Marbury, a President had signed and
sealed the commission.
The Supreme Court voted unanimously
in the case of Marbury v. Madison. They
decided that Marbury had the right to his
commission but that the Court would not
force Madison to hand it over to him. The
reason, Chief Justice Marshall explained,
was that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789
was unconstitutional. Under the Constitution, Congress could not give the Supreme
Court such power.
Judicial Review
The case of Marbury v. Madison was the
first time that the Supreme Court claimed
that it could declare that a law passed
by Congress was unconstitutional. This
power is called judicial review.
This Supreme Court ruling on Marbury
v. Madison set a precedent—a model that
later lawyers and judges would follow.
From then on, the Supreme Court could
use the power of judicial review as a check
against the other branches of government.
This gave the Supreme Court more power
than it had ever had.
Jefferson and the Republicans disliked
the decision because Federalists still controlled the Supreme Court. In addition, Jefferson believed in a strict construction of
the Constitution—limiting the authority of
the federal government to the powers
specifically granted to it by the Constitution. He pointed out that the Constitution
says nothing about judicial review of federal laws. Nevertheless, Jefferson and the
Congress accepted the ruling.
★ Section
Checking for Understanding
1. Define democratic, laissez-faire, impeachment,
Marbury v. Madison, judicial review, precedent.
2. What did Jefferson and Gallatin do to cut
government spending? Where did the
government get its revenue?
3. What precedent did the Supreme Court
establish in the case of Marbury v. Madison?
Critical Thinking
4. Analyzing Issues Re-create the diagram
shown here, and list Thomas Jefferson’s
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
principles of government and the actions he
took to carry out those principles.
5. The Arts Draw a picture of what you think
the city of Washington, D.C., looked like
on the day of Jefferson’s inauguration.
The Louisiana Purchase
Main Idea
Thomas Jefferson arranged to purchase western land known as the
Louisiana Territory from France, nearly doubling the size of the nation.
Reading Strategy
Classifying Information As you read
about the Louisiana Purchase, use a chart
similar to the one shown here to list Jefferson’s main reasons for seeking control of
the Mississippi River and New Orleans.
Read to Learn . . .
★ why President Jefferson wanted control
of the Mississippi River and
New Orleans.
★ how the United States doubled in size
in the early 1800s.
★ how explorations of the West helped the
United States to grow.
Terms to Know
★ cede
Reasons for Purchase
lthough Americans moved westward even before the American Revolution, in the 1790s most of the population
of the United States still clung close to the
Atlantic coast. To people at this time, the
West was the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, extending to the Mississippi River.
In the early 1800s, this notion began to
change as settlers moved west of the Mississippi River in search of new land and
new opportunities. The United States was
beginning to grow rapidly.
★ Making a Deal
With Napoleon
In 1800 the western border of the United States was the Mississippi River. Spain
controlled both the lower Mississippi and
the important port city of New Orleans.
Spanish control often caused problems
for Americans west of the Appalachian
Mountains. Americans depended on the
river to ship their flour, pork, apples, and
other products downriver for export to
the East and to the West Indies.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
Despite treaties, Spanish officials made
trouble for American shippers. They occasionally stopped them from using the
lower Mississippi River or imposed a tax
on goods sent through New Orleans.
The Louisiana Territory
The land from the Mississippi River
west to the Rocky Mountains—the
Louisiana Territory—had changed hands
between France and Spain several times
in the past 100 years. In a secret treaty in
1800, Spain ceded, or granted, the
Louisiana Territory to France.
When Jefferson learned of this treaty in
1801, he recognized that it held possible
dangers for the United States. France’s
ambitious general, Napoleon Bonaparte,
now a dictator, had plans to conquer
Europe. Jefferson feared that Napoleon
would also want to build an empire in
North America. Spain might give him
even more of its American colonies,
including the Floridas.
Jefferson also feared that French rule
over the Louisiana Territory would be
even more of a threat to American trade
and travel along the Mississippi River and
through New Orleans. This would disrupt
the growth and development of the western United States.
Jefferson was unwilling to see more
land in North America in European
hands. He authorized Robert Livingston,
ambassador to France, to offer to buy
New Orleans and West Florida. He sent
James Monroe, a diplomat and former
Virginia governor, as a special envoy, or
agent, to negotiate the purchase. The
House of Representatives voted $2 million
for the purchase, but Jefferson authorized
Monroe to offer up to $10 million.
A Revolution in the Caribbean
While French and American officials
were negotiating, the French were distracted by events in the Caribbean. Inspired by
the ideals of the French Revolution, in 1791
enslaved Africans and other laborers in the
French colony of Saint Domingue had
revolted against French plantation owners.
After fierce and bitter fighting, the rebels,
led by Toussaint-Louverture (TOO•SAN
LOO•vuhr•TUR), declared the colony an
independent republic. Toussaint set up a
new government.
In 1801 Napoleon sent an army to
recapture it. Toussaint was captured and
imprisoned in France. Only a few years
later, however, England and France once
again were at war. Napoleon needed his
army elsewhere. In 1804 the rebels
regained their freedom and set up the
republic of Haiti.
★ The Louisiana Purchase
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
The rebellion in Saint Domingue, combined with his war with Britain, ended
Napoleon’s interest in a French empire in
North America. Instead of sending troops
to Louisiana, Napoleon needed his troops
to fight wars in Europe.
Napoleon preferred to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States
rather than see the British obtain it.
Besides, he could use money from the
sale to pay for the war with Britain. He
ordered his foreign minister, Talleyrand,
to ask Livingston how much the United
States was willing to pay for all of the
Louisiana Territory.
Surprised by the offer, Livingston
replied that he had the authority to buy
New Orleans and Florida, not all the
Louisiana Territory. How could he make
such a decision? Luckily, Monroe arrived
the next day. After discussing the matter,
he and Livingston agreed to purchase the
Louisiana Territory.
The United States and France signed a
treaty in May of 1803. It gave the United
States the Louisiana Territory for $15 million. The addition almost doubled the size
of the United States.
★ Controversy Over
the Purchase
Considering the territory to be gained,
it may be hard to see why anyone would
hesitate. Yet, Jefferson faced a difficult
decision. The Louisiana Purchase soon
became the center of debate.
Jefferson and other Republicans were
strict constructionists. That is, they
believed that the federal government can
do only what the Constitution says—and
nothing more. Yet the Constitution does
not specifically give the federal government the power to purchase territory from
another country.
On the other hand, the huge territory,
much of it unexplored, was an unexpected prize. Owning it would end all the
problems with using the Mississippi
River. Jefferson himself had always been
interested in the West and had sent out
expeditions to map parts of it. He had
studied Native American cultures.
One way out of the dilemma was to
pass a constitutional amendment that
authorized the purchase of the Louisiana
Territory. Jefferson’s advisers, however,
worried that waiting to act on the treaty
might give Napoleon time to change his
H istory
lowered and the United States flag was raised
over the Louisiana Territory. How much did
the United States pay for the territory?
mind. They pointed out that the President
did have the power to make treaties.
Jefferson, therefore, sent the treaty to
the Senate for ratification in October of
1803. In his message to Congress, he
explained its importance:
While the property and sovereignty of the Mississippi
and its waters secure an
independent outlet for the
produce of the western
States . . . the fertility of the
country, its climate, and
extent, promise in due season important aids to our
treasury. . . .
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
125° W
130° W
120° W
115° W 110° W
45° N
mbia R.
The Louisiana Purchase and Western Exploration
Fort Clatsop
105° W
95° W
100° W
90° W
50° N
LEWIS, 1806
400 miles
St. Louis Kentucky
Gulf of Mexico
New Orleans
18 0
i R.
, 1805-1806
Disputed between
U.S. and Spain
E, 1
Return trip
25° N
Santa Fe
Lewis and Clark
th Pla
30° N
, 180
Pike captured
by Spanish
35° N
Salt Lake
Fort Mandan
RK, 180
l Di
n ta
40° N
85° W
400 kilometers
Location The purchase of the Louisiana Territory doubled the size of the
United States. Americans quickly set out to explore the region and lands
farther west. What natural feature is named after Zebulon Pike?
Federalist Opposition
For the unhappy Federalists, the
Louisiana Purchase was just one more Jeffersonian action to dislike. They feared
that this would increase the power of the
South by adding more states to the Union
that supported slavery and favored
Southern policies.
Federalist newspapers also cried out
against the cost. They wrote that if the $15
million purchase price were stacked up in
silver dollars, the stack would be three
miles high! Twenty-five ships would be
needed to transport this money to France.
The idea of so much new, open land,
however, appealed to most Americans as
much as it did to Jefferson. The Federalists’
opposition harmed their own cause more
than it endangered passage of the treaty.
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
The Senate quickly approved the
treaty, thus doubling the size of the United States and opening the way for westward expansion.
★ The Lewis and Clark
Much of the land west of the Mississippi River was unknown to Americans. Jefferson eagerly organized an expedition to
learn more about the area. To lead it, he
appointed Meriwether Lewis and
William Clark, a fellow Virginian. Both
men were knowledgeable amateur scientists, and had done business with Native
Americans. Lewis was a captain in the
army. Clark reenlisted in the army with
the rank of lieutenant.
The expedition was the first scientific
project in the nation’s history to receive
federal money. Jefferson gave Lewis and
Clark specific instructions. He told them
to find the sources of the Missouri River,
to try to find a usable route across the
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean,
and to observe the customs of the Native
Americans they met.
They were also to note carefully the features of the land, the weather, and the
plants and animals they saw. Jefferson
asked for detailed maps of the area.
Starting Out
In the spring of 1804, the Lewis and
Clark expedition set out from St. Louis,
Missouri, following the Missouri River.
Three boats carried the four dozen members of the expedition and extensive supplies, including gifts for the Native
Americans such as plumed hats, beads,
paints, and knives.
Lewis and Clark recorded their data in
great detail. They even sent packages back
to Jefferson with samples of items from
the Louisiana Territory. One package contained a stuffed antelope, a weasel, three
squirrels, a prairie dog, the horns of a
mountain goat, elk horns, a buffalo skin,
and a number of Native American items.
Shortly before winter, the expedition
reached the homeland of the Mandans, a
Native American nation located in what is
now North Dakota. The explorers built
Fort Mandan and settled in for the winter.
Crossing the Rocky Mountains
The next spring, April 1805, the expedition organized their equipment and supplies and set out for the Rocky Mountains.
They had a new guide and interpreter, a
Shoshone woman named Sacajawea
(SA•kuh•juh•WEE•uh) who had married
a French trader. Sacajawea had lived in the
Rocky Mountains, so she became an
invaluable addition to the expedition team.
When they reached an area known as
the Black Hills, the landscape changed
from flatland to hills, to “large irregular
masses of rocks and stones.” From the top
of these hills, Lewis glimpsed the Rocky
Mountains, “the object of all our hopes,
and the reward of all our ambition.”
Sacajawea guided the expedition to
Shoshone country in Idaho where she had
been born and raised. As the terrain
became more rugged, the explorers lost
many horses loaded with supplies. Sacajawea and her people helped Lewis and
Clark get more horses to continue their
journey across the Rocky Mountains.
To the Pacific Coast
Sacajawea and six other Shoshone
guides led the expedition through the
rugged Rocky Mountains and down into
the valley of the great Columbia River.
They reached the Pacific Ocean in the late
autumn of 1805 and spent the winter in
the Oregon Country. The next spring they
started back toward St. Louis. On September 23, 1806, the Lewis and Clark expedition reached St. Louis two years and four
months and almost 8,000 miles (12,900
km) after the start of their journey.
The expedition fully satisfied Jefferson’s
hopes. It did not find an all-water route
across North America, for there was none.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
Lewis and Clark did, however, find and
map several passes through the Rockies.
They established friendly relations with
many Native American nations and
brought back a wealth of information
about the Louisiana Territory and its
wildlife and resources. The expedition
strengthened the United States’s claim to
the Oregon Country.
★ The Discovery
of Pikes Peak
At the same time Lewis and Clark were
exploring the Louisiana Territory, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike was leading a smaller
expedition to the upper Mississippi River.
Pike did not find the source of the Mississippi, although he did learn much
about the land and about British trade
there. Later, in 1806 –1807, Pike explored
the Colorado region and sighted the tall
mountain now known as Pikes Peak.
★ The Election of 1804
At the end of Jefferson’s first term, the
United States was prosperous and at
peace. Its size had just doubled as a result
of the Louisiana Purchase. Jefferson easily
won reelection in 1804. In this election,
though, Jefferson had a new running mate.
George Clinton replaced Aaron Burr as the
Vice President.
The Burr Conspiracy
In 1804 Burr left the Republican party
to run for governor of New York as an
independent. He sought Federalist support for his candidacy, but Alexander
Hamilton, still a Federalist leader, forcefully campaigned against him. Even after
Burr lost the race by a large margin,
Hamilton continued to criticize Burr’s
integrity, or moral values.
Burr angrily challenged Hamilton to a
duel, a gunfight. Hamilton reluctantly
agreed. On a July morning in 1804, Burr
and Hamilton met. At the signal, Burr
fired and shot a bullet into Hamilton’s
body. Hamilton died the next day. Burr
became a political outcast. Later the United States government tried him for treason for attempting to establish an empire
for himself on the Western frontier.
Although Burr was acquitted, he soon left
the country.
★ Section
Checking for Understanding
1. Define cede.
2. Why were the Mississippi River and New
Orleans important to the United States?
buying the Louisiana Territory and to show
how he resolved it.
Critical Thinking
3. Cause and Effect How do you think the
Lewis and Clark expedition encouraged
people to move west in the early 1800s?
4. Analyzing Issues Re-create the diagram
shown here to list Jefferson’s dilemma in
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
5. Economics Create a want ad for people
to join the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Your ad should include the skills and abilities that the people would need for the
expedition and what the job would entail.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition—A New Frontier
As the Lewis and Clark expedition set off
from St. Louis on May 14, 1804, its goals were
both scientific and political. Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, along with
about 40 experienced soldiers, hunters, and
lumberers, set out to explore the vast
Louisiana Territory—its plants, animals,
geology, climate, and terrain. Their trip
would also establish a claim to the rich Oregon Territory.
With a flat-bottomed keelboat and two
dugouts, they traveled up the Missouri River,
crossed the Rocky Mountains, then paddled
down the Columbia River to the Pacific coast.
The two explorers carefully mapped the
entire trip, which covered about 8,000 miles
(12,900 km). As Jefferson had asked, they
noted the latitude and longitude of natural
features such as rapids and islands. They
packed their journals with descriptions and
sketches of all they saw. One amazing sight
was huge herds of buffalo on the prairies. “I
do not think I exaggerate,” Lewis wrote, saying he could see 3,000 animals at one time.
Many of the local plants and animals were
new to Lewis and Clark. They collected and
preserved specimens, such as a prairie dog,
jackrabbit, black-tailed deer, pronghorn, and
mountain sheep. Huge grizzly bears were a
frequent threat to the party. The annoyed
explorers gave the bear its scientific name:
Ursus arctos horribilis, or “terrible bear.” They
also found some huge bones that may have
been those of a dinosaur.
By the time the team returned to St. Louis
in 1806, they had filled many journals with
fascinating information about the new territory. A narrative of the journey published in
1814 tempted other adventurous Americans
to pack up and go west to settle and live.
Making the Science Connection
1. What were the purposes of Lewis and
Clark’s expedition?
2. How did the explorers study plants
and animals in Louisiana Territory?
3. How did they record details about the
land and climate?
4. Accurate descriptions and drawings
made Lewis and Clark’s observations
valuable. Look out the window now and
choose an example of flora (plants) or
fauna (animals). Draw and describe it so
exactly that someone who had never
seen it would be able to recognize it.
Troubles With France and Britain
Read to Learn . . .
Main Idea
The United States struggled to stay
neutral in the fighting between Great
Britain and France.
★ how Barbary pirates interfered with
American trade.
★ how France and Great Britain challenged the United States’s neutrality.
★ what steps President Jefferson took to
avoid war with France and Britain.
Reading Strategy
Terms to Know
Sequencing Information As you read
about the nation’s troubles with France and
Britain, create a time line such as the one
shown, and use it to list key events regarding the nation’s difficulty in remaining
neutral. Use the dates provided as a guide.
June 1807
Dec. 1807
homas Jefferson had entered the
presidency committed to Washington’s
policy of neutrality. When Great Britain
and France each tried to manipulate trade
with the United States as a weapon
against the other, the United States sought
ways to fight back.
For years pirates from the Barbary
Coast states of North Africa—Morocco,
Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripoli—had
harassed ships in the Mediterranean Sea.
They captured crews and cargoes,
demanding tribute, or payment for protection. Between 1789 and 1801, the United States paid several million dollars in
such tributes.
★ Mediterranean Piracy
In the early 1800s, trade between the
United States, the West Indies, and
Europe grew. American traders found
new ports as well, trading as far away as
China, Africa, and Argentina. An old
problem, however, threatened trade—the
pirates of the Barbary Coast States.
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
War With Tripoli
In 1801 the pasha, or ruler, of Tripoli
(part of present-day Libya) increased the
amount of tribute he wanted from the
United States. When Jefferson refused to
pay this tribute, Tripoli declared war on
the United States.
★ American Neutrality
Since coming to power in France,
Napoleon Bonaparte had been steadily
expanding his empire. He was a threat to
British trade and sea power, and in 1803
France and Great Britain were at war
again. Other European nations joined the
fight against Napoleon, but it was the conflict between France and Britain that
affected the United States.
Jefferson declared the United States’s
neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars, just as
Washington and Adams had in earlier
European wars. Both France and Britain,
however, announced that they would stop
American ships headed for the other
side’s ports. Each hoped to hurt the other
The Barbary Coast States
of North Africa, 1801
10° W
10° E
20° E
40° N
500 miles
250 500 kilometers
30° N
Mediterranean Sea
S TAT E Alexandria
Jefferson hesitated to declare war
because the Constitution did not specifically allow it. Instead, he quickly received
from Congress the authority to send warships to the Mediterranean Sea. He
ordered the navy to blockade, or close off,
the port of Tripoli.
One American ship, the Philadelphia,
ran aground off Tripoli. Pirates captured
its captain and crew. To keep the pasha
from using the ship, Commodore Edward
Preble ordered the Philadelphia destroyed.
A daring young American officer, Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, led a raiding
party into the harbor of Tripoli at night,
boarded the ship, and set it on fire.
The war with Tripoli ended in 1805
when the pasha signed a peace agreement
ending the payment of tribute. Even so, all
payments to the Barbary Coast States did
not end until 1815 when the United States
signed a treaty with Algiers.
The war against the Barbary pirates was
popular at home. It demonstrated the need
for the nation to maintain a navy. It also
proved to other countries that the United
States would fight to protect its interests.
Location To protect United States ships,
the American government paid a yearly
bribe to the rulers of the Barbary States.
What bodies of water bordered the
Barbary Coast States?
country’s trade and deprive it of needed
food and supplies.
French and British warships did seize
some American trade ships. Although
hundreds of American ships were seized
between 1805 and 1807, neutrality was
profitable for American traders. Ships that
maneuvered through the blockades established by France and Great Britain made
great profits—making it worth the risks of
being caught.
Seizing American Sailors
The British also continued to take
sailors from American ships and force
them to serve on British ships. This practice, called impressment, was common in
Great Britain. The British navy claimed
that the American sailors were the king’s
Student Web Activity
Visit the American History: The Early Years to 1877
Web site at and click on Chapter 11—
Student Web Activities for an activity about pirates.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
Linking Past and Present
The American Diet
Most Americans eat a lot.
But do they eat well? Apparently not much has changed
in nearly 200 years.
Too Much Fat
French visitors to the United
States in 1807 complained that
Americans ate too much butter, lard, salt pork, and greasy
puddings. Indeed, one visitor
said that American eating
habits were so bad that a day
didn’t pass in this country
without “heaping indigestions
upon one another” from one
meal to the next.
Too Much Fat!
In July 1988 the surgeon general of the United States reported that most nutritional health
problems are caused by poor
eating habits. Americans, the
report said, eat too many foods
that are high in fat, salt, and
subjects. Some were in fact deserters from
the British navy, sailors who had left
British warships to sail on American ships.
The British, however, seized even Britishborn sailors who had become American
citizens (which British law did not recognize). Despite the government’s protests,
the British continued impressment.
The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
In June 1807, the American warship
Chesapeake had just left its base in Virginia.
British sailors on the Leopard ordered it to
stop so they could search for British deserters. When the commander of the Chesapeake
refused, the Leopard’s guns opened fire.
Taken by surprise, three of the crew of
the Chesapeake were killed and others
wounded. The ship was badly damaged.
The British boarded the ship and took
four suspected deserters, three of whom
were Americans.
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
The damaged Chesapeake limped back
to its home port. Americans in both parties were outraged and demanded war
with Great Britain. President Jefferson
remarked, “This country has never been
in such a state of excitement since the battle of Lexington.”
Jefferson, however, knew that the United States was not ready for war with the
greatest sea power in the world. He
looked for other ways to stop the interference with America’s trade and end the
insults to America’s pride.
★ A Ban on Foreign Trade
Jefferson’s decision was to place an
embargo, an official government ban, on
trade with both Great Britain and France.
He hoped to hurt their war efforts enough
to force them to stop seizing American
ships and sailors.
The Embargo Act
Congress passed the Embargo Act in
December of 1807, prohibiting all American ships and their cargo from leaving the
United States for foreign ports. The act
was a disaster for American trade and for
Jefferson’s own popularity. Great Britain
was hurt only a little, whereas France was
hardly hurt at all by the act.
American harbors were crowded with
ships and cargo with no place to go. It is
estimated that as many as 50,000 sailors
were out of work, and as many as 100,000
other workers lost their jobs. Businesses
failed, and many people were imprisoned
for debt. Prices of goods dropped because
there was a surplus. Even the government, which depended on import tariffs,
lost millions of dollars. Smuggling goods
across the Canadian border to get around
the embargo became common.
The Embargo Act caused the greatest
hardship for merchants and shipowners
in the Northeast—mostly Federalists.
Some of these Federalists suggested that
Jefferson had acted unconstitutionally.
Farmers and planters also suffered
because they lost markets in other countries for their surplus crops.
On the one-year anniversary of the
Embargo Act, sailors and shipbuilders in
port towns of the Northeast protested the
act by marching to funeral music. Ships in
the harbors flew their flags at half-mast to
protest the act.
Softening the Embargo Act
Like George Washington before him,
Thomas Jefferson had decided not to run
for a third term. In the election of 1808,
Jefferson’s secretary of state and fellow
Republican, James Madison, won the presidency. Although Madison easily defeated
the Federalist candidate, Charles C. Pinckney, the Federalists finished stronger than
they had in the last election.
A few days before Jefferson left office,
Congress repealed, or canceled, the Embargo Act. Jefferson approved a replacement
act—the Non-Intercourse Act.
The Non-Intercourse Act allowed
Americans to trade with any nation
except France and Great Britain. Although
less harmful to American trade than the
Embargo Act, the Non-Intercourse Act
was no more successful in forcing France
and Great Britain to respect the rights of
the United States. In 1810 Congress
replaced it with Macon’s Bill No. 2, which
stated that if either France or Great Britain
agreed to respect neutral rights, the United States would cut off trade with the
other nation.
★ Section
Checking for Understanding
1. Define blockade, impressment, deserter,
2. How did President Jefferson respond to
Tripoli’s declaration of war?
3. Why was British interference with American
ships more serious than that by the French?
Critical Thinking
4. Analyzing Issues Re-create the diagram
shown here to describe the Embargo Act and
the problems it created for the United States.
Embargo Act
5. Economics Use Historical Statistics of
the United States to find the value of the
United States’s imports and exports from
1800 to 1810. Make a double line graph
showing this information.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
The War Hawks
Read to Learn . . .
Main Idea
As tensions with Britain increased, a
number of American leaders called
for war against the British.
★ why President Madison stopped
American trade with Great Britain.
★ how conflicts grew between
Native Americans and settlers on
the frontier.
★ which Americans wanted war with
Great Britain.
Reading Strategy
Organizing Information As you read
about the war hawks, use a diagram similar to the one shown here to explain why
Westerners and Southerners supported war.
for War
Terms to Know
★ shaman
★ war hawk
fter two terms as President,
Thomas Jefferson retired to his beloved
home at Monticello. In a letter to Pierre
Du Pont de Nemours, a friend, Jefferson
wrote how happy he was to retire to “my
family, my books and farms. . . . Never did
a prisoner, released from his chains, feel
such relief as I shall on shaking off the
shackles of power.”
In writing the epitaph for his own
tombstone, Jefferson chose to be remembered for accomplishments other than for
being President. The short epitaph reads:
Author of the Declaration
of Independence, of the
Statute of Virginia for
Religious Freedom, and
Father of the University of
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
★ James Madison
Takes Over
Jefferson’s handpicked successor as
President was his political ally, friend, fellow Virginian, and secretary of state—
James Madison. Madison’s running mate
was George Clinton, a former governor of
New York. The Federalist candidates were
the same as in 1804, Charles C. Pinckney
and Rufus King.
In spite of Americans’ anger over the
Embargo Act, the Republicans won the
election of 1808 decisively. Madison owed
his victory mainly to support in the South
and the West. All the New England states
except Vermont voted Federalist.
Madison, a man known for his brilliant
mind, had played a large part in writing
the Constitution and passing the Bill of
Rights. He and Jefferson shared the same
ideas about government. Madison
planned to follow Jefferson’s policy of
neutrality, but events forced him to
change those plans.
More Trouble With Britain
With the Non-Intercourse Act, the
United States’s economy began to recover somewhat from the Embargo Act. Yet
the law did little to force France and
Britain to respect the neutral rights of the
United States.
In 1810 Congress passed a new law that
reopened trade with all nations. It also
allowed the President to reinstate the
embargo if France or Britain again interfered with American ships. Finally, if
either country lifted its restrictions on
American trade, the United States would
cut off trade with the other one.
Napoleon saw a chance to hurt Britain
and so agreed that France would end its
restrictions on American trade. Madison
gave Britain a last chance to do the same,
but British ships continued to attack American merchant ships and seize American
sailors. In March 1811, President Madison
cut off trade with Great Britain. The two
countries moved closer to war.
★ Native American
The British-American struggle on the
seas was linked to continuing conflicts in
the Ohio Valley and the Northwest Territory. As more Americans moved west of
the Appalachians, they displaced the
Native Americans who lived there.
As Native Americans realized that they
were losing their way of life, they fought
back. Often the British helped. Settlers on
the frontier knew that it was the British in
H istory
election of 1808, Thomas Jefferson endorsed his secretary
of state, James Madison, for
the presidency. Who was Madison’s running
mate in 1808?
Canada who supplied the Native Americans with guns. They resented the British
and the Native Americans equally.
New Native American Leaders
During these difficult times, a remarkable Native American leader emerged
to lead the resistance. In about 1808,
a Shawnee chief named Tecumseh
(tuh•KUHM•suh) began to form a confederation of all the Native Americans
east of the Mississippi River. Tecumseh
knew that a united front was necessary for
effective resistance. He rejected the idea
that any one tribe could sell land that
belonged to all the Native Americans. He
pointed out that the Treaty of Greenville
signed after the Battle of Fallen Timbers
granted the victorious white settlers only
a limited territory.
Tecumseh worked with his brother, a
shaman, or religious leader. Tecumseh’s
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
brother, Tenskwatawa, was known as
The Prophet. They founded a settlement
in the Indiana Territory, where the
Tippecanoe River and the Wabash River
meet (near present-day Lafayette, Indiana). Known as Prophetstown, it became
the center of the confederation.
Biography ★★★★
Tecumseh Seeks Unity
The name Tecumseh, or Tikamthi, means
“Shooting Star.” This name suited the
Shawnee leader born in Ohio in 1768. He
stressed to the Native American nations
that there was strength through unity. He
urged them to think of themselves first as
“red people” and second as members of a
certain nation. He tried to give them a
feeling of pride and an identity beyond
loyalties to their nations.
His brother, The Prophet, called on the
people to retain their own ways and reject
those of white settlers. He impressed his
followers with dreams, chants, and an accurate prediction of an eclipse of the sun.
In August 1810 Tecumseh asked for a
meeting with William Henry Harrison,
the governor and military commander in
the Indian territory. Tecumseh urged that
the United States give up some recently
“purchased” territory on the grounds that
the chiefs who signed the treaty had no
authority to do so. Harrison replied that
only the President could answer such a
request. Tecumseh answered:
Well, as the great chief is to
decide the matter, I hope the
Great Spirit will put sense
enough into his head to
induce him to give up this
land. It is true, he is so far
off he will not be injured by
the war; he may sit still in
his town . . . while you and
I will have to fight it out.
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
Tecumseh had threatened the Americans with war, but he hoped to delay until
his forces were stronger. In the fall of 1811,
he left Prophetstown to seek alliances
with the Creek Nation and others in the
Southeast. He told The Prophet to avoid
any confrontations with the army.
Harrison feared the growing strength
of the Indian confederation. Aware that
Tecumseh was away, he decided to
attack Prophetstown. When he and
about 1,000 soldiers arrived at the settlement, The Prophet panicked and led his
warriors into what is known as the Battle of Tippecanoe, near present-day
West Lafayette, Indiana. Many soldiers
and warriors died, and Prophetstown
was burned. In revenge, some Native
Americans raided frontier settlements.
The Battle of Tippecanoe was only the
beginning of a long, deadly war between
Native Americans and white settlers on
the frontier.
Tecumseh died in 1813. His death
destroyed the dream of a Native American confederation. Afterward, several
Native American nations made peace
with Harrison.
★ A Call for War
Americans now had two reasons to be
angry at Britain. The continuing trouble at
sea insulted American pride and hurt
trade. The conflicts on the frontier, with
the British supporting Native Americans,
hurt westward expansion.
People who urged war with Britain
became known as war hawks. As troubles
on the frontier and at sea continued, the
number of war hawks increased.
Anti-British feelings were strongest in
the West and South. Members of Congress
from the West said there could be no
peace on the frontier until the British were
pushed out of North America. They wanted to conquer British Canada as well as
safeguard the frontier.
Members of Congress from the South
joined in the calls for a strong stand against
Great Britain. Many Southerners wanted to
obtain Florida from Spain, Britain’s ally. It
was a haven for runaway slaves and
Native American raiding parties. Acquiring Florida also appealed to those who
wanted to add more land to the United
War Is Declared
The harsh winter of 1811–1812, along
with the American embargo, caused great
H istory
Tippecanoe began a series of battles
between Native Americans and white
settlers. Who led the Native Americans
at the Battle of Tippecanoe?
hardship for the British. Food was scarce,
and British-made factory goods piled up
on docks and in warehouses. Britain’s war
with Napoleon continued. The British,
desperate for help, repealed the orders for
interference in American shipping.
Before President Madison learned that
the British government had changed its
policy, he gave in to the demands of the
war hawks. On June 18, 1812, he asked
Congress to declare war against Great
★ Section
Checking for Understanding
1. Define shaman, war hawk.
2. What events led to the failure of Tecumseh’s
4. Analyzing Issues Re-create the diagram
shown here, and list the two main reasons
Americans were angry at Britain.
Anger at Britain
Critical Thinking
3. Identifying Cause and Effect What effect
did frontier battles with Native Americans
have on Americans’ feelings about declaring
war on Great Britain?
5. The Arts Choose a side in the argument
about war with Great Britain. Then draw
a cartoon supporting your point of view.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
Critical Thinking Skills
Comparing Points of View
Learning the Skill
Much of history is the story of opposing
viewpoints and how the differences between
them were resolved. To really understand
history, you must learn to compare points of
view on an issue. To do so, first look for the
basic differences between the viewpoints.
Also, identify what aspect of the issue each
viewpoint stresses.
One issue that divided Americans in the
early 1800s was the acquisition of the
Louisiana Territory. Read these excerpts and
answer the questions.
A. “. . . [T]he fertility of the country, its climate and extent, promise in due season
important aids to our treasury, an ample
provision for our posterity, and a widespread field for the blessings of freedom and equal laws. . . . With the
wisdom of Congress it will rest to take
those . . . measures which may be necessary for the immediate occupation and
temporary government of the country;
for its incorporation into our Union. . . .”
—President Thomas Jefferson (1803)
B. “But as to Louisiana, this new, immense,
unbounded world, if it should ever be
incorporated into this Union . . . I believe
it will be the greatest curse that could at
present befall us. . . . Gentlemen on all
sides, with very few exceptions, agree
that the settlement of this country will
be highly injurious and dangerous to the
United States. . . . Thus our citizens will
be removed to the immense distance of
two or three thousand miles from the
capital of the Union, where they will
scarcely ever feel the rays of the General
Government. . . .”
—Senator Samuel White (1803)
Practicing the Skill
1. Who are the writers of each passage?
2. What does Jefferson think about the
future importance of Louisiana?
3. What is Senator White’s point of view
on the issue of acquiring Louisiana?
4. What can you conclude is each
writer’s general attitude toward the
expansion of the United States?
Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive
Workbook, Level 1 provides instruction and practice in key social
studies skills.
5. On the editorial page of your local
newspaper, find two letters to the editor
that express different viewpoints on the
same issue or topic. Read the letters
and identify the main differences
between their points of view.
The War of 1812
Read to Learn . . .
Main Idea
The United States and Britain fought a
war in 1812.
Reading Strategy
Sequencing Information As you read
about the war of 1812, create a time line
like the one shown, and use it to show
key events of the conflict. Use the dates
provided as a guide.
★ what challenges the United States faced
when the War of 1812 began.
★ about the major campaigns of the War
of 1812.
★ how the War of 1812 affected the
United States.
Terms to Know
★ privateer
★ national anthem
hen President James Madison
sent his war message to Congress, he gave
several reasons for declaring war. He
accused the British government of acts
“hostile to the United States as an independent and neutral nation.” He declared
that “our commerce has been plundered
in every sea. . . .” and he blamed the
British for frontier warfare with Native
★ Lack of Preparation
for War
The United States entered the war at a
great disadvantage. The military was weak
and unprepared. The regular army had a small
force of soldiers led by
inexperienced officers. It
had to depend on help from state militias.
To challenge the powerful British navy,
the United States navy in 1812 had fewer
than 20 oceangoing ships. In the first year
of the war, Congress failed to authorize
the building of more warships. The United States paid privateers, or armed ships
owned by individuals, to fight. Although
privateers could not stand up to British
warships, they were able to capture more
than 1,300 British merchant ships. The
British in turn blockaded the coast, stopping American shipping.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
The War of 1812, Northern Campaigns
85° W
80° W
75° W
65° W
70° W
ce R
90° W
t. L
(part of Mass.)
Ft. Michilimackinac
Surrender (1812)
York (1813)
The Thames (1813)
(November 1811)
40° N
Ft. Meigs
Chippewa (1814)
mac R.
(August 1814)
a sh
pi R
Surrender (1812)
Ft. Dearborn
Surrender (1812)
Ft. Niagara
Lundy's Lane (1814)
Ft. Detroit
Lake Mic
45° N
Ft. McHenry
Burning of
Washington, D.C.
(August 1814)
35° N
American victory
British troops
Native American battle
American troops
British victory
200 miles
200 kilometers
Region In the early months of the War of 1812, Americans hoped to seize
Canada from the British. Around which two Great Lakes did a number of
battles take place?
★ The Campaign for Canada
One major goal of the war was the conquest of Canada, Britain’s last holding in
North America. Henry Clay, a war hawk
from Kentucky and speaker of the House,
bragged in Congress that the United States
could easily win a war in Canada. He said
that the militia of Kentucky by itself could
“place Montreal and Upper Canada at
your feet.”
The First Invasions
Clay was too optimistic, however. The
first plan was a three-way invasion of
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
Canada from Detroit, from Fort Niagara on
Lake Ontario, and from Lake Champlain in
New York. All three campaigns failed.
The most embarrassing was the loss of
Detroit. General William Hull, governor
of the Michigan Territory, led his troops
across the Detroit River into Canada but
was forced to retreat by the British and
their Native American allies. Soon after,
Hull surrendered Detroit to the British,
who held it for more than a year.
The invasions from Fort Niagara and
Lake Champlain were almost as unsuccessful. The British defeated and captured the American forces when the state
militias refused to help or to fight outside
their states.
Still more United States defeats came in
the West. Combined British and Native
American forces captured both Fort
Michilimackinac in northern Michigan
and Fort Dearborn (present-day Chicago).
With these victories, the British had control of much of the Northwest Territory.
At sea, the tiny United States navy had
little chance against the British fleet. A
few individual ships, however, fought
boldly. One famous sea battle in August
1812 was between the frigate Constitution,
captained by Isaac Hull, and the British
ship Guerriere. During fierce combat Hull
won a decisive battle. The Constitution‘s
crew, proud that the ship’s oak hull resisted British guns, called it Old Ironsides.
Victory on the Great Lakes
During 1813 matters improved in the
western end of the war zone and brought
American victories. In April, United States
troops captured the city of York (presentday Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada,
and burned some official buildings.
A few months later, Oliver Hazard
Perry, a young naval officer, assembled a
fleet of 10 small ships that daringly
attacked British warships on Lake Erie.
Perry triumphantly reported: “We have
met the enemy and they are ours.” The
victory forced the British to leave Detroit
and made Perry a hero. It also won back
control of Michigan and gave Americans a
much-needed boost in spirits.
Battle of the Thames River
The Battle of Lake Erie cleared the way
for another invasion of Canada. In October 1813, General William Henry Harrison
took an army of about 3,500 across Lake
Erie in pursuit of the British forces fleeing
from Detroit. In the Battle of the Thames
River, they defeated a smaller force of
about 600 British and 1,000 Native Americans led by Tecumseh.
Tecumseh, who held the rank of
brigadier general in the British army, was
killed in the fighting. His death ended the
British-Shawnee alliance. However, fighting continued back and forth on the Canada–New York border.
★ The British Invasion
By the spring of 1814, Britain and its
allies had defeated Napoleon in Europe.
Britain could now send thousands of its
best troops to fight the United States.
While fighting continued to rage on the
New York–Canada border, another British
army arrived in the Chesapeake Bay.
The British Burn Washington
On August 24, 1814, British troops captured Washington, D.C. President Madison and his cabinet fled the city to avoid
capture. There was barely time to save
historic government papers such as the
original Declaration of Independence.
Dolley Madison, the wife of the
President, is credited with saving many
The First Star-Spangled
Banner, 1795–1818 The
Stars and Stripes flag
gained two more stars
and two more stripes in 1795, after Kentucky and Vermont had joined the Union.
This flag flew over Fort McHenry during
the War of 1812 and inspired Francis
Scott Key to write “The Star-Spangled
Congress realized that the flag would
become too large if a stripe were added
for every new state. It decided to keep
the stripes at 13—for the thirteen original colonies—and to add a star for each
new state.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
The British celebrated the burning of
Washington, regarding it as a decisive end
to the war. They moved on to attack the
harbor at Baltimore in early September.
The troops at Fort McHenry, who protected the city and the harbor, held off the
British bombardment for 25 hours, finally
forcing the British army to retreat.
Francis Scott Key, a Washington
lawyer, watched the fierce battle from the
deck of a prisoner-of-war exchange ship.
He was so moved by what he saw that he
scribbled a few lines of poetry on an envelope. Set to the tune of a traditional English song, it became popular throughout
the country. In 1931 Congress adopted it
as the national anthem, an official song of
praise and patriotism.
★ New Orleans
Late in 1814, British forces planned to
invade the United States from the south,
at New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson
and his backwoods—rural—sharpshooters were ready for them, however. Jackson’s soldiers were confident they would
win. Admiringly, they called Jackson “Old
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
British attacks on American ships and
impressment of American sailors
British support for Native Americans
in the West
American trade suffers from British
interference with shipping
Possibility of acquiring Florida from
Spain, a British ally
• War of 1812
“The Rockets’ Red Glare”
papers along
with a famous
portrait of George
To avenge the burning of the Canadian
capital of York, the British set Washington
on fire. Fire gutted the Capitol, the President’s House (later called the White
House), and other buildings.
United States wins respect of Great
Britain and other foreign countries
American ships enjoy freedom of
the seas
Americans experience increased
pride and sense of national identity
Native Americans forced to give up
land in Ohio Valley and Northwest
Settlement of West increases
Hickory,” because they knew of no wood
tougher than hickory. Jackson had earned
his name leading the Tennessee militia
against Creek warriors in 1813.
The Battle of New Orleans on January 8,
1815, was the greatest victory of the war.
Jackson’s sharpshooters patiently hid
behind bales of cotton, their guns aimed at
the 8,000 British soldiers sent to capture the
city. In the battle that followed, more than
2,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded. American casualties were only about 20.
What neither side knew was that the
Battle of New Orleans was needless. Because communications were slow, neither
side knew that more than two weeks earlier, the United States and Britain had signed
a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium.
The War of 1812,
Southern Campaigns
85° W
90° W
★ The War Ends
80° W
Horseshoe Bend
Ft. Mims
Burnt Corn Creek
30° N
Lake Pontchartrain
Ft. Bowyer
Lake Pontchartrain
New Orleans
(January 8, 1815)
Gulf of Mexico
American victory
British blockade
British troops
American troops
British victory
The Aftermath of the War
The Treaty of Ghent, signed on Christmas Eve of 1814, ended the fighting but
actually settled nothing. It did not deal
with the rights of American ships or the
impressment of American sailors. Neither
side gained or lost territory.
Most Americans felt proud and selfconfident at the end of the War of 1812.
The young nation had gained new respect
The war had deeply divided the nation.
Many people in New England had been
opposed to the war. These people, mostly
Federalists, saw that the war would ruin
their local economies. In December 1814,
delegates from New England met in secret
at Hartford, Connecticut. The Hartford
Convention talked of forming a confederacy of New England states.
Before the delegates could meet with
the President to press their demands,
news of the victory at New Orleans and
the end of the war forced them to abandon their demands. Not much more was
heard from the Federalist party.
i Ri
ve r
35° N
Native American battle
200 miles
200 kilometers
25° N
Movement Hoping to take control of the
Mississippi Valley, British forces
advanced to New Orleans in the last
months of 1814. Who won the battle
for New Orleans?
from other nations in the world. Americans felt a new sense of patriotism and a
strong national identity.
★ Section
Checking for Understanding
1. Define privateer, national anthem.
2. What were the disadvantages of the United
States in the War of 1812?
Critical Thinking
3. Analyzing Issues How did the outcome of
the war affect the way that many Americans
viewed themselves?
4. Analyzing Events Re-create the diagram
shown here, and list the reasons why
Admiral Perry’s victory on Lake Erie was so
important to the United States.
Importance of
Perry’s Victory
5. Citizenship Read the words of “The
Star-Spangled Banner” and imagine that
you are Francis Scott Key. Draw a picture
to illustrate a scene from the song.
CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815
Economic Development
3. Re-create the diagram shown here and list
Jefferson’s main economic goals.
Self-Check Quiz
Economic Goals
Visit the American History: The Early Years to
1877 Web site at and click on
Chapter 11—Self-Check Quizzes to prepare for
the chapter test.
History and Geography
Using Key Vocabulary
Use the following vocabulary words to complete the sentences below.
judicial review
1. When the Supreme Court decided that the
Judiciary Act was unconstitutional, it set a
precedent for using the power of ________.
2. In an 1800 treaty, Spain ________ the
Louisiana Territory to France.
3. In 1807 Congress ordered an ________ on
American trade with Great Britain and France.
Congress Votes on the War of 1812
Study the map. Then answer the questions.
In what states was there no opposition to the war? What regions are they in?
What was the southernmost state
in which members of Congress were opposed
to the war against Britain?
Congressional Votes on the
War of 1812
90° W
85° W
4. Tecumseh’s brother, The Prophet, was a
________ who urged his followers to return to
traditional ways of life.
65° W
45° N
Territory Michigan
s ip
pi R
2. Identify the goals of the Lewis and Clark
expedition to the Louisiana Territory.
70° W
Vt. (Mass.)
1. Describe the changes that Jefferson’s administration made in the government.
75° W
Reviewing Facts
80° W
R.I. 40° N
35° N
Understanding Concepts
Mississippi Ga.
U.S. Role in World Affairs
1. How did the War of 1812 affect Americans’
attitude toward their nation?
2. How did the War of 1812 affect Great Britain’s
attitude toward the United States?
UNIT 4 Early Years of the Republic: 1789–1830
30° N
Home of members
voting for war
Home of members
voting against war
25° N
Critical Thinking
Identifying Central Issues
Making Comparisons
What did the
Republican victory in 1800 show about the
strength of the Constitution and the new United States government?
What were some
differences and similarities between Jefferson’s administration and those of Adams
and Washington?
Interdisciplinary Activity:
Have each member of your group choose to be
one of the following people: Thomas Jefferson,
Tecumseh, Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison,
John Adams, or Andrew Jackson. Prepare and
present a debate on the pros and cons of declaring war on Great Britain in 1812.
Practicing Skills
doubtful policy, but I sustained it. . . [to give
it] a fair experiment. A year passed away, and
the evils, which it inflicted upon ourselves,
were daily increasing in magnitude and
extent; and in the meantime . . . Great Britain
was enjoying a triumphant monopoly of the
commerce of the world.”
—Justice Joseph Story, 1831
1. Which passage supports the embargo? Which
indicates it was a bad idea?
2. What reasons does Senator Giles give for his
opinion on the embargo?
3. What economic effects of the embargo does
Justice Story mention?
Technology Activity
Developing a Multimedia Presentation
Work with another student to create a multimedia presentation about an event
discussed in this chapter. Use the
Internet and other library resources
to collect information, including
pictures, maps, and
quotes. Organize the
material and present it
to the class.
Comparing Points of View
The two passages represent different viewpoints about the Embargo Act. Read the passages
and then answer the questions.
A. “I have always understood that there were
two objects contemplated by the embargo
laws. . . . Precautionary, in saving our seamen, our ships and our merchandize from
the plunder of our enemies and avoiding the
calamities of war. Coercive, by addressing
strong appeals to the interests of both the
belligerents. The first object has been
answered beyond my most [hopeful] expectations. . . . But, Sir, these are not the only
good effects of the embargo. It has preserved
our peace—it has saved our honor—it has
saved our national independence.”
—Senator W.B. Giles, 1808
B. “[The embargo] prostrated the whole commerce of America and produced a degree of
distress in the New England States greater
than that which followed upon the War. I
always thought that it was a measure of
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CHAPTER 11 The Age of Jefferson: 1800–1815