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C H A P T E R 3: T H E
U. S . H I S T O R Y S T U D Y G U I D E
A M E R I C A N C O L O N I E S T A K E S H A P E , 1 6 0 7- 1 76 5
SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century.
e. Analyze the impact of location and place on colonial settlement, transportation, and economic development; include the southern,
middle, and New England colonies.
SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.
a. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade.
b. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture.
c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.
d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.
SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.
a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid
the groundwork for the American Revolution.
b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in
Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence.
Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin's 1754 proposal to
create one government for the 13 colonies
Benjamin Franklin colonial printer noted as a symbol of
individualism, social mobility, and Enlightenment ideals
cash crop crop grown for sale
dame school private school for girls operated out of a woman's
English Bill of Rights 1689 document that guaranteed certain
rights to English citizens
Enlightenment 18th C. movement based on the idea that science
and reason could be used to solve society's problems
French and Indian War (1754-1763) war in which Britain and its
colonies defeated France and its Native American allies and gained
control of eastern North America
George Washington military commander in the French and
Indian and Revolutionary wars; first president of the United States of
Great Awakening a religious movement of 1730s-1740s inspired
by evangelical preachers who stressed dependence on God
habeas corpus guarantee that no one can be imprisoned without
being charged with a specific crime
indentured servant person who agreed to work without pay for
an employer in exchange for passage to the colonies (page 66)
Magna Carta (1215) English document that limited the king's
power and established basic rights for citizens
mercantilism economic policy under which a nation accumulates
wealth by exporting more goods than it imports
Middle Passage the forced transport of enslaved Africans from
West Africa across the Atlantic to America (page 69)
Navigation Acts British trade laws enacted by Parliament during
the mid-1700s that regulated colonial commerce
Parliament legislative body of a country
Phyllis Wheatley first African-American to publish a book of
Pontiac's Rebellion 1763 uprising by Native Americans in the
Great Lakes region
Proclamation of 1763 declaration by the British king that all
colonists were to remain east of the Appalachian Mountains
salutary neglect British policy in the early 1700s which allowed
the colonies virtual self-rule as long as Great Britain was gaining
staple crop crops in steady demand
triangular trade three-way pattern of trade established between
England, English colonies in America and West Africa
fall line the area where rivers descend from a high elevation to a
lower one, causing waterfalls (page 93)
gentry the wealthy landowners in the South (page 86)
George Whitefield Preacher of the Great Awakening
Grand Banks a shallow region in the Atlantic Ocean teeming with
John Locke one of the earliest and most influential Enlightenment
Jonathan Edwards Preacher of the Great Awakening
meetinghouse the name given to Puritan churches
Montesquieu political philosopher who believed in separation of
powers in government
natural rights rights that all people are born with
plantations large commercial estates where many workers lived on
the land and cultivated the crops for the landowner
slave code a set of laws that formally regulated slavery and
defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people
Stono Rebellion rebellion by enslaved people against white
slaveholders in South Carolina
revivals large public meetings for preaching and prayer
Section 1: Immigration and Slavery
As the English colonies grew, more and more Europeans immigrated there, particularly people of Scottish, Scotch-Irish and German
lineage. As demand for laborers increased, the numbers of Africans enslaved and sold in the Americas increased as well.
Section 2: The American Colonies and England
The colonies maintained close ties with England. They depend on trade with England, and they looked to English tradition to shape
colonial law and government Yet by the 1700s, the colonies began developing independent ideas about government and the economy.
Section 3: Comparing Regional Cultures
Three regions emerged as geography and climate influenced the social structures and economic ways of life in each area. These
regions are known as the Southern, Middle and New England colonies.
Section 4: Wars of Empire
Conflicts between European powers spread to North America as Britain went to war against France and its Native American allies.