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Write: Explain in your own words at least two of the rationales for English expansion in the
New World given by Richard Hakluyt in his 1584 document. Connect them to a political or
social event taking place in Britain or Europe as a whole at that time.
Richard Hakluyt, Discourse of Western Planting, 1584
A particular discourse concerning the great necessity and manifold commodities that are like to grow to this Realm of England by the Western discoveries lately
attempted, Written In the year 1584 by Richard Hakluyt of Oxford at the request and direction of the right worshipful Sir Walter Raieigh (excerpts)
• That this western discovery will be greatly for the enlargement of the gospel of Christ whereunto the
Princes of the reformed religion are chiefly bound amongst whom her Majesty is principal.
• That all other English Trades are grow beggarly or dangerous, especially in all the king of Spain's
Dominions, where our men are driven to fling their Bibles and prayer books into the sea, and to forswear
and renounce their religion and conscience and consequently their obedience to her Majesty
• That this western voyage will yield unto us all the commodities of Europe, Africa, and Asia....
• That this enterprise will be for the manifold employment of numbers of idle men…
• That this voyage will be a great bridle to the Indies of the king of Spain and a means that we may arrest
…one or two hundred sail of his subjects ships at the fishing in Newfoundland.
• That the richness that the Indian Treasure wrought in time of Charles the late Emperor father to the
Spanish king, is to be had in consideration of the Queen, most excellent Majesty, least the continual
coming of the like treasure from thence to his son, work the unrecoverable annoy of this Realm…
• What special means may bring king Phillip from his high Throne, and make him equal to the Princes his
neighbors, wherewithal is showed his weakness in the west Indies. […]
• That the Spaniards have executed most outrageous and more then Turkish cruelties in all the west
Indies, whereby they are every where there, become most odious unto them, who would join with us or
any other most willingly to shake of their most intolerable yoke, and have begun to do it already in divers
places where they were Lords heretofore. […]
• That the Queen of England's title to all the west Indies, or at the least to as much as is from Florida to
the Circle artic, is more lawful and right than the Spaniards or any other Christian Princes.
Topic: Early British Colonization in the New World (1500-1733)
Aim: Explain and analyze the reasons and effectiveness of early British attempts at
colonization in the New World.
• Describe the factors
which led to England
lagging behind in the
race to establish
colonies in the New
• How does this 1588
portrait of Queen
Elizabeth I illustrate
England‘s imperialist
• Detail the role of
British nationalism in
the late 1500s that
contributed to imperial
Queen Elizabeth I ―The Virgin Queen‖—1558-1603 as depicted by George Gower in 1588
Master Edward Maria Wingfield
Captaine John Smyth
Captaine John Martin
Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll
Captaine John Ratliffe
Captaine George Kendall
Master Robert Hunt
- Councell
- Preacher
Master George Percie
Robert Fenton.
Dru Pickhouse
Benjamin Beast
Stephen Halthrop
Nathaniell Powell
Jeremy Alicock
Nicholas Houlgrave
William Tanker
Edward Brookes
George Martin
Thomas Gore
Anthony Gosnoll
Robert Ford
Thomas Jacob
John Robinson
Thomas Sands
Edward Brown
George Walker
Thomas Webbe
William Smethes
Richard Dixon
Anthony Gosnold
Francis Midwinter
William Laxon
Anas Todkill
Edward Pising
John Capper
George Flower
William Bruster
John Brookes
Thomas Mouton
Edward Morish
Robert Behethland
Thomas Studley
John Waler
Richard Simons
John Martin
Henry Adling
Richard Frith
Thomas Emry
Captaine Gabriell Archer
Edward Harrington
Ellis Kingston
Ustis Clovill
Kellam Throgmorton
John Penington
Richard Crofts
John Short
Francis Snarsbrough
Roger Cooke
Thomas Wotton, Sierg.
- Gentlemen
Robert Small
- Carpenters
James Read
- Blacksmith
Jonas Profit
- Sailer
•Thomas Couper
- Barber
John Herd
William Garret
- Bricklayers
Edward Brinto
- Mason
William Love
- Taylor
Nicholas Skot
- Drum
John Laydon
William Casson
Willam Rods
William White
George Golding
John Dods
William Wilkenson, Surgeon
George Casson
Ould Edward
William Johnson
Thomas Casson
Henry Tavin
William Unger
- Labourers
Samuell Collier
James Brumfield
Richard Mutton
- Boyes
Nathaniel Peacock
Maps of the Jamestown Settlement Areas
• Identify and explain the sources of
problems that the Jamestown settlers would
have faced in the early years of the colony
(1607-1610) including environmental, social,
cultural, and/or technological issues.
Early Jamestown and ―The Starving Time‖
Fall 1607: 104 colonists arrived
By spring, 1608: 38 survived
1609: 300 more immigrants
By spring, 1610: 60 survived
1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants total
1624 population: 1,200
Adult life expectancy: under 40 years
Death rate of children before age 5:
John Smith‘s Depiction of Powhatan—1624
Describe the British views of the
indigenous population of the New
World contained in John Smith‘s
Conflicts between British colonists
and the indigenous population:
Starving colonists frequently raided
local populations‘ food supplies.
Appointed Governor Lord de la Warr
carried out Company order to attack
locals starting in 1610.
First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in
1614 by marriage of John Smith and
Pocahontas, but couple returned to
Second Anglo-Powhatan War (16221644) ended with indigenous
population being pushed from area
and nearly eradicated.
Iroquois Lands and European Trade Centers, ca. 1590–1650
• Why do some historians view
the Iroquois Confederacy as an
early ‗democratic‘ model?
• How might the Iroquois
Confederacy seek to maintain
cohesion after European arrival?
• How did the Iroquois
Confederacy grow in power as a
result of contact with European
• What roles might the Iroquois
Confederacy play in a conflict
between France and Britain?
Tobacco Production in the Chesapeake Prior to 1710
• How did tobacco production transform the
Jamestown colony?
• How did tobacco production change the
relationship between the colony, the Virginia
Company, and the Crown?
1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of
1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of
its colonists in an Indian attack,Virginia
produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.
1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds
of tobacco.
1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds
of tobacco
Settlement Patterns in
• How did tobacco production affect
the settlement patterns of the
Virginia colony?
Describe the circumstances behind the passing of the
Toleration Act of 1649 by Maryland‘s assembly.
Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore (1605-1675)
•Maryland established as proprietary colony and refuge for Catholics during Charles I‘s reign
• like Virginia, tobacco farming formed the backbone of the economy
• passed the Toleration Act of 1649 ensuring religious freedoms for Christians with fines for
intolerance, but decreed death ―those who deny the divinity of Christ‖
Lesson Summary
Be able to address these questions with specific examples (names, dates, events, historical
How did the British process of
colonization in Virginia and Maryland
differ from the Spanish model?
How did the new British colonies of
the 17th and 18th century impact the
lives of indigenous peoples?
Analyze and explain reasons for
possible long-term success in the
British colonies.
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