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Colony - a group of people who leave their home country to form a
settlement in a new land that is owned by their home country.
***Colony also means the land itself***
Charter – a document issued by a government that grants specific
rights to a person or company
The first two permanent English settlements in North America
1. Jamestown – est. 1607
2. Plymouth – est. 1620
European Competition in the
Spain, France, and Holland had already established colonies in
the Americas.
England's king wanted to establish new markets for goods and
supplies for manufacturing
English settlers left England to escape religious and social
The English Reformation was when the English Church split
from Catholicism. Protestants wanted to get away from the control
of the Catholic Church
England's Early Colonies
England's Earliest colonies were off the coast of North
Carolina on Roanoke Island
Both colonies failed, the second one mysteriously was
abandoned. The colonists seem to have vanished,
one of the biggest mysteries in history!
Jamestown (Virginia Company, 1607)– named after
King James, settled in Virginia, it was plagued by
disease and lack of skills
Powhatan – leader of the local Native Americans
supplied food for the colony, but by the end of 1608,
only 38 original colonists were left alive.
Where is Jamestown?
Facts to Know about Jamestown
• Established in 1607
• Mostly younger men who wanted to make
money and find gold
• Most died after the first winter
• More came over, eventually made money by
growing tobacco
• Would become the colony (and state) of
• The Pocahontas story comes from this colony
John Smith and Pocahontas
John Smith – appointed leader of Jamestown after most
colonists died in 1607. He instituted tough new rules that said
“He who works not, eats not”
 John Smith installed new rules that made colonists work and
farm for themselves, but many stole from natives and began
to cause problems with Powhatan and his people
 Pocahontas – daughter of Powhatan, attempted to negotiate
peace between her people and the colonists
They never had some grand love affair like they teach in Disney, she was a
young girl, probably around 12 when John Smith arrived, while he was a man in
his 30's.
 Most of the 'fairy tale' of Pocahontas and John Smith was only cited from his
travel diary, but never confirmed by any other sources
John Smith was injured and returned to England in the fall of
1609. After his departure, Powhatan refused to supply settlers
with any food. These were called the “Starving Times”. By
Spring 1610, only 60 colonists were left alive.
Jamestown Prospers
The Virginia Company continued to send new colonists to
Jamestown and new leaders
 Success is largely attributed to the discovery of tobacco as a
crop that could help the colony sustain itself
 Tobacco became a major cash crop that could be sold all
over the world
 Virginia was the first colony to establish a representative
government called the House of Burgesses.
 Representative government – the form of government in
which voters elect people to make laws for them – this was a
shared power with Virginia's appointed governor from the
 Virginia was the first colony to have African slaves. Most of
the early slaves though were more like indentured servants
and could work to earn their freedom.
Checkpoint Question:
Why was the House of Burgesses important to the
development of modern democracy?
Church of England and
King Henry VIII – established the Protestant
church causing decades of religious strife
between Catholics and Protestants
Separatists wanted to get away from the
Church of England and to practice Christianity
in their way, so they sailed for the New World
They were often persecuted and bullied
because of their religious practices being
different than other Protestants
Plymouth Colony
Colonists were called Pilgrims
They intended to make a new colony in
Virginia in order to escape religious
persecution in England and the Neatherlands.
Plymouth Colony was founded by Pilgrims
who had sailed from England on the
Mayflower, storms had blown them off course
from Virginia and they landed in
Massachusetts at Plymouth Rock
Where is Plymouth?
Facts to Know about Plymouth
• Est. 1620
• Pilgrims were a group of people who wanted to
separate from the Church of England.
• They traveled to the Netherlands and
eventually to Plymouth for religious freedom.
• Plymouth would eventually become the colony
(and state) of Massachusetts
• The First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the
Mayflower Compact
They established new rules for their own colony since
they had not landed in Virginia as planned, this charter
was called the Mayflower Compact
Mayflower Compact – set up just and equal rights for all
white male landowners in the Plymouth
They were also elected leaders by these men– this was
the second form of representative government
First Thanksgiving
Pilgrims had a hard time growing traditional English
crops in New England soil.
They arrived too late in the season to plant in 1620, so in
the winter, half of the colonists died of starvation
Local Natives helped the colonists in the Spring,
teaching them how to plant subsistence crops such as
Squanto – Native leader who helped colonists by
teaching them how to farm in New England
In the fall of 1621, Pilgrims set aside a day to give thanks
to the Natives for their aid and that is now called
Checkpoint Question:
How did the Mayflower Compact help develop
representative government?
New England
The Middle
The South