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Ancient Egypt The Kingdoms Old Kingdom 2680-2180 BC 1st Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom 2180-2050 BC 2050-1650 BC New Kingdom 1570-1080 BC 2nd Intermediate Period 1650-1570 BC Predynastic Egypt Pre: Before Dynastic: time of dynasties Predynastic: time before dynasties Began about 6000 BC – People began farming and living in villages – Villages eventually combined into small kingdoms, which combined into 2 larger ones • LOWER EGYPT: near the delta region in north • UPPER EGYPT: area south of the delta region Predynastic Egypt--Unification 3100 BC—King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt By 3000 BC—Characteristics of Egypt have developed – Irrigation used – Writing developed—hieroglyphics – Basic religious beliefs have developed • Believed in afterlife • Wealthy are buried in houselike tombs called mastabas • Polytheistic Egyptian Religion Amon-Re/Re/Ra—God of the sun, the creator, top god – All pharaohs thought to be descendents of him Horus—represented by the falcon – Pharaoh thought to actually be this god Osiris—god of eternal life and of the throne – Thought to have been actual pharaoh in prehistoric times – Married to Isis (goddess) Isis—perfect wife and mother – Prayed to for immortality – Represented by wings on coffins The Story of Osiris and Isis Osiris was pharaoh Evil god/brother Seth killed him – Chopped Osiris’s body into little pieces and threw him in the Nile Isis was heartbroken, so she transformed into a bird – She rescued the pieces from the Nile and put them back together – Then, flapped her wings and breathed life back into Osiris’s body Isis’s wings appear on mummies in hopes she will breathe life back into them The Old Kingdom 2680-2180 BC Pharaohs were seen as gods – Had absolute power – Who can go against a god?! This was the era of pyramid building Only the pharaohs were thought to have an afterlife – They were gods – They were the only ones to be mummified Pyramids All were built during the Old Kingdom 1st was built for Pharaoh Zoser – His was a step pyramid The Great Pyramid at Giza – One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World • Only Wonder still standing today The Step Pyramid Built for Zoser Described as a stairway to the sky Designed by the famous royal architect Imhotep 204 feet tall The Great Pyramid of Giza Built for Khufu – Also called Cheops Largest one ever built Almost 500 feet tall Covers 13 acres at base Over 2 million stone blocks were used – Average, weighed 25 tons The Old Kingdom continued… Papyrus was invented – Egyptian paper – Used to write and keep records on – English word paper comes from Egyptian word papyrus Two classes of society – Upper class: pharaoh, nobles, priests, scholars – Lower class: peasants, farmers And Even More Old Kingdom… Kingdom was so big, that pharaoh had to use governors to help him run it – Called nomarchs The Old Kingdom was brought to a close by challenges to the pharaoh’s authority – By nomarchs and nobles The st 1 Intermediate Period 2180-2050 BC Nobles had much more authority and power – Pharaohs had gotten money for the pyramids from the nobles • In exchange for positions of power and authority • Nobles developed kingdoms of their own – People loyal to nobles, not pharaohs now • Caused famine, social unrest, and civil war Egypt broke into two separate kingdoms again during this period The Middle Kingdom 2050-1650 BC Mentohotep II reunited Egypt – Unification marked the beginning of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs began to be buried in the Valley of the Kings – No more pyramids – Pyramids made tombs to easy to find, rob, and destroy The Valley of the Kings Notice the natural pyramid above the valley!!! The Middle Kingdom continued… Nobles remained powerful, but now gave their loyalty to the pharaoh This is the Classical Age of Egyptian Literature Religion changed – Now anyone who could afford to be mummified could achieve an afterlife • Believed that body had to be preserved for an afterlife – Still only the rich—being mummified was very expensive The End of the Middle Kingdom Hyksos began to attack Egypt – This weakened the kingdom – Were a nomadic tribe from the Middle East Hyksos conquered Egypt – Ruled from 1720-1570 BC – Brought the Middle Kingdom to an end The Hyksos were much more advanced at warfare than the Egyptians – Had metal weapons • Egyptians only had wooden weapons – Introduced the horse, war chariot, and body armor The nd 2 Intermediate Period 1650-1570 BC Egypt was ruled by the Hyksos – Finally were driven out after 150 years • This allowed the New Kingdom to start The New Kingdom 1570-1080 BC Powerful kings of Egypt drove the Hyksos out – They restored very powerful pharaohs to the throne • The pharaohs again held absolute power The Egyptians came to be empire builders – Before this period, the Egyptians had only really been concerned with Egypt • Now they began to conquer lands beyond Egypt’s borders – Used the warfare skills they learned from the Hyksos The New Kingdom continued… Third social class developed during this period – SLAVES • Usually were the people from groups the Egyptians had conquered • Had nothing to do with race This was the era known for its great and powerful pharaohs – This is also the kingdom that King Tut ruled during • Didn’t rule long enough to be one of the greats Pharaohs of the New Kingdom During this period, the pharaohs held Egypt together through their leadership When Egypt had very strong rulers, the kingdom was strong. When Egypt’s rulers were weak, the kingdom was weak too. Some Famous Pharaohs of the New Kingdom… Ahmose I Hatshepsut Thutmose III Amenhotep IV Ramses II Ahmose I Drove the Hyksos out Established the New Kingdom Hatshepsut The only female pharaoh to ever rule Egypt Was married to the pharaoh Thutmose II – When he died, she became regent for her nephew/stepson, Thutmose III Known as a temple builder, not an empire builder First powerful and capable female ruler in known civilization Thutmose III Brought Egypt to the height of its power Became pharaoh at very young age – Hatshepsut was his regent – Only came to power after Hatshepsut died Amenhotep IV Promoted monotheism – Worship of Aten After he died, Egypt went back to polytheism Father of King Tut Ramses II Ramses II was the last strong pharaoh – Known as Ramses the Great – Ruled for 67 years He is the pharaoh of the Jewish/Christian tradition – The one Moses fled His mummy has been recovered The Post-Imperial Period 1080-300s BC Priest gained power – Got rid of the temple tax • A tax paid to the pharaohs by each temple • This ruined the economy Egypt was conquered several times during this period – 525 BC—by the Persians – 322BC—by the Romans • Ancient Egypt is no more.