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Transcript
EOC READING TERMS
LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF TEXT
Narrative - writing that tells a story – could be fiction
or nonfiction
Informational – text whose purpose is to give facts
and explain a topic - nonfiction
Persuasive – type of writing that attempts to
convince the reader to think or act in a particular way
- nonfiction
LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF PROSE
Allegory - A type of writing in which objects, persons,
and actions represent things outside of the narrative
Animal Farm / The Crucible
Fable - A brief story in prose or poetry that teaches
a moral or gives a practical lesson about how to get
along in life - the lesson is usually stated at the end
“The Tortoise and the Hare”
LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF PROSE
Parable - Brief story that teaches a lesson about life -
the lesson is usually not stated at the end – Jesus taught
in parables
“The Boy Who Cried Wolf”
Parody / Satire - A work that makes fun of another
work by imitating some aspect of the writer’s style
Weird Al
“Saturday Night Live”
LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF POETRY
Ballad - A poem that tells a story – may be set to
music as a song
 “Whiskey Lullaby”
 “Barbara Ellen”
 “Ballad of Jed Clampet”
Epic - Long poem which tells about the great deeds
of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values
of particular society
“Odyssey”
LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF POETRY
Elegy - A poem of mourning, usually about someone
who has died
“O Captain! My Captain!”
Free Verse - Poetry that does not have a regular
pattern of rhyme or meter (rhythm)
This does not mean the poem doesn’t have any rhyme or
meter!
LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF POETRY
Haiku - A short, unrhymed poem with three lines
and a total of 17 syllables (5-7-5) - originated in Japan
Sonnet - A 14 line poem that has a particular rhythm
and rhyme scheme with a couplet at the end
Shakespeare wrote sonnets.
LITERARY TERMS – DRAMA TERMS
Aside - Words a character in a play speaks to the
audience or another character that are not supposed to
be overheard by others on stage
Monologue - An extended speech presented by an
actor in a drama or narrative
Soliloquy - An unusually long speech by a character
onstage alone, expressing inner thoughts and feelings
LITERARY TERMS
 Protagonist - The main or central figure in fiction or drama
 Katniss (The Hunger Games) / Harry Potter
 Antagonist - The character, force, or obstacle the protagonist must
overcome
 President Snow OR The Games (The Hunger Games)
 Voldemort (Harry Potter)
 Foil - A character who serves as a contrast to another character to
highlight differences between them (opposite)
 Peeta to Katniss / Draco Malfoy to Harry Potter
LITERARY TERMS
Archetype - A character type that recurs consistently
enough in life and literature to be considered universal
Some examples: hero, mentor, best friend, villain,
grandfather figure, bully, evil stepparent
Hagrid - mentor, Draco - bully, Dumbledore grandfather figure, Ron – best friend / side-kick,
Voldemort – villain, Harry’s aunt & uncle – evil
stepparent
LITERARY TERMS
 Stereotype - A character with fixed characteristics based on
group affiliation—often based on prejudices
 Jed Clampett - hillbilly (The Beverly Hillbillies)
 Dialogue- Conversation between two or more characters
 Dialect - A way of speaking characteristic of a particular region or
group of people
 Different from accent! It is NOT the way people pronounce certain
words. It’s the way a group of people put words together.
LITERARY TERMS
Tragic Hero - The protagonist in a tragedy who is
often high ranking and is on some level responsible
for his own downfall, due to a flaw in character
(tragic flaw)
Romeo & Juliet
Julius Caesar
Johnny (The Outsiders)
LITERARY TERMS
Conflict- A struggle or clash between opposing forces
External Conflict - Struggle against any outside force
 Katniss v the other tributes / Harry v Voldemort /
Rick & his group v the walkers
Internal Conflict - Struggle within the character's mind
— usually an emotion or a decision the character
struggles with
 Katniss v Fear / Katniss v the decision to eat the berries
LITERARY TERMS
Symbol / Symbolism - A person, place, thing, or
event that stands for itself and something beyond
itself as well
Mockingjay pin (The Hunger Games) stands for the
rebellion
Harry’s scar (Harry Potter) stands for his connection with
Voldemort & stands for his leadership & power
Some universal symbols: forest = evil or madness /
red = love / ocean = the unknown / spring = new life or
rebirth
LITERARY TERMS
Irony - Contrast or discrepancy between
expectation and reality
Not the same thing as a surprise OR the unexpected!
Dramatic Irony - When the reader knows
something a character in a narrative does not know
 In Romeo & Juliet, we know that Juliet is not really
dead, but Romeo doesn’t know, and so he kills himself.
LITERARY TERMS
Situational Irony - Contradiction between what
we expect to happen and what really happens
 The fire chief’s house burns down.
Verbal Irony - Discrepancy between what is said and
what is meant
When Tom comes in late to class, the teacher says, “I’m
glad you’re responsible enough to get to class on time!”
LITERARY TERMS
First Person Point of View - A point of view in
which the main character is the narrator reveals the plot using the pronoun I (not
including dialogue)
LITERARY TERMS
Third Person Limited Point of View - A
point of view in which the narrator is not a
character in the story but presents it
through the main character (we are limited
to the main character) - reveals the plot
using the pronouns he or she
 Sometimes this is called limited omniscient.
LITERARY TERMS
Third Person Omniscient Point of View –
Omniscient means all knowing - A point of
view in which the narrator is not a character
in the story, but is instead all-knowing and
capable of revealing everything about all
the characters and every situation in a story,
including past, present and future - reveals
the plot using the pronouns he or she
LITERARY TERMS
Foreshadowing – The use of clues to hint at
events that will occur later in a plot
These may not be obvious; for example, the
author may use words with an ominous
connotation (deathly pale, blood-warm
waters, decaying flowers) to foreshadow a
character’s death.
LITERARY TERMS
Flashback – Scene in a narrative that interrupts the
present action and reveals what happened at an
earlier time
Theme - Central message of a work of literature
 This is not the main idea! It is the message the author
wants the reader to get from the text.
There may be more than one theme!
Theme cannot be stated in one word!
In Romeo & Juliet, one theme might be love wins out
over hate.
LITERARY TERMS
Tone – The attitude the writer takes toward the
reader, a subject, or a character
Tone is revealed through the author’s diction (choice
of words).
Tone can be neutral, caring, spiteful, arrogant, or any
other attitude.
Voice - The distinctive way in which a writer
expresses ideas which show his/her attitude,
personality and character
LITERARY TERMS
Setting - The time, place, mood, and/or
atmosphere of a narrative
Setting can include things like weather and time
period. Setting adds to the mood of a story.
Motivation - The reasons for a character’s
actions
In The Hunger Games, Katniss’s motivation for
volunteering for the games is to keep her sister
alive.
LITERARY TERMS
Connotation - The associations and emotional
overtones that have become attached to a word or
phrase
Positive, Negative, Neutral
Connotation can change depending on the context.
revenge (-), school (+/-), drama (+/-), birthday (+),
summer (+)
LITERARY TERMS
Diction - A speaker or writer's choice of words
Conveys meaning & tone
Apostrophe - NOT the punctuation mark! - A
technique by which a writer addresses an
object, idea, or person who is dead or absent
“O Death, where is thy sting?”
LITERARY TERMS
Rhetorical Question - A question with an
obvious answer or one that does not require an
answer
Is this school year ever going to end?
LITERARY TERMS
Understatement - A statement in which
something is intentionally represented as less
than it actually is
 I like my job.
 Babe Ruth was a good baseball player.
Paradox - A statement that appears selfcontradictory but reveals a kind of truth
 “And I, the former mystic, was thinking: Yes, man is
stronger, greater than God.” Elie Wiesel, Night
LITERARY TERMS
Parallel Structure - Words, phrases, or
sentences that have the same grammatical
structure or that state a similar idea
I am going to the mall, buying a dress, and driving
to the party.
 “You have brains in your head. You have feet in your
shoes. You can steer yourself in any direction you
choose.” – Dr. Suess
LITERARY TERMS
Allusion - Reference to a statement, person,
place, event, or thing known from literature,
history, religion, myth, politics, sports,
science, or the arts
“Live long and prosper.” - Spock, Star Trek
It’s raining so hard, we might need to build an
ark. - Bible
LITERARY TERMS
Characterization - The direct or indirect
process of revealing the personality of a
character
Author tells the reader what the character is like
(direct)
Dialogue, other characters’ opinions,
appearance, actions, thoughts (indirect)
LITERARY TERMS
Imagery - Writing that appeals to the senses
(includes all 5)
In the kitchen, I found warm chocolate chip cookies
right out of the oven sitting on the counter.
She heard the wind whistling in the trees as the
leaves crunched under her feet.
SOUND TECHNIQUES
Alliteration - The repetition of identical sounds
(NOT LETTERS) at the beginnings of words that
are close together
The baby boy bawled in the bed.
Kathy cut the kitten’s claws.
Coca-Cola, Dunkin’ Donuts, Michaela Mosley
 “And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me—filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;”
- from The Raven
SOUND TECHNIQUES
Assonance - Repetition of similar vowel sounds
followed by different consonant sounds in words
close together - NOT rhyme!
fleet feet sweep by sleeping Greeks
Consonance - The repetition of final consonant
sounds after different vowel sounds - NOT rhyme!
pitter, patter
rif, raf
SOUND TECHNIQUES
Onomatopoeia - Use of a word whose sound
imitates or suggests its meaning
buzz, hoot, slap, pop, fizz
POETRY TERMS & TECHNIQUES
Couplet - Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme
Sonnets usually end in a couplet.
“Think what you will, we seize into our hands
His plate, his goods, his money, and his lands.”
from Richard II
Internal Rhyme - Rhyme that occurs within a line of
poetry or within consecutive lines
 “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,”
from The Raven
POETRY TERMS & TECHNIQUES
Refrain - A word, phrase, line, or lines that are
repeated several times in a poem
“Re” means again.
“The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.”
from Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
POETRY TERMS & TECHNIQUES
Stanza - A group of consecutive lines of poetry that
forms a structural unit (like a paragraph)
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Figurative Language - A word or phrase that
describes one thing in terms of something else that
is not meant to be taken literally
 Aphorism - A brief, cleverly worded statement that
makes a wise observation about life
 People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.
 The longest journey begins with a single step.
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Analogy - Explains an unfamiliar concept or
idea by comparing it with something the
reader is familiar with
Life is like a race. The one who keeps running wins the
race, and the one who stops to catch a breath loses.
“Baseball is like a poker game. Nobody wants to quit
when he's losing; nobody wants you to quit when
you're ahead.” - Jackie Robinson
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Hyperbole - Figure of speech that uses
exaggeration to express a strong emotion or to
create a comic effect
I’m starving to death.
I’m so hungry I could eat a whole cow.
It’s so hot outside, you could fry an egg on the
sidewalk.
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Idiom - An expression that means something
different from the literal meaning, but people
within the culture understand its meaning
Don’t let the cat out of the bag.
You’re barking up the wrong tree.
It’s raining cats and dogs.
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Oxymoron - A figure of speech that combines
opposite or contradictory terms in a brief
phrase - usually only 2 words
jumbo shrimp
awfully pretty
seriously funny
idiot savant (genius)
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Metaphor - A comparison between two things
without the use of like or as—one thing
becomes the other thing
My daughter is an angel.
The test was a breeze.
Her voice was music to his ears.
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Implied Metaphor – A metaphor that does not
state the two terms of the comparison directly
 My love walked out the door.
 Paul slithered up to Sally and hissed hello into her ear.
 The drill sergeant barked orders at the cadets.
 “Hope” is the thing with feathers That perches in the soul And sings the tune without the words And never stops - at all - (Emily Dickinson)
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Simile – A comparison between two things using
like or as OR than or resembles
She’s dumber than a bag full of rocks.
He was as nervous as a cat in a room full of rocking
chairs.
"For hope grew round me, like the twining vine"
(Coleridge - Dejection)
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Personification – A comparison in which a nonhuman thing or quality is given human
characteristics - includes when animals or other
inanimate objects talk or wear clothes
The flowers danced in the wind.
The fire swallowed up the forest.