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EOC READING TERMS LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF TEXT Narrative - writing that tells a story – could be fiction or nonfiction Informational – text whose purpose is to give facts and explain a topic - nonfiction Persuasive – type of writing that attempts to convince the reader to think or act in a particular way - nonfiction LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF PROSE Allegory - A type of writing in which objects, persons, and actions represent things outside of the narrative Animal Farm / The Crucible Fable - A brief story in prose or poetry that teaches a moral or gives a practical lesson about how to get along in life - the lesson is usually stated at the end “The Tortoise and the Hare” LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF PROSE Parable - Brief story that teaches a lesson about life - the lesson is usually not stated at the end – Jesus taught in parables “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” Parody / Satire - A work that makes fun of another work by imitating some aspect of the writer’s style Weird Al “Saturday Night Live” LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF POETRY Ballad - A poem that tells a story – may be set to music as a song “Whiskey Lullaby” “Barbara Ellen” “Ballad of Jed Clampet” Epic - Long poem which tells about the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of particular society “Odyssey” LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF POETRY Elegy - A poem of mourning, usually about someone who has died “O Captain! My Captain!” Free Verse - Poetry that does not have a regular pattern of rhyme or meter (rhythm) This does not mean the poem doesn’t have any rhyme or meter! LITERARY TERMS - TYPES OF POETRY Haiku - A short, unrhymed poem with three lines and a total of 17 syllables (5-7-5) - originated in Japan Sonnet - A 14 line poem that has a particular rhythm and rhyme scheme with a couplet at the end Shakespeare wrote sonnets. LITERARY TERMS – DRAMA TERMS Aside - Words a character in a play speaks to the audience or another character that are not supposed to be overheard by others on stage Monologue - An extended speech presented by an actor in a drama or narrative Soliloquy - An unusually long speech by a character onstage alone, expressing inner thoughts and feelings LITERARY TERMS Protagonist - The main or central figure in fiction or drama Katniss (The Hunger Games) / Harry Potter Antagonist - The character, force, or obstacle the protagonist must overcome President Snow OR The Games (The Hunger Games) Voldemort (Harry Potter) Foil - A character who serves as a contrast to another character to highlight differences between them (opposite) Peeta to Katniss / Draco Malfoy to Harry Potter LITERARY TERMS Archetype - A character type that recurs consistently enough in life and literature to be considered universal Some examples: hero, mentor, best friend, villain, grandfather figure, bully, evil stepparent Hagrid - mentor, Draco - bully, Dumbledore grandfather figure, Ron – best friend / side-kick, Voldemort – villain, Harry’s aunt & uncle – evil stepparent LITERARY TERMS Stereotype - A character with fixed characteristics based on group affiliation—often based on prejudices Jed Clampett - hillbilly (The Beverly Hillbillies) Dialogue- Conversation between two or more characters Dialect - A way of speaking characteristic of a particular region or group of people Different from accent! It is NOT the way people pronounce certain words. It’s the way a group of people put words together. LITERARY TERMS Tragic Hero - The protagonist in a tragedy who is often high ranking and is on some level responsible for his own downfall, due to a flaw in character (tragic flaw) Romeo & Juliet Julius Caesar Johnny (The Outsiders) LITERARY TERMS Conflict- A struggle or clash between opposing forces External Conflict - Struggle against any outside force Katniss v the other tributes / Harry v Voldemort / Rick & his group v the walkers Internal Conflict - Struggle within the character's mind — usually an emotion or a decision the character struggles with Katniss v Fear / Katniss v the decision to eat the berries LITERARY TERMS Symbol / Symbolism - A person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and something beyond itself as well Mockingjay pin (The Hunger Games) stands for the rebellion Harry’s scar (Harry Potter) stands for his connection with Voldemort & stands for his leadership & power Some universal symbols: forest = evil or madness / red = love / ocean = the unknown / spring = new life or rebirth LITERARY TERMS Irony - Contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality Not the same thing as a surprise OR the unexpected! Dramatic Irony - When the reader knows something a character in a narrative does not know In Romeo & Juliet, we know that Juliet is not really dead, but Romeo doesn’t know, and so he kills himself. LITERARY TERMS Situational Irony - Contradiction between what we expect to happen and what really happens The fire chief’s house burns down. Verbal Irony - Discrepancy between what is said and what is meant When Tom comes in late to class, the teacher says, “I’m glad you’re responsible enough to get to class on time!” LITERARY TERMS First Person Point of View - A point of view in which the main character is the narrator reveals the plot using the pronoun I (not including dialogue) LITERARY TERMS Third Person Limited Point of View - A point of view in which the narrator is not a character in the story but presents it through the main character (we are limited to the main character) - reveals the plot using the pronouns he or she Sometimes this is called limited omniscient. LITERARY TERMS Third Person Omniscient Point of View – Omniscient means all knowing - A point of view in which the narrator is not a character in the story, but is instead all-knowing and capable of revealing everything about all the characters and every situation in a story, including past, present and future - reveals the plot using the pronouns he or she LITERARY TERMS Foreshadowing – The use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in a plot These may not be obvious; for example, the author may use words with an ominous connotation (deathly pale, blood-warm waters, decaying flowers) to foreshadow a character’s death. LITERARY TERMS Flashback – Scene in a narrative that interrupts the present action and reveals what happened at an earlier time Theme - Central message of a work of literature This is not the main idea! It is the message the author wants the reader to get from the text. There may be more than one theme! Theme cannot be stated in one word! In Romeo & Juliet, one theme might be love wins out over hate. LITERARY TERMS Tone – The attitude the writer takes toward the reader, a subject, or a character Tone is revealed through the author’s diction (choice of words). Tone can be neutral, caring, spiteful, arrogant, or any other attitude. Voice - The distinctive way in which a writer expresses ideas which show his/her attitude, personality and character LITERARY TERMS Setting - The time, place, mood, and/or atmosphere of a narrative Setting can include things like weather and time period. Setting adds to the mood of a story. Motivation - The reasons for a character’s actions In The Hunger Games, Katniss’s motivation for volunteering for the games is to keep her sister alive. LITERARY TERMS Connotation - The associations and emotional overtones that have become attached to a word or phrase Positive, Negative, Neutral Connotation can change depending on the context. revenge (-), school (+/-), drama (+/-), birthday (+), summer (+) LITERARY TERMS Diction - A speaker or writer's choice of words Conveys meaning & tone Apostrophe - NOT the punctuation mark! - A technique by which a writer addresses an object, idea, or person who is dead or absent “O Death, where is thy sting?” LITERARY TERMS Rhetorical Question - A question with an obvious answer or one that does not require an answer Is this school year ever going to end? LITERARY TERMS Understatement - A statement in which something is intentionally represented as less than it actually is I like my job. Babe Ruth was a good baseball player. Paradox - A statement that appears selfcontradictory but reveals a kind of truth “And I, the former mystic, was thinking: Yes, man is stronger, greater than God.” Elie Wiesel, Night LITERARY TERMS Parallel Structure - Words, phrases, or sentences that have the same grammatical structure or that state a similar idea I am going to the mall, buying a dress, and driving to the party. “You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself in any direction you choose.” – Dr. Suess LITERARY TERMS Allusion - Reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science, or the arts “Live long and prosper.” - Spock, Star Trek It’s raining so hard, we might need to build an ark. - Bible LITERARY TERMS Characterization - The direct or indirect process of revealing the personality of a character Author tells the reader what the character is like (direct) Dialogue, other characters’ opinions, appearance, actions, thoughts (indirect) LITERARY TERMS Imagery - Writing that appeals to the senses (includes all 5) In the kitchen, I found warm chocolate chip cookies right out of the oven sitting on the counter. She heard the wind whistling in the trees as the leaves crunched under her feet. SOUND TECHNIQUES Alliteration - The repetition of identical sounds (NOT LETTERS) at the beginnings of words that are close together The baby boy bawled in the bed. Kathy cut the kitten’s claws. Coca-Cola, Dunkin’ Donuts, Michaela Mosley “And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Thrilled me—filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;” - from The Raven SOUND TECHNIQUES Assonance - Repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds in words close together - NOT rhyme! fleet feet sweep by sleeping Greeks Consonance - The repetition of final consonant sounds after different vowel sounds - NOT rhyme! pitter, patter rif, raf SOUND TECHNIQUES Onomatopoeia - Use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning buzz, hoot, slap, pop, fizz POETRY TERMS & TECHNIQUES Couplet - Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme Sonnets usually end in a couplet. “Think what you will, we seize into our hands His plate, his goods, his money, and his lands.” from Richard II Internal Rhyme - Rhyme that occurs within a line of poetry or within consecutive lines “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,” from The Raven POETRY TERMS & TECHNIQUES Refrain - A word, phrase, line, or lines that are repeated several times in a poem “Re” means again. “The woods are lovely, dark, and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep.” from Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening POETRY TERMS & TECHNIQUES Stanza - A group of consecutive lines of poetry that forms a structural unit (like a paragraph) FIGURES OF SPEECH Figurative Language - A word or phrase that describes one thing in terms of something else that is not meant to be taken literally Aphorism - A brief, cleverly worded statement that makes a wise observation about life People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. The longest journey begins with a single step. FIGURES OF SPEECH Analogy - Explains an unfamiliar concept or idea by comparing it with something the reader is familiar with Life is like a race. The one who keeps running wins the race, and the one who stops to catch a breath loses. “Baseball is like a poker game. Nobody wants to quit when he's losing; nobody wants you to quit when you're ahead.” - Jackie Robinson FIGURES OF SPEECH Hyperbole - Figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express a strong emotion or to create a comic effect I’m starving to death. I’m so hungry I could eat a whole cow. It’s so hot outside, you could fry an egg on the sidewalk. FIGURES OF SPEECH Idiom - An expression that means something different from the literal meaning, but people within the culture understand its meaning Don’t let the cat out of the bag. You’re barking up the wrong tree. It’s raining cats and dogs. FIGURES OF SPEECH Oxymoron - A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase - usually only 2 words jumbo shrimp awfully pretty seriously funny idiot savant (genius) FIGURES OF SPEECH Metaphor - A comparison between two things without the use of like or as—one thing becomes the other thing My daughter is an angel. The test was a breeze. Her voice was music to his ears. FIGURES OF SPEECH Implied Metaphor – A metaphor that does not state the two terms of the comparison directly My love walked out the door. Paul slithered up to Sally and hissed hello into her ear. The drill sergeant barked orders at the cadets. “Hope” is the thing with feathers That perches in the soul And sings the tune without the words And never stops - at all - (Emily Dickinson) FIGURES OF SPEECH Simile – A comparison between two things using like or as OR than or resembles She’s dumber than a bag full of rocks. He was as nervous as a cat in a room full of rocking chairs. "For hope grew round me, like the twining vine" (Coleridge - Dejection) FIGURES OF SPEECH Personification – A comparison in which a nonhuman thing or quality is given human characteristics - includes when animals or other inanimate objects talk or wear clothes The flowers danced in the wind. The fire swallowed up the forest.