Money Vocabulary Credit The ability of a customer to obtain goods or services before payment, based on the trust that payment will be made in the future. An entry recording a sum received, listed on the right-hand side or column of an account. A contractual agreement in which a borrower receives something of value now and agrees to repay the lender at some date in the future, generally with interest. The term also refers to the borrowing capacity of an individual or company. Debit An accounting entry that results in either an increase in assets or a decrease in liabilities on a company's balance sheet or in your bank account. A debit on an accounting entry will have opposite effects on the balance depending on whether it is done to assets or liabilities, with a debit to assets indicating an increase and vice versa for liabilities. (of a bank or other financial organization) remove (an amount of money) from a customer's account, typically as payment for services or goods. Interest Interest is the charge for the privilege of borrowing money, typically expressed as annual percentage rate. Interest can also refer to the amount of ownership a stockholder has in a company, usually expressed as a percentage. There are two main types of interest that can be applied to loans: simple and compound. Simple interest is a set rate on the principle originally lent to the borrower that the borrower has to pay for the ability to use the money. Compound interest is interest on both the principle and the compounding interest paid on that loan. The latter of the two types of interest is the most common. Gross Pay Gross pay (uncountable) An amount of pay, wages, salary, or other compensation before deductions, such as for taxes, insurance, and retirement. Gross pay, often called gross wages, is the total compensation earned by each employee. Notice I didn’t say it was the total amount paid to each employee. Gross pay typically consists wages, salaries, commissions, bonuses, and any other type of earnings before taxes and related deductions are taken out of it. Net Pay Net pay is the amount of wages that employees actually take home. In other words, net pay is the amount of money on each employee paycheck. Employers deduct many different amounts from employee wages every pay period. The money that an individual actually receives from working after employment taxes and the cost of benefits and retirement contributions are subtracted. Take-home pay is calculated by taking an individual's monthly gross income and subtracting federal income tax, Social Security and Medicare taxes, any state or local income taxes, monthly health and dental insurance premiums, 401(k) contribution and contributions to a flexible spending account. The money that remains is what an employee actually has available for expenses like paying the mortgage, buying groceries and paying for discretionary purchases. Fixed Expenses Fixed expenses or costs are those that do not fluctuate with changes in production level or sales volume. They include such expenses as rent, insurance, dues and subscriptions, equipment leases, payments on loans, depreciation, management salaries, and advertising. A cost that does not change with an increase or decrease in the amount of goods or services produced. Fixed costs are expenses that have to be paid by a company, independent of any business activity. It is one of the two components of the total cost of a good or service, along with variable cost. Variable Expenses Variable costs are those costs that vary depending on a company's production volume; they rise as production increases and fall as production decreases. Variable costs differ from fixed costs such as rent, advertising, insurance and office supplies, which tend to remain the same regardless of production output. A corporate expense that varies with production output. Variable costs are those costs that vary depending on a company's production volume; they rise as production increases and fall as production decreases. Variable costs differ from fixed costs such as rent, advertising, insurance and office supplies, which tend to remain the same regardless of production output. Fixed costs and variable costs comprise total cost. Consumable Goods Consumables (also known as consumable goods, nondurable goods, or soft goods) are goods that, according to the 1913 edition of Webster's Dictionary, are capable of being consumed; that may be destroyed, dissipated, wasted, or spent. Goods used by individuals and businesses that must be replaced regularly because they wear out or are used up. Consumables can also be defined as the components of an end product that are used up or permanently altered in the process of manufacturing, such as semiconductor wafers and basic chemicals. Durable Goods Goods not for immediate consumption and able to be kept for a period of time. A category of consumer goods, durables are products that do not have to be purchased frequently. Some examples of durables are appliances, home and office furnishings, lawn and garden equipment, consumer electronics, toy makers, small tool manufacturers, sporting goods, photographic equipment, and jewelry. FICA Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax /ˈfaɪkə/ is a United States federal payroll (or employment) tax imposed on both employees and employers to fund Social Security and Medicare—federal programs that provide benefits for retirees, the disabled, and children of deceased workers. A U.S. law requiring a deduction from paychecks and income that goes toward the Social Security program and Medicare. Both employees and employers are responsible for sharing the FICA payments. Salary A fixed regular payment, typically paid on a monthly or biweekly basis but often expressed as an annual sum, made by an employer to an employee, especially a professional or white-collar worker. A salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract. It is contrasted with piece wages, where each job, hour or other unit is paid separately, rather than on a periodic basis. From the point of view of running a business, salary can also be viewed as the cost of acquiring and retaining human resources for running operations, and is then termed personnel expense or salary expense. In accounting, salaries are recorded in payroll accounts. Discretionary expenses A discretionary expense is a cost which is not essential for the operation of a home or a business. For example, a business may allow employees to charge certain meal and entertainment costs to the company in order to promote goodwill with employees. A discretionary expense is a cost which is not essential for the operation of a home or a business. For example, a business may allow employees to charge certain meal and entertainment costs to the company in order to promote goodwill with employees. In the home, discretionary expenses are most often defined as things which are "wants" rather than "needs". Budget An estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time. A quantity of material, typically that which is written or printed. An estimation of the revenue and expenses over a specified future period of time. A budget can be made for a person, family, group of people, business, government, country, multinational organization or just about anything else that makes and spends money. A budget is a microeconomic concept that shows the tradeoff made when one good is exchanged for another. Credit Score A number assigned to a person that indicates to lenders their capacity to repay a loan. A statistically derived numeric expression of a person's creditworthiness that is used by lenders to access the likelihood that a person will repay his or her debts. A credit score is based on, among other things, a person's past credit history. It is a number between 300 and 850 - the higher the number, the more creditworthy the person is deemed to be. Financial Institution DEFINITION of 'Financial Institution - FI' An establishment that focuses on dealing with financial transactions, such as investments, loans and deposits. Conventionally, financial institutions are composed of organizations such as banks, trust companies, insurance companies and investment dealers. An establishment that focuses on dealing with financial transactions, such as investments, loans and deposits. Conventionally, financial institutions are composed of organizations such as banks, trust companies, insurance companies and investment dealers. Almost everyone has deal with a financial institution on a regular basis. Everything from depositing money to taking out loans and exchange currencies must be done through financial institutions. Mortgage the charging of real (or personal) property by a debtor to a creditor as security for a debt (especially one incurred by the purchase of the property), on the condition that it shall be returned on payment of the debt within a certain period. A debt instrument, secured by the collateral of specified real estate property, that the borrower is obliged to pay back with a predetermined set of payments. Mortgages are used by individuals and businesses to make large real estate purchases without paying the entire value of the purchase up front. Over a period of many years, the borrower repays the loan, plus interest, until he/she eventually owns the property free and clear. Mortgages are also known as "liens against property" or "claims on property." If the borrower stops paying the mortgage, the bank can foreclose.