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Land of Many Contradictions
Yolanda Serrano-Gehman
Mark Rice
Wayne Porter
Patrick Dostal
Ukjin Roh
China’s S&T History
Ancient and Recent
China was a world technology leader in ancient times, having
developed paper, gunpowder and ceramics
It became isolated for hundreds of years, and remained so
while Europe and the U.S. led the Industrial Revolution
In 1949, Mao-led China implemented a centralized S&T
policy modeled on that of the Soviet Union
The Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976 caused a standstill in
work by China’s S&T community
In 1978, Deng implemented “Four Modernizations” in
agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national
defense, moving China’s policies toward a Western model of
planning and management
Cultural/Social Context
Current Chinese civilization is the result of a centuries-long
tradition of indoctrination and education by Confucian
Recently there has been a departure from Confucianism,
which is more noticeable in the urban population centers
than in rural areas.
Chinese social structures have changed with the migration
of rural peasants to the cities.
One of the most important phenomenon in China today is
Guanxi, translated as “social connections”, or “social
Education System
Marketization of Higher Education
Decentralizing of higher education system and allowing
universities to become state-run
Amalgamation of Higher Education Institutions
Conglomeration of smaller universities into larger
university systems to allow for economies of scale and
offer more liberal education
Potential Problem
Less Access due to rising costs
Need for something similar to Community College
Current Political/Economic
Communist Party control provides China with a stable
political environment not subject to ‘party-in-power’ swings
Current bifurcation between rural peasants and affluent
urban population represents a challenge for leaders
Strongly rising GDP and export revenues provide
opportunities to use S&T policy to meet social goals
Many indicators of technological progress show that
China continues to advance
China’s Current S&T Policy
The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has
responsibility for coordinating and organizing all of China’s
official S&T activities
The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Elected
academy members have a significant consulting and
advisory role.
The National Natural Science Foundation of China
(NSFC) was consciously modeled after the National
Science Foundation of the United States. Principal grant
awardees are Chinese universities and CAS research
China’s S&T Policy Goals
Key Technologies R&D Program:
agriculture, high-tech and social development
National High Technology R&D Program
cultivating younger S&T researchers & finding a niche in
global high-tech industries for China
Torch Program
developing new high-tech industries by establishing
industrial development zones, helping market high-tech
products, promoting international cooperation with China’s
high-tech industries, and training and attracting a talented
National Basic Research Priorities Program
mathematics, life sciences, information science,
material science, energy and the environment
National R&D Statistics for
China’s R&D expenditure growth is substantial, but lags behind
other highly developed countries.
China has the largest R&D expenditures of any non-OECD (i.e.
non-highly developed) nation, and its rate of expenditure
compares favorably to other developing countries
The current exchange rate is about 9 RMB = $1
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Gross Expenditures on R&D (billion RMB)
34.9 40.5 50.9 55.1 67.9 89.6
Annual Growth of GERD (%)
9.5 24.9 10.9
26 17.9
0.6 0.64 0.69 0.83 1.01
Source: China Science and Technology Statistics. Data Books for 2000 and 2001. Ministry of Science and
Wealth vs. Grain Output
Average Annual Wage of Staff
and Workers by Region 1997
Over 8000 yuan
7000-8000 yuan
6000-7000 yuan
5000-6000 yuan
4000-5000 yuan
Output of Grain by Region
Tons of Grain,
in Millions
Source: China Statistical Yearbook 1998. CD-ROM
University of Turku Department of Political History, East Asia Programme 2000
Average Income
per Capita (Yuan)
Rural vs. Urban Areas
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95
Source: China Statistical Yearbook 1998. CD-ROM
University of Turku Department of Political History, East Asia Programme 2000
Sustainable Technology Development
Provide the farmers with a way to feed a nation of
1.2 billion without destroying their cropland
Increase Higher Education in Rural Area’s
Will decrease the migration to cities for education and
provide diverse employment opportunities in rural areas
Build Rural Infrastructure
Will attract more industry, allow for better health care, and
create co-operatives agrarian economy for the rural
population to strengthen the rural communities.