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China Land of Many Contradictions Yolanda Serrano-Gehman Mark Rice Wayne Porter Patrick Dostal Ukjin Roh China’s S&T History Ancient and Recent China was a world technology leader in ancient times, having developed paper, gunpowder and ceramics It became isolated for hundreds of years, and remained so while Europe and the U.S. led the Industrial Revolution In 1949, Mao-led China implemented a centralized S&T policy modeled on that of the Soviet Union The Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976 caused a standstill in work by China’s S&T community In 1978, Deng implemented “Four Modernizations” in agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national defense, moving China’s policies toward a Western model of planning and management Cultural/Social Context Current Chinese civilization is the result of a centuries-long tradition of indoctrination and education by Confucian scholar-officials. Recently there has been a departure from Confucianism, which is more noticeable in the urban population centers than in rural areas. Chinese social structures have changed with the migration of rural peasants to the cities. One of the most important phenomenon in China today is Guanxi, translated as “social connections”, or “social networks”. Education System Marketization of Higher Education Decentralizing of higher education system and allowing universities to become state-run Amalgamation of Higher Education Institutions Conglomeration of smaller universities into larger university systems to allow for economies of scale and offer more liberal education Potential Problem Less Access due to rising costs Need for something similar to Community College system Current Political/Economic Context Communist Party control provides China with a stable political environment not subject to ‘party-in-power’ swings Current bifurcation between rural peasants and affluent urban population represents a challenge for leaders Strongly rising GDP and export revenues provide opportunities to use S&T policy to meet social goals Many indicators of technological progress show that China continues to advance China’s Current S&T Policy Environment The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has responsibility for coordinating and organizing all of China’s official S&T activities The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Elected academy members have a significant consulting and advisory role. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) was consciously modeled after the National Science Foundation of the United States. Principal grant awardees are Chinese universities and CAS research institutes. China’s S&T Policy Goals Key Technologies R&D Program: agriculture, high-tech and social development National High Technology R&D Program cultivating younger S&T researchers & finding a niche in global high-tech industries for China Torch Program developing new high-tech industries by establishing industrial development zones, helping market high-tech products, promoting international cooperation with China’s high-tech industries, and training and attracting a talented workforce National Basic Research Priorities Program mathematics, life sciences, information science, material science, energy and the environment National R&D Statistics for China China’s R&D expenditure growth is substantial, but lags behind other highly developed countries. China has the largest R&D expenditures of any non-OECD (i.e. non-highly developed) nation, and its rate of expenditure compares favorably to other developing countries The current exchange rate is about 9 RMB = $1 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Gross Expenditures on R&D (billion RMB) 34.9 40.5 50.9 55.1 67.9 89.6 Annual Growth of GERD (%) -0.6 GERD/GDP (%) 0.6 9.5 24.9 10.9 26 17.9 0.6 0.64 0.69 0.83 1.01 Source: China Science and Technology Statistics. Data Books for 2000 and 2001. Ministry of Science and Technology. Wealth vs. Grain Output Average Annual Wage of Staff and Workers by Region 1997 Over 8000 yuan 7000-8000 yuan 6000-7000 yuan 5000-6000 yuan 4000-5000 yuan Output of Grain by Region Tons of Grain, in Millions 30-40 20-30 10-20 5-10 0-5 Source: China Statistical Yearbook 1998. CD-ROM University of Turku Department of Political History, East Asia Programme 2000 Average Income per Capita (Yuan) Rural vs. Urban Areas 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Rural Urban 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 Source: China Statistical Yearbook 1998. CD-ROM University of Turku Department of Political History, East Asia Programme 2000 Recommendations Sustainable Technology Development Provide the farmers with a way to feed a nation of 1.2 billion without destroying their cropland Increase Higher Education in Rural Area’s Will decrease the migration to cities for education and provide diverse employment opportunities in rural areas Build Rural Infrastructure Will attract more industry, allow for better health care, and create co-operatives agrarian economy for the rural population to strengthen the rural communities.