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The Impacts of Internal
Migration
AP Human Geography
Objective
• By the end of this lesson, students will be able
to describe the positive and negative impacts
that internal migrations have at their origins
and destinations.
Social Impact
Positive Impacts in
rural area (origin)
•Reduces overcrowding in schools and hospitals
Negative Impacts in
rural area (origin)
•Increases dependency ratio, because young
and old are often left behind.
•Families may become separated as young
adults migrate.
Positive Impacts in the
urban area (destination)
•Migrants may become better educated and
reduce birth rates and population growth.
Negative Impacts in the urban area
(destination)
•Pressure on schools and hospitals
•Increased crime
Economic Impact
Positive Impacts in the
rural (losing area)
• Reduces unemployment rate
• Remittances maybe sent back to families
Negative Impacts in the
rural (losing area)
• There maybe a shortage of workers
• No investment, no development
• Shops may have to shut down due to lower
business
Positive Impacts in the
urban area (destination)
•New workers that can fill low paid jobs like
factory and construction work
•They may join the formal economy and pay
taxes
Negative Impacts in the urban area
(destination)
• Higher unemployment as migrants compete
for less jobs
Political Impact
Positive Impacts in the
rural area (origin)
• Less crime and illegal activity due to outmigration, so laws and governance may be
able to focus on issues that really can help
people like: education, health, the economy.
Negative Impacts in the
rural area (origin)
• The reduced numbers of people in a region
can reduce the ‘political voice’ of the
community
• Lower population = decreased government
funding
Positive Impacts in the
urban area (destination)
• Political voice becomes more important
• Growing cities in LEDCs can attain a dominant
political and economic roles
Negative Impacts in the urban area
(destination)
• May result in tension or political unrest
• High levels of resentment by minority group
Environmental Impact
Positive Impacts in the
rural area (origin)
• Reduced pressure on limited resources.
(example: less trees being cut down, less
water being used)
Negative Impacts in the
rural area (origin)
• With increased money, there could also be
increased use of pesticides and fertilizers
which can potentially harm the environment.
Positive Impacts in the
urban area (destination)
• Increased population could cause government
to be more aware of environmental hazards in
cities and address those more quickly.
Negative Impacts in the urban area
(destination)
• Pressure on resources
• The expansion of landfill sites
• Air and water pollution from factories,
households, power stations and
transportation
Preview of Case Study: Internal
Migration Within China
Some Data on China
•
•
•
•
In 2008, 44% of China’s population lived in cities.
By 2015, urban residents will be the majority
The urban population is growing by between 15-20 million each year.
For decades, the Chinese government has restricted migration
through a household registry system called: hukou or huji.
• The system ties residents to their place of birth. They can receive
education/healthcare/services, only where they are registered
• Many migrants remain in “half existence” where its hard to settle in a
city, but impossible to remain in the rural area
• “Floating Population” (rural people working outside their home) is
estimated at around 132 million people
Videos
• “Last Train Home” Official Trailer,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KjO50bxN54
• “Bejing’s Migrant Construction Workers”,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sIVhpGJtzzc
• “Bejing Olympic Migrant Workers Cleaned Out”,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2llP1o1RMc
• “Chinese migrant workers bring worries home”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HLD27HYmYrI