Download Ch. 5 Language

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

English language in Europe wikipedia, lookup

World Englishes wikipedia, lookup

American English wikipedia, lookup

International English wikipedia, lookup

History of English wikipedia, lookup

Old English wikipedia, lookup

Middle English wikipedia, lookup

English language in England wikipedia, lookup

North American English regional phonology wikipedia, lookup

English-medium education wikipedia, lookup

Happy New Year!
• On your desks:
– Textbook
– Pen
– Highlighter
• I’ll collect projects during the period
Q: What do you call a person who speaks multiple
A: A polyglot
Q: What do you call a person who speaks two
A: Bilingual
Q: What do you call a person who speaks only one
A: American
Following the humor, the question
remains- why do very few Americans
know more than one language?
Ch. 5 Language
• Key Issue 1: Where are English-Language
Speakers Distributed?
– Origin and diffusion of English
– Dialects of English
Basic Terms
• Language: a system of communication through
speech, a collection of sounds that a group
people understands to have the same meaning.
• Literary tradition: system of written
communication. Many spoken languages lack a
literary tradition.
• Official language: countries designate at least
one language, which is the one used by the
government for laws, reports and public objects.
Origin and Diffusion of English
• English is spoken fluently by one-half billion
people- more than any language except
• Mandarin is clustered mainly in 1 countryChina.
• English is distributed around the world: the
official language in 50 countries
English Speaking Countries
Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is
not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in
many others.
English colonies
• During the past 4 centuries, English migrated with the
who settled in colonies.
• Jamestown, Virginia 1607: English settlers
• 1620: Plymouth, Massachusetts
• 1600s: British took control of Ireland
• Mid-1700s: South Asia
• Late 1700s: South Pacific
• 1800s: South Africa, India
• English became the official language in each case even
if only the colonial rulers and elite residents were the
only who spoke it.
Origin of English in England
2000 BC Celts arrived
1,500 years ago Angles, Jutes and Saxons arrived from Denmark and Germany
9th c. Invasions by Vikings from Norway
1066 AD Normans from Normandy, France invaded
Invasions of England
5th–11th centuries
Fig. 5-2: The groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles,
Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.
Dialects of English
• Dialect: is a regional variation of a language
distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and
pronunciation. Differences in dialects reflect distinctive
features of the environments in which groups live.
• When speakers of a language migrate to other
locations, various dialects of that language develop.
(Migration of English speakers to North America 400
years ago)
• Standard Language: a well established dialect and
widely recognized as the most acceptable for
government, business, education, and mass
– British Received Pronounciation: commonly used by
politicians, broadcasters, and actors.
Old and Middle English Dialects
Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion
persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects through the
Dialects of England
• French replaced English as the language of gov’t
and wealthy after the Norman invasion of 1066.
By then, England had 5 major regional dialects:
Northern, East Midland, West Midland,
Southwestern, and Southeastern or Kentish.
• The dialect used by upper-class emerged as the
standard language for writing and speech
throughout England.
• Introduction of the printing press in 1476 to
England encouraged the diffusion of the dialect.
English Dialects
Differences between British and
American English
• Isolated by the Atlantic Ocean, English evolved independently during
the 1700 and 1800s- few visits to relatives and no means to transmit
human voices yet.
• U.S. English differs in 3 ways:
Vocabulary: settlers encountered new objects and experiences in the
Spelling: strong national feeling in the U.S. for an independent identity.
Noah Webster, creator of Webster dictionary was determined to develop
an American dialect. He either ignored or was unaware of recently
created rules of grammar and spelling in England. Spelling differenceselimination of the “u” from British spelling (“honour” is honor, “colour” is
color). Substitution of “s” for “c” (“defence” instead of defense”
Pronunciation: Colonists began to pronounce words differently than the
British. Prominent difference is a and r (fast, path, half- have the sound of
“ah” like father rather than the “a” like man). British also eliminate the
letter r from pronunciation except before vowels.
Dialects in the United States
• Major differences in U.S. dialects originated
because of differences in dialects among the
original settlers.
• Isogloss: a word-usage boundary can be
constructed for each word. Isoglosses are
determined by collecting data directly from
people, native of rural areas.
– 2 important isoglosses separate the eastern U.S. into 3
major dialects: Northern, Midlands, and Southern.
Northern boundary runs across Pennsylvania and
Southern along the Appalachian Mountains.
Dialects in the Eastern U.S.
Fig. 5-4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions,
whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4-9).
U.S. Dialects