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Transcript
Why Languages
have dialects?
Natalia Ramirez Salas
¿Why is there air?
Why are there
dialects?
What are the processes that
make dialects so natural and
inevitable?
Social and
factors
Linguistic
Sociohistorical
explanation
From the eastern part of
central
and southern England
From ScotchIrish parts
NEW YERSEY
AND DELAWARE
AREA
NEW ENGLAND,
UPPER NEW
YORK AND
PARTS OF
APPALACHIA
Settlement
The major dialects of
America English to this day
reflect the original sites of
settlement with cultural
hearths such as Boston,
Tidewater Virginia,
Charleston, south Carolina.
Settlement patterns
generally take place in
several distinct phases:
First Phase.
Second Phase
Third Phase
The first settlers into a given
region typically establish a
cultural and linguistic area
that persists in time,
although the original feature
will change in a number of
ways and other features may
take place.
Migration routes
Eg. Pennsylvania
There is a line dividing
NORTH DIALECT
MIDLAND DIALECT
horse /hɔ:rs/ hoarse /hɔ:rs /
witch /wɪtʃ/ which1 /hwɪtʃ /
Physical Factors
O ne of the most prominent vernacular dialects of
English is found in the southern Appalachian
mountain range, including West Virginia, western
North Carolina and Virginia, eastern Tennessee and
Kentucky, and by migratory extension, northwest
Arkansas and southern Missouri, where so-called
Appalachian English can be found.
The most effective kind of
communication is face-toface, and when a group of
speaker does not interact
with another, the likelihood
of dialect divergence is
heightened
Language Contact
In the XVII century there was
primary influence from American
Indian groups .
Moccasin['mɒkəsɪn] Raccoon/ræ'ku:n /
In the XVIII century there was
primary influence from French .
Bureau /'bjʊrəʊ /
Prarie /'preri /
German also gave English words.
Kindergarten /'kɪndərˌgɑ:rtn̩ / Hambuger/'hæmbɜ:rgər /
From Spanish we can find:
Canyon /'kænjən/
Patio /'pætiəʊ/
Suffixes taken from German:
-est
Songfest
Slugfest
Gabfest
Suffixes taken from French
-ee
Draftee
Enlistee
Economic Ecology
Fishing
Mining
Farming
Metropolitan Areas v/s Rural Areas
Cultural lag
Retention of older forms of English, such
a-prefix in:
He was a-hunting and a- fishing
/h/
Hit´s a nice day out today.
Social Stratification
Some markers of social status
differences
Double Negation:
She ain´t been nowhere( she hasn´t
been anywhere)
/
Some markers of social status
differences
Irregular verbs forms:
She done it (She did it)
Some markers of social status
differences
Comparative forms:
More bigger (bigger)
/
Communication Networks
In other level the particular
social network govern
people´s day to day
conversation.
Group Reference
Teenagers
Slang
Eg.
Just let grab a bite to eat =
Have a quick snack
Do not confuse it with
Ethnic variety such
Vernacular Black English
They have:
A complex array of grammatical,
phonological and lexical structures
in its limitation.
Character attributes
Ronald Reagan
“ Ain´t gonna
back down to
nobody”
Linguistic explanation
There are higher-order
principles of language
structure that guide the
ways in which the
dialects of language will
differ from each other.
English from Elizabethian period .
The pressure for dialect
variation may come from
within the system itself
Changes can also
may originate
from contact with
other language
communities.
Changes from
within (because
they take place
independent of
outside language
influences)
Changes from
outside
Although we distinguish the
two sources of change, they
often work hand in hand as
the internal structure of the
system may dictate what
items from outside will be
adopted and how.
Generalization
Let´s consider the rule
of Negation in English
in its more restricted
(standard) and its more
expanded, generalize
(vernacular)version.
Negative making pattern.
The negative is typically restricted
to one element in the sentence
(often within the verb phrase)
The Students were not
reading the assignments.
If we want add “nobody”, there
must be an adjustment to the rule.
The indefinite is placed before the
verb
Nobody was reading the
assignments.
If the indefinite comes after the
verb , the negative may be placed
in the verb phrase.
The Students weren´t
reading anything.
The Students were reading
nothing.
Analogy
This notion is extended
to refer to existing
patterns of language that
are used as the basis for
bringing other forms
into conformity with
these patterns.
Oxes instead of Oxen
Shifts which eliminate
exceptions, or irregular forms,
are referred to as
REGULARIZATION
1-She knowed the woman
2-The oxes pulled the cart
3- Mines is here.
4- That is badder that this.
Redundancy reduction
A prime example of redundant
marking in English is the marker
for Third person singular in
present tense.
She likes the story
To omit –s can make
differences in form but
not necessarily any
differences in meaning.
She like_ the class.
The table is four inche_ long.
John_ hat is on the floor
The man _ ugly
Naturalness
For example:
The th
/θ/
think /θɪŋk/
bath1 /bæθ /
nothing /'nʌθɪ
ŋ/
Tink or Sink
Innovation
Dialect diversity also
comes from linguistic
response to physical and
social conditions
surrounding language
and the need to name
new and things .
Processes available for word creation
PROCESS
DEFINITION
EXAMPLES
Compouding
Two or more existing Badmouth
words are comined
to form a new word.
Derivation
Affixes are added to
create new forms or
change the part of
the speech.
Badness
Borrowing
Words from other
languages are
incorporated
Arroyo ( Spanish)
Blending
Parts of two words
Sitcom ( Situatioare combined to form comedy)
a new word
Processes available for word creation
PROCESS
DEFINITION
EXAMPLES
Acronyms
New words are
formed by taking the
initial sounds or
letters from existing
words
UN (United Nations)
Clipping
Word are formed by
shortening an
existing word
Dorm (dormitory)
Conversion
Words are shifted
from one part of
speech to another
without any change
in their form
Bottle (as a verb in
“she bottled the
water”