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• 102/100 BCE: Gaius Julius Caesar was born
• His family had noble, patrician roots, although
they were neither rich nor influential in this
• 85 BCE: His father died, and a few years later he was
betrothed and possibly married to a wealthy young
woman, Cossutia.
• This betrothal/marriage was soon broken off, and at
age 18 he married Cornelia, the daughter of a
prominent member. she later bore him his only
legitimate child, a daughter, Julia.
• 79 BCE: Caesar, on the staff of a military
legate, was awarded the civic crown (oak
leaves) for saving the life of a citizen in battle.
His general sent him on an embassy to
Nicomedes, the king of Bithynia, to obtain a
fleet of ships
• Caesar was born in Rome to a well-known
patrician family (gens Julia) which supposedly
traced its ancestry to Julius, the son of the
Trojan prince Aeneas, who according to myth
was the son of Venus.
• In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered
Caesar to return to Rome and disband his army
because his term as Proconsul had finished.
Moreover, the Senate forbade Caesar to stand
for a second consulship in absentia. Caesar
knew that he would be prosecuted and
politically eliminated if he entered Rome
without the immunity enjoyed by a Consul or
without the power of his legions.
• 46 BC, February - Battle of Thapsus: defeats
the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North
• 45 BC March 17 - Battle of Munda: defeats the
Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus
• Julius Caesar was a Roman general and politician who
overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule
of the emperors.
• Gaius Julius Caesar was born on July 12, 100 B.C.E. to
Gaius Caesar and Aurelia.
• A conspiracy (secret plan) was formed to remove
Caesar and restore the government to the Senate.
• When Gaius Julius Caesar was born, the leading man
in Rome was Gaius Marius, who had saved the Roman
republic several years before by defeating two
Germanic tribes, the Teutones (102) and the Cimbri
• The connections between the Marius and the Julius
families were very close: Marius was married to a
sister of Caesar's father, Julia.
• Between 81 and 79, Caesar served in Asia
Minor on the personal staff of Marcus Minucius
Thermus, who was praetor. Caesar was sent on
a diplomatic mission to king Nicomedes IV of
Bithynia (ruled 94-74) and was rumored to
have had a love affair with this ruler.
• When young Julius (as he preferred to be
known, dropping his real first name, which was
Gaius just like his father's) was 15, his father
• He spent a few years making a name for
himself in the military and then got married, to
a woman named Cornelia, who was the
daughter of an important man in the Popular
• A few years into their marriage, Cornelia gave birth to
a daughter, Julia.
• Things changed when Sulla ruled the Roman
government as dictator. For one thing, Sulla ordered
Julius to divorce Cornelia, since she was from the
family of one Sulla's enemies.
• Caesar refused and instead went into hiding, in order
to avoid a certain death sentence for refusing to obey
the dictator's wishes.
• He was eventually pardoned and later returned to
Rome when Sulla died, in 78 B.C.
• After the pardon, Caesar continued to rise in the
rankings of government, being elected pontifex
maximus (chief priest) and then praetor. He also
continued his military successes and was elected consul,
in 60 B.C.
• An outspoken opponent of Caesar for many
years had been Cato, a brilliant speaker who
saw in Caesar a man who would put himself
first, before Rome or its people. Cato, already
famous before Caesar arrived on the scene,
allied himself with Caesar's political opponents.
• After Caesar's string of victories in the East,
Cato and others of Caesar's opponents fled to
Africa. Caesar, having returned to Rome, went
to Africa and defeated his opponents there, at
the Battle of Thapsus. Cato, unable to bear the
shame of being defeated or pardoned, killed