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Transcript
Tunnel engineering
Definition & necessity
Underground passage which are constructed
without disturbing the ground surface
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•
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route to be connected by shorter distance
Conveying water for power generation
To avoid acquisition of valuble land
Protection againt landslide, snow fall
Coneveying water,oil,gas
Advantages
• The connect terminal station by short route
• Less route length result in less transportation
cost
• They carry railway, road and water, oil, gas
• Avoiding holding up of traffic for long time
• To avoid acquisition of valuble land
• Protection againt landslide, snow fall
Disadvantages
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Require skilled labour & supervision
Require Special equipment
Costly in construction
Require more time
May cause suffocation if ventilation not
provided properly
Classification
According to purpose
i) Traffic tunnel
1.
Railway
2.
Highway
3.
Navigation
4.
Subway
5.
Pedestrain
ii)Conveyance tunnel
1.
Water supply
2.
Hydropower
3.
Sewage
4.
Tunnel for industrial use
According to type of material
1.
In hard rock
2.
In soft rock
3.
In quick sand
4.
Uder river bed
According to position of alignment
1.
Base tunnel
2.
Spiral tunnel
3.
Slope
Shape tunnel
Shape
Rectangular tunnel
Segmental
Circular
Horse shoe
Egg shape
Elliptical
Tunnel surveying
Involve the following operation
1. Location center line on the ground
2. Construction of shaft over center line
3. Transferring the center line inside the tunnel
Shaft
• When the length of tunnel is small, it can be
constructed by excavation
• The vertical opening along the alignment