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Key Terms and People
 Marco Polo:
 Trader from Venice in the 1200’s who traveled from
Europe to China, lived with the Mongols, and told
Europeans of Asian goods and ideas never heard of
Key Terms and People
 Renaissance:
 “Rebirth” of art and literature from ancient Greece
and Rome. This time period began in Florence, Italy,
and followed the Middle Ages in Europe. (1300-1600).
 Humanism:
 A way of thinking and learning that stresses the
importance of human abilities, actions, and
Key Terms and People
 Dante Alighieri:
 An Italian Renaissance politician and poet who wrote
in Italian.
 Niccolo Machiavelli:
 An Italian Renaissance politician and writer who wrote
The Prince—gave leaders in Florence advice on how
they should rule.
Key Terms and People
 Michelangelo:
 An Italian Renaissance Master painter, poet, and
 Leonardo Da Vinci:
 True genius of the Renaissance---expert painter,
sculptor, architect, inventor, engineer, town planner,
and map maker.
Key Terms and People
 Perspective:
 a way of showing depth and distance on a flat surface.
 People in the background of a painting are shown
smaller than people in the front.
 Sharper colors are used for objects seen up close, while
distant images are made to look hazier
Perspective in The Last Supper
What were some positive results of
the Black Death?
*People who survived the Plague used farmland,
buildings, ships, machines, and gold (things not
damaged by the Plague) to raise more food and create
new products.
*Wages rose as workers in short supply demanded
higher pay-- moved to towns, became merchants,
craftsmen, and traders--- Europe’s economy began to
grow again.
What does this have to do with
“Supply and Demand?”
 As more goods became available, prices went down
and trade increased. More new products became
available in European markets.
Major Trading Cities of the Italian
 Location: N. Central Italy
 Importance: Specialization
 Wealth in this city began with the wool trade.
 Bankers in Florence kept money from merchants all over
Europe. The bankers earned money by making loans and
charging interest.
 The greatest of the Florence bankers were the Medici
Florence Close-up
 Location: Northwest Italy
 Importance: Specialization
 Manufacturing city during the Renaissance. Weapons
and silks were produced here.
 Location: Northeast Italy
 Importance:
 Port city on the Adriatic Sea. Merchant ships brought
spices and other luxury goods from Asia to enter
Europe here.
 Venice specialized in the production of glass.
 Location: Northwest Italy
 Importance:
 Port city on the Northwestern side of the Italian
peninsula on the Mediterranean Sea. Merchant ships
brought spices and other luxury goods from Asia to
enter Europe here.
Tell one reason the Silk Road was
 Products for trading went from East to West and trade
between Europe and Asia grew.
Who were the Medici’s?
 The Medici’s were the richest family in Florence during
the Renaissance. They owned a lot of banks, ruled
Florence, and beautified the city.
 Renaissance means:
 Rebirth
 Why is the word human contained in the term
 Humanism stresses the exploration of human
activities and abilities.
Which is better—a ruler to be
loved or a ruler to be feared? Tell
 According to Machiavelli, it is safer to be feared than
loved because fear is sustained by a dread of
punishment that is always effective. Love is broken
whenever people see a way to benefit themselves or
take advantage.
 Classical refers to the cultures of
 Greece and Rome
 Tell what Dante Alighieri did differently.
 He wrote in Italian (the people’s language). He
believed that Italian was just as good as Latin.
What did Niccolo Machiavelli
 He believed that to be successful, rulers had to focus
on the “here and now”, not on theories about how to
rule. He believed that rulers had to be ruthless to get
what they wanted.
 What book did he write?
 The Prince
 Architect, poet, sculptor, painter
 The David
Leonardo Da Vinci
 Architect, inventor, engineer, town planner, map
maker, expert painter, sculptor, studied plants and
 Wrote notes backwards in his Sketchbook.