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Key Terms and People Marco Polo: Trader from Venice in the 1200’s who traveled from Europe to China, lived with the Mongols, and told Europeans of Asian goods and ideas never heard of before. Key Terms and People Renaissance: “Rebirth” of art and literature from ancient Greece and Rome. This time period began in Florence, Italy, and followed the Middle Ages in Europe. (1300-1600). Humanism: A way of thinking and learning that stresses the importance of human abilities, actions, and achievements. Key Terms and People Dante Alighieri: An Italian Renaissance politician and poet who wrote in Italian. Niccolo Machiavelli: An Italian Renaissance politician and writer who wrote The Prince—gave leaders in Florence advice on how they should rule. Key Terms and People Michelangelo: An Italian Renaissance Master painter, poet, and sculptor. Leonardo Da Vinci: True genius of the Renaissance---expert painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, engineer, town planner, and map maker. Key Terms and People Perspective: a way of showing depth and distance on a flat surface. People in the background of a painting are shown smaller than people in the front. Sharper colors are used for objects seen up close, while distant images are made to look hazier Perspective in The Last Supper What were some positive results of the Black Death? *People who survived the Plague used farmland, buildings, ships, machines, and gold (things not damaged by the Plague) to raise more food and create new products. *Wages rose as workers in short supply demanded higher pay-- moved to towns, became merchants, craftsmen, and traders--- Europe’s economy began to grow again. What does this have to do with “Supply and Demand?” As more goods became available, prices went down and trade increased. More new products became available in European markets. Major Trading Cities of the Italian Renaissance Florence Location: N. Central Italy Importance: Specialization Wealth in this city began with the wool trade. Bankers in Florence kept money from merchants all over Europe. The bankers earned money by making loans and charging interest. The greatest of the Florence bankers were the Medici family. Florence Close-up Milan Location: Northwest Italy Importance: Specialization Manufacturing city during the Renaissance. Weapons and silks were produced here. Venice Location: Northeast Italy Importance: Port city on the Adriatic Sea. Merchant ships brought spices and other luxury goods from Asia to enter Europe here. Venice specialized in the production of glass. Venice Genoa Location: Northwest Italy Importance: Port city on the Northwestern side of the Italian peninsula on the Mediterranean Sea. Merchant ships brought spices and other luxury goods from Asia to enter Europe here. Tell one reason the Silk Road was important. Products for trading went from East to West and trade between Europe and Asia grew. Who were the Medici’s? The Medici’s were the richest family in Florence during the Renaissance. They owned a lot of banks, ruled Florence, and beautified the city. Renaissance means: Rebirth Why is the word human contained in the term humanism? Humanism stresses the exploration of human activities and abilities. Which is better—a ruler to be loved or a ruler to be feared? Tell why. According to Machiavelli, it is safer to be feared than loved because fear is sustained by a dread of punishment that is always effective. Love is broken whenever people see a way to benefit themselves or take advantage. OR Classical refers to the cultures of Greece and Rome Tell what Dante Alighieri did differently. He wrote in Italian (the people’s language). He believed that Italian was just as good as Latin. What did Niccolo Machiavelli believe? He believed that to be successful, rulers had to focus on the “here and now”, not on theories about how to rule. He believed that rulers had to be ruthless to get what they wanted. What book did he write? The Prince Michelangelo Architect, poet, sculptor, painter The David Leonardo Da Vinci Architect, inventor, engineer, town planner, map maker, expert painter, sculptor, studied plants and animals Wrote notes backwards in his Sketchbook.