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Zoë Dennis Caleb Stevens Kellie White The Second “Manifest Destiny” Resources- Fear that natural resources caused high power figures to begin looking at other nations as a source. Trade- The U.S. began to raise more than able to sell and saw the acquisition of colonies a possibility to expand trade. Social Darwinism- Philosophical justification for Imperialism. Hawaii Way station for U.S. ships in the China trade since early 1800s. Self sufficient ancient civilization of Polynesian people. William Hooper, first U.S. merchant to buy land and establish a sugar plantation on the islands. Beginning of U.S. settlement and impacted Hawaiian society negatively. Hawaiian Relations 1887- Treaty was negotiated between U.S. and Hawaii to open the naval base at Pearl Harbor. 1875- Agreement reached to allow Hawaiian sugar to enter United States duty free. 1893- President Harrison signed an annexation agreement of Hawaii Samoa Served as a way station for American ships in the Pacific trade. 1878- A treaty between Samoan leaders and U.S. opened an American naval station at Pago Pago. Great Britain, Germany, and U.S. had an agreement in ruling the islands. In 1899, U.S. and Germany divided islands and gave other Pacific territories to Great Britain. Cuban Controversy Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894Cut off exports of sugar to the U.S. due to high duties. Cuban Revolt – The Cubans rose up against the Spanish misrule. Both sides of the conflict became so horrific. General Valeriano WeylerLeader of the Spanish. U.S. press dubbed him “Butcher Weyler” due to his opening of concentration camps. Yellow Journalism New kind of newspaper that specialized in lurid and sensational news. Joseph Pulitzer and Randolph Hearst are two of the most famous yellow journalists. Covered the Cuban crisis and persuaded the U.S.’s opinions to be for war. “Remember the Maine!” Two incidents that were immediate triggers for Spanish-American War De Lôme letter- Cuban agent stole a private letter written by Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish minister in Washington, that slammed President McKinley U.S.S. Maine- The American battleship Maine blew up in Havana harbor. Americans believed it to be the doings of the Spanish and war hysteria swept the country. “A Splendid Little War” Spanish-American War- declared in April 1898 and ended in August 1898. Secretary of State John Hay dubbed the conflict “ a splendid little war”. Formal end to war came with the Treaty of Paris in December 1898 following the armistice concerning Cuba in August of 1898. Battle for Cuba Cuba was main focus of U.S. military efforts during the Spanish-American War The Rough Riders- Led by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt (nominally led by General Leonard Wood), was a cavalry unit that was involved in several conflicts in Cuba San Juan Hill- Famous charge in which the invasion force was actually integrated with Black soldiers. Philippines & Puerto Rico Philippines: Commodore George Dewey was instructed to attack Spanish naval forces in the Philippines. In May of 1898, Dewey was victorious in destroying the Spanish fleet. Puerto Rico: Acquired Puerto Rico during SpanishAmerican War and annexed it. Anti-Imperialist League Following the Spanish-American war, the annexation of the Philippines inspired an intense debate. An Anti-Imperialist movement arose against the acquisition of the Philippines. Anti-imperialists included Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers and others. The debate between antiimperialists and imperialists was prevalent in the election of 1900. McKinley won and showed that imperialism was still favored among the nation. Philippine War Four year war involving Filipino insurgents and the United States. After the U.S. stepped in to aid the Filipinos against Spanish rule, the U.S. planned to settle in the islands. This caused the Filipino government to turn against the U.S. resulting in one of the longest and bloodiest wars the United States has ever been involved with. Ended with an agreement and trade increased between the Philippines and the United States. Open-Doors and Boxers Open-Door Policy Each nation with a sphere of influence in China was to respect the rights and privileges of other nations in its sphere Chinese officials were to continue to collect tariff duties in all spheres. Nations were not to discriminate against other nations in levying port dues and railroad rates within their spheres. Boxer Rebellion- The boxers, a secret Chinese martialarts society, rebelled against the foreign powers in China. Expeditionary forces from the Imperial powers stopped the siege. U.S. “Scoreboard” Territories acquired Hawaii Samoan Islands (split with Germany) Puerto Rico Guam Philippines Cuba ceded from Spanish rule but became a protectorate since it did not end up belonging to the U.S. Roosevelt Administration and Foreign Policy Following McKinley’s death, Theodore Roosevelt took over as President. His foreign policies first began with protecting the Open Door in China. He negotiated the end of the Russo-Japanese War. The Japanese became a naval power in the pacific and Roosevelt sent the reminder that the U.S. was a force to be reckoned with by sending the “Great White Fleet”. Panama Roosevelt took interest in Latin America with the creation of the Roosevelt Corollary The Panama canal was created to increase U.S. access to international trade. Roosevelt orchestrated a Panamanian Revolt against the Colombian government which in turn helped Panama gain its independence.