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Transcript
TONIC AND DOMINANT
F O R M , F U N C T I O N , & R E L AT I O N S H I P
THE TONIC CHORD
• Built on the first degree of
the diatonic scale;
• Tonal center
• Built on stable scale degrees
^1, ^3, & ^5
• Root, Third, & Fifth
I
I
• Base by which all other
pitches and chords are
referenced
• Marked with Roman numeral
I in major or
i in the minor mode
i
i
THE TONIC CHORD
• Established as the grounding center of tonal music
during the 17th and 18th Centuries
• Most pieces begin and end on the tonic chord
• Ending on the tonic chord is the ultimate in conclusivity
• Four important roles
•
•
•
•
Principal goal tone
Initiating event in a melodic line or in harmony
Generator of other tones
Stable center & neutralizes harmonic tension
THE DOMINANT CHORD
• Secondary in importance
to the tonic
• Built upon the fifth scale
degree in the diatonic
scale
• Appears in Major and
minor, but is typically
altered in the minor mode
because it contains the
leading tone (^7) of the
diatonic scale
*assume the key of C Maj/min
CONNECTIONS
• Both triads are the harmonic building blocks of tonal
musical structure
• Harmonic goals of phrases and larger formal units
• Closely related by acoustical properties
• Rules for doubling
• #1 – always double the root
• #2 – never, ever, ever double the leading tone!
CONNECTING I-V AND V- I
• The bass takes the root of the second chord
• The common tone is retained in the same voice
• The remaining voices move by stepwise motion to
the nearest tones of the second chord
NONCOMMON-TONE CONNECTION
• When the soprano line involves scale degrees 2-1,
1-2, 3-5, 5-3, or 5-7, the three upper voices normally
move contrary to the bass to the nearest notes of
the second chord.
In the connection of
V – I, the leading tone (a
tendency tone), does not
resolve to tonic, but skips
to the dominant. This is
known as free resolution
of the leading tone.
This can ONLY occur if the
leading tone is in an inner
voice.
Facilitates spacing
HARMONIZE THE FOLLOWING…
• Harmonize the following soprano examples using
the voicing as indicated. All chords are moving V - I
NON-HARMONIC CHORD TONES
• Any note that is note heard as a member of the
prevailing harmony (chord)
• Two common types Non-Harmonic Chord Tones
• Passing Tone (p.t.)
• Neighbor Tone (n.t.) or Auxiliary Tone (aux.)
• Non-Harmonic chord tones may occur
simultaneously in more than one voice
• If this is the case, they are usually consonant with each
other
NON-HARMONIC CHORD TONES
-PASSING TONES-
Passing Tones
Voice(s) moves stepwise
to fill the gap between
chord tones in a line.
Example in the minor mode:
Uses the melodic minor scale to
avoid an augmented second in
the tenor line.
NON-HARMONIC CHORD TONES
-NEIGHBOR/AUXILIARY TONES-
Neighbor Tone
Used between a chord tone(s) and its
repetition. There is no change in harmony.
WELCOME PASSING TONES!
• Introduce passing tones in the following progressions
Welcome Neighbor/Auxiliary Tones
• Introduce N.T. into the progressions