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Unit 1 - Byzantine Empire
Study Guide:
*-Byzantine-Explain the following:
1) What section of Rome was the Byzantine Empire?
2) What was Constantinople & where did the name come from?
3) How did the Byzantine Empire get started?
4) Why did the empire thrive?
5) What was the Hagia Sophia?
6) What was a Bezant?
7) What was the Hippodrome?
8) Who were Justinian and Theodora?
9) How did Justinian make the Byzantine Empire great?
10) What were the Justinian codes?
11) Explain the Nika Rebellion
12) What is Constantine’s religious connection?
13) Mosaic art and themes of their art
14) What are Icons?
15) What are Illuminated Manuscripts?
16) Why caused the great 1054 Schism?
17) Who conquered Constantinople and their leader?
18) What is Istanbul?
19) Why was the Byzantine Empire in decline?
20) What are missionaries?
21) What was the Armenia’s religion?
22) What are A Czars?
23) Who were the slavs and how they were divided up?
-Explain who they are and their Achievements:
24) Ivan III
25) Vladimir
26) Mongols
*Compare and Contrast the Roman Catholic and
Eastern Orthodox Religions.
Roman Empire
-Ancient Rome- Located on the ____________________________ between Mediterranean Sea &
Adriatic Sea.
- The Capital city of Rome is located by the __________________________.
City of Rome was created by the Mythical brothers, _____________________and
________________________________________(City built on top of him).
-Fall of the Roman Empire- By _________________________ century AD. Rome had difficulty managing its
huge Empire.
- Emperor _____________________________ Splits Roman Empire is split into
two halves: _______________________________________________________.
-Moving East –
- Emperor ___________________________moved Rome’s Capital city to the
- The New capital will be _______________________________________.
- This ___________________________ hold the Roman Empire together.
-Why Rome Falls1. __________________- Trade declined because of infighting; the lack of gold
flowing into the empire, causing merchants to raise prices and Inflation hits
2. ___________________– Spending to defend. Collecting taxes became
tenuous, no pay, so people stopped serving.
3. ___________________ – bribes, civil wars weakened Rome’s defense and
incompetent, corrupt politicians and emperors lose the people trust.
4. ___________________- from the north such as, Goth, Visigoths & Franks and
the Huns attacked Rome.
Byzantine Empire
 The ancient _________________________________ of Byzantium was founded in 667 BC
by king Byzas.
- When the __________________________________ half of the Rome Empire crumbled, a
medieval civilization emerged.
- The ________________________________ half of the Roman Empire became known as
the “
-Byzantine Empire- It included most of the Balkan Peninsula to the Middle East and parts of North Africa
- Population included: ________________________, Egyptians, Syrians, _________,
____________, Jews, Persians, Slavs and Turks.
-Constantinople- ____________________________________ was the Capital of Byzantine Empire – was a
__________________________________ city – its location on the Bosporus Strait made it
easy to _______________ and allowed for easy _______________________________ with
Europe, Africa and Asia.
- The Capital was named after the Roman emperor, __________________________________
-Society- Culture was influenced by the _________________________________
- Women were able to attain positions of____________________________________.
- It Prospered due to trade: silk(
); pepper & clover(
) grains &
) ivory & gold(
) wine(France).
- Most Currency were gold coins called “__________________________________________”
- Enjoyed chariot races at the arena ___________________________________________
Arts & Education
- Religious subjects were the bases for their Art & Architecture.
- Preserved many of the classics from ________________ and produced their own books too.
- ___________________________ was one of the first female historians
-Government- ___________________________________ ruled the Byzantine Empire for a _________________
The Age of Justinian
-Justinian’s Rule- Justinian ruled ________________________________________.
- Was given the throne by his uncle Justin, at _________________________________.
- He wanted to __________________________________________________________.
*Example-A wondrous church, _______________________________{Holy Wisdom}
- He wanted to recover the Western territory{___________________________ } overrun by the
Germanic/Barbarian invaders.
- Expanded the empire, __________________________________________________
- Justinian’s conquests proved __________________________ – the wars depleted resources.
- After his death the ________________________ most of the territory he regained.
-Justinian’s Codes- Set up a commission to classify and ______________________________________.
- Led by a legal expert – recorded as 4 books, “_______________________________“ (later the
5,000 laws were to be used by many European civilizations)
-Theodora- Born ________________________________ and was an actress.
- The daughter of a _____________________________, who worked at the
_________________________{huge arena}.
- Became the wife of ___________________________________________while in her 20’s.
- She was the emperors _______________________ – She equaled and surpassed sometimes, his
political skills and wisdom.
- Created reforms for women:
2) Widowers were
-Nika Rebellion- The Blue and Green ________________________________ took the grievances out on the
- Theodora saved Justinian’s throne by _______________________________ resolution to the
- She died of _______________ in 548AD at the age of _________________.
Religion and a Schism
- Byzantine Empire followed the faith of ________________________________.
- Edict of Milan 313A.D. – _____________________________ made ____________________
the legal religion in the Roman Empire.
- Their _______________________________ were considered to be God’s representatives
__________________________________ and they controlled the church.
- 29 emperors died violently and 13 left to become monks.
 Hagia Sophia- It was _____________________________________, in the city
of Constantinople.
 Mosaic Art- pictures______________________________________________.
 Illuminated Manuscript- elaborately ________________________________
___________________ - provided vivid records of daily life.
-Icons- Religious ____________________________________________________.
- Some believed they should be used, because they were___________________
________________________. Others felt the Bible prohibited the use of icons and it was a
-Schism of A.D. 1050- Byzantine emperor Leo III banned the use of icons because he viewed it as idol
worship, which will cause a Schism in the Christian church.
- Schism means, “_____________________________________________”
- The A.D.1054 schism saw _________________________ churches emerge,
______________________________ and ______________________________
Roman Catholic
1. Services conducted in
2. The _________has authority
over all churches.
3. Pope claims authority over
4. Priest _____________ marry
5. ___________________is not
6. __________________ Icons.
How they are Similar
1) They base their faith on the
gospel of ______________
2) They use _______________
such as baptism
3) Their religious leaders are
4) They seek to convert people.
Eastern Orthodox
1. _____________conducted in
Greek and local Languages.
2. The ___________________
__________over Churches.
3. __________________claims
authority over bishops.
4. Priest __________________
5. Divorce _______________
under certain conditions.
6. __________________ Icons.
-The Byzantine Empire Falls- The Byzantine Empire was able to flourish because of strong
______________________, ______________________ of its capital and their
- After a ________________________________, the great Byzantine Empire will
come to an end.
- The empire was in decline because of _________________________________
{Probably Bubonic}, __________________________________________ and
attacks from _________________________________.
- The _________________________,led by Sultan Mehmed II, will conquer
Byzantine and it’s great city, Constantinople in A.D. 1453.
- The Great city of ___________________________________ will be renamed
Byzantine Heritage Live On In Russia
- __________________________ will eventually become the Russians. They were
located north of the _____________________________
Byzantine Heritage Live On In Russia
- Do to their location to Constantinople; the Slavs developed a culture influence
through Byzantine _______________________________________
-Slavic Tribes- ____________________________ - Lived closest to Byzantine Empire,(_________
) so they borrowed their Religion, Laws and culture. Borrowed
from Europe and Asia too. The largest of the three Slavic groups. Their acceptance of
eastern Orthodoxy isolated the eastern Slavs. The ______________________________
is where the name Russia comes from.
- _____________________________ – located east-central Europe (today Poland
) – Roman catholic
- ______________________________ – located in the Balkan Peninsula (today
Serbs, ____________________________________ ) – influenced by both Roman
catholic and eastern Orthodox and Islam.
Byzantine Heritage Live On In Russia
-Christianity- Spread by __________________________ (People carrying religious messages),
who lived in _______________________ (area to develop a spiritual way of life).
- The Missionaries Traveled trying to ________________________ Christianity.
- Many Slavic people never adopted ____________________________ but instead
used their ___________________________.
- ___________________________________ – Byzantine missionary brothers -help
develop the _____________________________ to present Christianity to the Slavs
in their own language (used still today in Russian area).
- ____________________________first country to officially adopt Christianity.
- Vikings- Vikings where from __________________________ -Vikings protected
___________________________- Given the ____________________________
Tribes around 862A.D.
- Gradually the ______________________________________ to make one culture.
-Kiev Russia- First major ___________________________, location great for traveling and trade.
- Viking leader Oleg, ______________________________ at the beginning of
10th century & created principality of Kiev.
- ________________________ forces all Russian subjects to be baptized in the
Dnieper River and ______________________.
- Kiev declines as a power city do to the 1240a.d. _____________ invasion, led by
- Ivan the Great - Mongols were uneducated, warrior Nomads ______________ and conquered
- They _______________________{to take or steal} and forced the Russians to
- Prince Ivan III from the city of ___________________{called the third Rome}
takes the title name of __________________ (Which means Caesar).
- In 1480a.d. ___________________________________ refuses the taxes and
- He brought Russia back under _________________________ ruler.
Project - Profiling Constantinople
For this project you will be creating a profile for a specific
aspect of the great capital city Constantinople.
 On a 22” X 28 poster {Around this size}
 Each Group will be given a research handout to base
their profile on. As a group you will:
1) Give out jobs (Visual Stylists and Creative Writers)
2) Finish the project by:
a) Creating a poster that is half picture and is half
b) Your visuals will depict aspects of your topic.
c) Your written response explains all key points
of your topic in outline form.
How you’re Graded: Color, Visuals, Written, Topic
(5/10/20 point scale)
 Presentation and Due Date__________________