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American History Chapter 14 Section 2 Philippine Islands • The Japanese continued to win victories in the Pacific until the Battle of Midway. • A few hours after their attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese attacked airfields in the Philippines. • A few days later, troops landed on the Philippine Islands, strongly outnumbering American and Filipino forces. Giving up the Philippines • General Douglas MacArthur decided to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. • Eventually the defenders of Bataan surrendered. – April 9, 1942 Prisoners of War (POWs) • Japanese were infamous on how they badly treated POWs • In the Philippines, nearly 78,000 soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to a Japanese prison camps. • Almost 10,000 troops died on the way. • The march was later called the Bataan Death March. Firing Back-April 18, 1942 • By early 1942, the United States was preparing to drop bombs on Tokyo. • President Roosevelt ordered Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle to command the mission. • America bombed Japan for the first time in April of that year. • Doolittle’s raid sent Japanese strategy into a tailspin. Breaking the Code • Thanks to the work of code breakers, American forces were able to decode Japan’s plan to attack both New Guinea and Midway. Battle of Coral Sea-April 7-8, 1942 • Japan suffers its first defeat of the war during the Battle of the Coral Sea off New Guinea – • The first time in history that two opposing carrier forces fought only using aircraft without the opposing ships ever sighting each other. • American forces prevented the Japanese from cutting supply lines to Australia. Battle of Midway-June 4-7, 1942 • Knowing the code allowed Admiral Chester Nimitz to ambush the Japanese fleet at Midway and win the battle. • At the Battle of Midway, 3,057 Japanese had died. • FOUR Japanese Aircraft carriers were sunk by the Americans. • The Battle of Midway was a turning point. We want a plan • In 1942, Joseph Stalin wanted President the Americans and British to open a second front against Germany. • Winston Churchill, however, wanted to attack the periphery, or edges, of the German empire. Why North Africa was Import • Egypt was very important to the British because of the Suez Canal, the route used by most of Britain's Empire to send supplies to Britain Nazi German’s Afrika Korp • The German “Afrika Korp” was commanded by General Erwin Rommel, a brilliant commander whose success earned him the nickname, the “desert fox” Agreeing to attack the edges • Roosevelt agreed and ordered troops to invade Morocco and Algeria in North Africa. • These were French territories under German control. Casablanca • General Patton led the American forces in Morocco. • They quickly captured the city of Casablanca. • Then they headed east into Tunisia, where they struggled in their first real battle with German forces. Battle of Kasserine Pass • In the Battle of Kasserine Pass, 7,000 Americans were injured. • Together with British forces, they were able to defeat the Germans in North Africa in 1943. German Subs • At the same time, the war against German submarines in the Atlantic intensified as well. • German submarines had entered American coastal waters. • By August of 1942, Germans had sunk about 360 American ships there. Convoy System • This convinced the U.S. Navy to set up a convoy system. • Cargo ships traveled in groups escorted by navy warships. • American and British shipyards also upped production of cargo ships. • Soon they were producing more ships than the German submarines were sinking. • The United States was also using new technology such as radar, sonar, and depth charges against the submarines. • The war slowly turned in favor of the Allies. Battle of Stalingrad • In the spring of 1942, Hitler was confident he could beat the Soviets by wrecking the Soviet economy. • The city of Stalingrad controlled the Volga River and was a major railroad junction, capturing the city was the key to Germany’s attack. • He considered the city of Stalingrad central to his efforts. Not the right supplies • Hitler ordered his troops to capture and hold the city at all costs. • In September of that year, German troops entered Stalingrad, but they were not equipped for the cold in ways the Soviet army was. Victory and Turning Point • The Germans lost thousands of soldiers. • In November, Soviet reinforcements arrived and trapped almost 250,000 German troops within the city. • The Germans surrendered the city in February of 1943. • The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point of the war, because it put Germans on the defensive.