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# Download EXP_1 Economic Power System Operation

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Power SystemOperation and Control (EET 415) Laboratory Module EXPERIMENT 1 ECONOMIC POWER SYSTEM OPERATION 1. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the economic power flow on the power system by means of MiPower software 2. EQUIPMENT: MiPower software 3. INTRODUCTION: The quantification and minimization of losses is important because it can lead to a more economic operation of a power system. If we know how the losses occur, we can take steps to limit the losses. Hence, if more losses can be minimised, the power can be consumed efficiently. Existing power generation and transmission can be used effectively without having to build new installations and at the same time save the cost of losses. Considering losses associated with resistive material, three things need to be considered in order to prevent the unnecessary losses; • either reducing the resistance/impedance, • or decreasing the current, or • maximising voltages. To determine B-loss coefficients, it is necessary to determine the precise loss mechanisms, which occur in the system. Traditionally, B-loss coefficients have been applied to transmission line analysis where the losses are predominant by only line loss determined by I2R. Transformer losses are not significant in such systems. The only other losses are corona, which will occur only under foul weather conditions. However,in industrial power systems, the losses are more diverse and thus B-coefficients will be more complicated to utilize. Consider a simple three-phase radial transmission line between two points of generating/source and UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS – Exp.1 (Revision2) 1 Power SystemOperation and Control (EET 415) Laboratory Module receiving/load as illustrated by Figure I. We can deduce that the line loss is: where R is the resistance of the line in ohms per phase. The current I can be obtained: where PG is the generated power (load power and losses) VG is the magnitude of the generated voltage (line-to-line) cosφG is the generator power factor Combining the above two equations, we have Assuming fixed generator voltage and power factor, we can write the losses as: where in this case Losses are thus approximated as a second order function of generation. If a second power generation is present to supply the load as shown in Figure II, we can express the transmission losses as a function of the two plant loadings. Losses can now be expressed by the equation: Where B is the losses coefficient. UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS – Exp.1 (Revision2) 2 Power SystemOperation and Control (EET 415) Laboratory Module Transmission losses become a major factor to be considered when it is needed to transmit electric energy over long distances or in the case of relatively low load density over a vast area. The active power losses may amount to 20 to 30 % of total generation in some situations. 4. PROCEDURE Figure 1 shows a 9-bus power system network of an Electric Utility Company. The load data, voltage magnitude, generation schedule and reactive power limits for regulated bus are tabulated in Table below. Bus 1, whose voltage is specified as V1 = 1.06 0 is taken as slack bus. Voltage magnitude and real power generation at Buses 2 and 3 are 1.045pu, 40MW and 1.03 pu and 30MW. Line impedance for the given on 100MVA base. UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS – Exp.1 (Revision2) 3 Power SystemOperation and Control (EET 415) Laboratory Module LINE DATA LOAD DATA (MW) Bus Time From Bus i to Bus j R X No 0<t<8 9<t<18 19<t<24 1–2 0.02 0.06 2 20 20 15 1–3 0.08 0.24 3 10 15 20 2–3 0.06 0.18 4 40 50 60 2–4 0.06 0.18 5 50 55 70 2–5 0.04 0.12 3–4 0.01 0.03 4–5 0.08 0.24 The generator’s operating costs $/h are as follows: C1 = 500 + 5.3P1 + 0.004P12 C2 = 400 + 5.5P2 + 0.006P22 C7 = 200 + 5.8P3 + 0.009P72 1. Design a power system according to Figure 1 above. Use the element database as provided in Table given (18 marks) 2. Run load flow analysis using Fast Decoupled method. Set accuracy for convergence at 0.01. Also select B Coefficient & Economic Dispatch method to solve the load flow analysis. Print the results. 3. From the results obtain the optimal generating of each unit, plants incremental cost, penalty factor and loss Coefficient. Fill in Table 1 in your answer sheet. 4. On the network editor main screen, generate single line diagram with relevant load flow at 0 <t<8 hour only. Save the diagram and print it. UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS – Exp.1 (Revision2) 4 Power SystemOperation and Control (EET 415) Laboratory Module 5. QUESTIONS: 1. From the fuel cost function given above, write a mathematical equation for incremental fuel cost for all generating units. (9 marks) 2. From results obtained, sketch the optimal power generated by each unit plant. Comment the results (12 marks) 3. Calculate and determined the incremental transmission loss of all units for all time time sequences. What can be concluded from the obtained penalty factors and incremental transmission loss. (9 marks) 4. Calculate the total fuel cost using relevant mathematical represent the above system and compare it with the results obtained from simulation for 0<t<8 hour. What can be concluded from the results obtained. (5 marks) 5. Write the matrix of B coefficient for the above system at 0<t<8 hour. From it, calculate the total lost for the power system. UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS – Exp.1 (Revision2) 5 Power SystemOperation and Control (EET 415) Laboratory Module ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS 1) Figure 2 shows a three line, two plant systems. The following data is given in the per unit systems. V1=V2=V3 = 1 p.u; R1= 0.0025 pu; R2= 0.02 pu; R3 = 0.03 pu; PF1=0.85; PF2 = 0.8; PF3 = 0.75; a) Calculate the loss coefficient B11, B12 and B22 for the above system. (7 marks) b) Calculate the penalty factors L1 and L2 and the corresponding power loss for the two plants and the corresponding power loss for an optimum loading of P1 and P2 of 120MW and 100MW respectively. (assume the fuel cost for the two plants are given by F1 6.69P 4.7675x103 P 2 $ / h and F2 6.69P P 2 $ / h (15 marks) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS – Exp.1 (Revision2) (10 marks) 6