Download File

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
CAMPBELL
BIOLOGY
TENTH
EDITION
Reece • Urry • Cain • Wasserman • Minorsky • Jackson
22
Descent with Modification:
A Darwinian View of Life
Clicker Questions by
Bryan Jennings
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following statements can be associated
with the concept of the “unity of life” and which can be
associated with the concept of the “diversity of life”?
a) The amino acid sequences of cytochrome c (an enzyme in
mitochondria) differ between humans and chimpanzees by
one amino acid.
b) If the gene for human insulin is inserted into bacteria, the
bacteria can make human insulin.
c) Medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) have beaks that are
similar in shape but smaller than large ground finches
(Geospiza magnirostris).
d) The basic forelimb structure of horses and moles is similar.
e) Scientists interested in curing human cancer may study cell
division in yeasts.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Imagine a species of bird in which females prefer to mate
with brightly colored males. However, males with bright
backs are more often preyed upon by hawks. Assuming that
a wide variety of genetic variation exists in the species,
which do you think is the most likely evolutionary outcome?
a) Males will be selected to be brightly colored.
b) Females will be selected to choose drab males.
c) Males will be selected to have bright chests and
dull backs.
d) Females will not mate.
e) The species will go extinct because the hawks catch all the
males.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Imagine a species of bird in which females prefer to mate
with brightly colored males. However, males with bright
backs are more often preyed upon by hawks. Assuming that
a wide variety of genetic variation exists in the species,
which do you think is the most likely evolutionary outcome?
a) Males will be selected to be brightly colored.
b) Females will be selected to choose drab males.
c) Males will be selected to have bright chests and
dull backs.
d) Females will not mate.
e) The species will go extinct because the hawks catch all the
males.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Imagine two species that are thought to have a recent
common ancestor. If this idea is correct, these two
species most likely have
a) no morphological similarities.
b) few biochemical similarities.
c) several homologous structures.
d) similar embryological development.
e) Both C and D are correct.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Imagine two species that are thought to have a recent
common ancestor. If this idea is correct, these two
species most likely have
a) no morphological similarities.
b) few biochemical similarities.
c) several homologous structures.
d) similar embryological development.
e) Both C and D are correct.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
You find a section of sedimentary rock in which the
strata and some fossils have been exposed. You notice
that a clam fossil is in deeper strata than a fish fossil
you can see. Using relative dating, which fossil is most
likely older?
a) clam
b) fish
c) not enough data to answer
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
You find a section of sedimentary rock in which the
strata and some fossils have been exposed. You notice
that a clam fossil is in deeper strata than a fish fossil
you can see. Using relative dating, which fossil is most
likely older?
a) clam
b) fish
c) not enough data to answer
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
You discover fish living in a cave with no natural light. The
fish have no eyes, but they do have eye sockets. Using a
Lamarckian thought process, which of the following would
be the reason for this?
a) The fish were in a dark environment, and therefore didn’t need
eyes. Over time, they used their developmental
energy for other more useful features, so because they
didn’t use them, they lost them.
b) The fish never had eyes but are slowly evolving to have them
because they will need them someday.
c) Originally, some fish in the population had eyes and could see,
but those without eyes had more acute other senses, allowing
them to eat, avoid being eaten, and find a mate more easily.
Eventually, those with eyes died before they could pass on
their genes, and the population changed to those without eyes.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
You discover fish living in a cave with no natural light. The
fish have no eyes, but they do have eye sockets. Using a
Lamarckian thought process, which of the following would
be the reason for this?
a) The fish were in a dark environment, and therefore didn’t
need eyes. Over time, they used their developmental
energy for other more useful features, so because they
didn’t use them, they lost them.
b) The fish never had eyes but are slowly evolving to have them
because they will need them someday.
c) Originally, some fish in the population had eyes and could
see, but those without eyes had more acute other senses,
allowing them to eat, avoid being eaten, and find a mate more
easily. Eventually, those with eyes died before they could
pass on their genes, and the population changed to those
without eyes.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
You discover fish living in a cave with no natural light. The
fish have no eyes, but they do have eye sockets. Using a
Darwinian thought process, which of the following would be
the reason for this?
a) The fish were in a dark environment and therefore didn’t need
eyes. Over time, they used their developmental energy for
other more useful features, so because they didn’t use them,
they lost them.
b) The fish never had eyes but are slowly evolving to have them
because they might need them in the future.
c) Originally, some fish in the population had eyes and could
see, but those without eyes had more acute other senses,
allowing them to eat, avoid being eaten, and find a mate more
easily. Eventually, those with eyes died before they could
pass on their genes, and the population changed to those
without eyes.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
You discover fish living in a cave with no natural light. The
fish have no eyes, but they do have eye sockets. Using a
Darwinian thought process, which of the following would be
the reason for this?
a) The fish were in a dark environment and therefore didn’t need
eyes. Over time, they used their developmental energy for
other more useful features, so because they didn’t use them,
they lost them.
b) The fish never had eyes but are slowly evolving to have them
because they might need them in the future.
c) Originally, some fish in the population had eyes and
could see, but those without eyes had more acute other
senses, allowing them to eat, avoid being eaten, and find
a mate more easily. Eventually, those with eyes died
before they could pass on their genes, and the
population changed to those without eyes.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Using the Galápagos finches example from the book, which
of the following best explains the Darwinian reason why the
insect-eating finch has such a long, narrow beak?
a) Variation existed in the finch population. Those that naturally
had longer, narrower beaks could reach their food more
easily, allowing finches with these features to survive and
reproduce more often than those that did not.
b) Every day, finches who needed to eat insects would squeeze
their beaks into tiny holes to reach insects, eventually
changing the shape of their beaks, which then got passed on
to future generations.
c)
Those with longer, narrower beaks carried the dominant
gene for that, which is how they evolved.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Using the Galápagos finches example from the book, which
of the following best explains the Darwinian reason why the
insect-eating finch has such a long, narrow beak?
a) Variation existed in the finch population. Those that
naturally had longer, narrower beaks could reach their
food more easily, allowing finches with these features to
survive and reproduce more often than those that did not.
b) Every day, finches who needed to eat insects would squeeze
their beaks into tiny holes to reach insects, eventually
changing the shape of their beaks, which then got passed on
to future generations.
c)
Those with longer, narrower beaks carried the dominant gene
for that, which is how they evolved.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
MRSA infections are occurring at alarming rates. One
reason for this could be that people do not finish their
antibiotics. Which of the following is the most likely reason
that this could lead to something like MRSA?
a) Antibiotics take awhile to start working, giving the bacteria
time to mount defenses against the antibiotics over a few
days.
b) Because antibiotics are often taken when there is no
bacterial infection, the antibiotics aren’t using their
medicinal/antibacterial properties and are losing them.
c)
The first few days of antibiotics kill off the weak bacteria,
making people feel better. Then, when people stop taking
the antibiotics, the strong bacteria that survived have been
selected, breed with one another, and create a stronger
population.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
MRSA infections are occurring at alarming rates. One
reason for this could be that people do not finish their
antibiotics. Which of the following is the most likely reason
that this could lead to something like MRSA?
a) Antibiotics take awhile to start working, giving the bacteria
time to mount defenses against the antibiotics over a few
days.
b) Because antibiotics are often taken when there is no
bacterial infection, the antibiotics aren’t using their
medicinal/antibacterial properties and are losing them.
c) The first few days of antibiotics kill off the weak
bacteria, making people feel better. Then, when people
stop taking the antibiotics, the strong bacteria that
survived have been selected, breed with one another,
and create a stronger population.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plants in “Mediterranean” ecosystems have similar adaptations
for surviving hot dry summers and fire. Given that these
ecosystems are presently found in southern Europe, California,
Chile, South Africa, and southern Australia, which of the
following best explains the origin of these adaptations?
a)
These adaptations likely arose in a common ancestor on Pangea,
and continental drift later moved these drought- and fire-adapted
plants to their present locations.
b)
These plants likely share a recent common ancestor and have been
subjected to the same selective pressures.
c)
Although these plants likely do not share a recent common
ancestor, they have been subjected to the same selective
pressures.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plants in “Mediterranean” ecosystems have similar adaptations
for surviving hot dry summers and fire. Given that these
ecosystems are presently found in southern Europe, California,
Chile, South Africa, and southern Australia, which of the
following best explains the origin of these adaptations?
a)
These adaptations likely arose in a common ancestor on Pangea,
and continental drift later moved these drought- and fire-adapted
plants to their present locations.
b)
These plants likely share a recent common ancestor and have been
subjected to the same selective pressures.
c)
Although these plants likely do not share a recent common
ancestor, they have been subjected to the same selective
pressures.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
A number of scientists influenced Darwin’s thinking about
evolution. Which of the following scientists had proposed that the
geological processes of the past (e.g., rivers forming valleys over
time) were still in operation?
a)
Cuvier
b)
Lyell
c)
Linnaeus
d)
Malthus
e)
Wallace
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
A number of scientists influenced Darwin’s thinking about
evolution. Which of the following scientists had proposed that the
geological processes of the past (e.g., rivers forming valleys over
time) were still in operation?
a)
Cuvier
b)
Lyell
c)
Linnaeus
d)
Malthus
e)
Wallace
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.