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What is the Latest Research on Breast Cancer Diagnosis, and Treatment Options? Sarah E. Johnstone Definition of Breast Cancer Breast Cancer can either be benign or malignant tumors “These extra cells form a growth or a mass of tissue called a growth or a tumor” Vocabulary •Cancer Cells: Cells that grow unchecked •Tumor: is a mass of abnormally growing body cells Benign Tumor: stays at the original site, is contained Malignant Tumor: grows and spreads into other body tissue and organs Metastasis: occurs when the abnormal cell travel through the body via the bloodstream Cancer: are malignant tumors HISTORY of BREAST CANCER Breast cancer has been known and treated since ancient times Treatments through the years have become more and more advanced ~Diet ~Ointment ~Cautery ~Sutures ~Mastectomy Statistics 180,000 will be diagnosed WOMEN with breast cancer this year 1 in 20 who have breast ¾ are 50 or older cancer die in 1960 2/3 of newly diagnosed 1 in 7 who have breast cancers show no signs that cancer die today cancer has spread beyond the Incidence of breast breast cancer are increasing due to changes in the way we live like: postponing child birth; taking replacement hormones and oral contraceptives; eating high fat foods; drinking more alcohol. …more Statistics MEN Each year about 1,450 cases of male breast cancer are diagnosed Approximately 470 men die of breast cancer each year About 1% of all breast cancer cases are male Risk Factors Age History of breast cancer Breast Changes Genetic alterations Reproductive and menstrual history Race more Risk Factors Radiation Therapy to Chest Breast density Taking DES (diethylstilbestrol) Being obese after menopause Physical inactivity Alcoholic beverages Where Breast Cancer Occurs What is Breast Cancer? A Benign tumor is not cancerous Not life threatening Can be removed with low risk of recurrence Benign tumor cells do not spread to surrounding tissue A malignant tumor is cancerous Are life-threatening Can be removed but can reappear Malignant tumors metastasize Genetic Links BRCA1 and BRCA2 Dr. Mary Claire King discovered the gene mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene 17 is a cancer suppressing gene Diagnosis There are several diagnostic options: Mammogram Biopsy Ultrasound MRI Self- Exam Mammography A diagnostic mammogram is an x-ray of the breast changes in women who have no signs of breast cancer. It usually involves two x-rays of each breast. Using a mammogram it is possible to detect a tumor that can’t be felt. ~the white arrow points to the tumor Tamoxifen o is a chemotherapy drug o is an estrogen inhibitor o some health benefits: like reducing the risk of developing cancer up to 49% o some health risks: liver cancer, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism Herceptin Herceptin is an antibiotic used to combat breast cancer It combats the cancer cell HER2 Herceptin cuts the risk of relapse in half Works Cited Genentech. Proposed Mechanism of Action. 2005. www.gene.com/.../ oncology/herceptin/moa.jsp. Oct 19, 2005. Kowalczyk, Liz.Dramatic Gain in Breast Cancer Found. October 19, 2005. The Boston Globe. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_27560.html>. Oct 19, 2005. Goodsell, David S. “Estrogen Receptor”. Protein Data Bank. Oct 25, 2005. <http://www3.cancer.gov/legis/testimony/bcresearch.html>. “Tamoxifen Model”. Illlistration. Oct 25, 2005. Protein Data Bank. <http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ molecules/pdb45_2.html>. Oct 27, 2005. Klausner, Richared, MD. “New Directions in Breast Cancer Research”. May 9, 2001. National Cancer Institute. <http://www3.cancer.gov/legis/testimony/bcresearch.html>. Oct 13, 2005. “Breast Cancer Drug ‘Beats’ tamoxifen”. March 21, 2002. BBC News. news.bbc.co.uk/2/ hi/health/1885834.stm>. Oct. 18, 2005. “Breast Cancer Drug ‘Beats’ tamoxifen”. March 21, 2002. BBC News. news.bbc.co.uk/2/ hi/health/1885834.stm>. Oct. 18, 2005. “Mammograph of breast with cancer”. Photograph. Diagnostic Services and Treatment: Breast and Cervical Cancer. <http://www.dhss.mo.gov/ BreastCervCancer/Diagnostics.html>. Oct 30, 2005 “Mammograph picture”. http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/meded/Radio/curriculum/Mammography/Normalm ammo.jpg “Slide 150. Gross specimen of invasive breast cancer”. Photograph. THE PATHOLOGY OF THE HUMAN BREAST. <http://tgmouse.compmed.ucdavis.edu/JENSENMAMM2000/indexpage.html>. September 30 2005. Campbel, Niel A.; Jane B. Reece, Martha R. Taylor and Eric J. Simon. Biology Concepts and Connections: Custom Edition for College of the Sequoias. 2006. San Francisco, California; Benjamin Cummings. “Model of Carcinoma”. Illistration. Aug 25, 2005. Ludwig Institute for Cancer: Research Integrated signaling group. <http://www.licr.uu.se/groups/is/>. Oct 20 2005. Background on Breast Cancer. 2004. Cancer Treatment. <http://www.breast-cancertreatment.org/>. September 30, 2005 Breastcancer.org. About breast Cancer: Statistics, Causes, Symptoms, Surgery Options. Aug 2005. Oct. 27 2005. <http://www.breastcancer,org/press_cancer_facts.html>. October 29. 2005. Background on Breast Cancer. 2004. Cancer Treatment. <http://www.breast-cancer-treatment.org/>. September 30, 2005. “Lymph Drainage”. Illistration. 2004. Cancer Treatment. <http://www.breast-cancer-treatment.org/>.September 30, 2005. Begin Your Journey to Independent Health (Picture) “Wine Glasses”. Photograph. Harvard School of Public Health. 2005. <http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/alcohol.html>. “Junk Food Junkie Basket”. Photograph. Creative Chocolates of Vermont. 2005. <http://www.creativechocolatesofvt.com/home.html>. “Potrait of an old Woman”. Painting. Paintings by Peiter Bruegel, the Elder. <http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/b/bruegel/pieter_e/painting/>. October 27, 2005. Breast Cancer in Men. General Information on Breast Cancer. April 2005. <http://imaginis.com/breasthealth/bcmen.asp#symptoms>. “Teacher with Pointer”. Illistration. 2004. South West Solid Waste Commision. <http://www.swswc.com/html/body_education.html>. Oct 30, 2005. Breast Cancer in Men. General Information on Breast Cancer. April 2005. <http://imaginis.com/breasthealth/bcmen.asp#symptoms>. Pictures: April 1999 | Volume 1, Issue 4 Pennsylvania's Assistive Technology Lending Library http://www.temple.edu/instituteondisabilities/atlend/news/apr99/vo1no4.h tml The American Medical Association. Medical editor: Clayman, Charles B., MD. Home Medical Encyclopedia. V. 1 A-H. New York, Random House,1989. Breastcancer.org. About breast Cancer: Statistics, Causes, Symptoms, Surgery Options. Aug 2005. Oct. 27 2005. <http://www.breastcancer,org/press_cancer_facts.html>. Breast Cancer History. Breast Cancer Society of Canada. 14 October 2005. <http://www.bcsc.ca/bcsc_html>. “Isis”. Photograph. Temple of Isis: Messengers of Light. Oct 9, 1999. <http://www.sangha.net/messengers/isis.htm>. Oct 30, 2005. “Cancer Cell”. Photograph. 2005. Electron Microscope Photogragh of Cancer Cells. <http://www.alternative-cancer.net/ Cell_photos.htm>. Oct 13, 2005. Campbel, Niel A.; Jane B. Reece, Martha R. Taylor and Eric J. Simon. Biology Concepts and Connections: Custom Edition for College of the Sequoias. 2006. San Francisco, California; Benjamin Cummings.