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What is the Latest Research on
Breast Cancer Diagnosis, and
Treatment Options?
Sarah E. Johnstone
Definition of Breast Cancer
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Breast Cancer can
either be benign or
malignant tumors
“These extra cells
form a growth or a
mass of tissue
called a growth or
a tumor”
Vocabulary
•Cancer Cells: Cells that grow
unchecked
•Tumor: is a mass of
abnormally growing body cells
 Benign Tumor: stays at the original site, is contained
 Malignant Tumor: grows and spreads into other body
tissue and organs
 Metastasis: occurs when the abnormal cell travel
through the body via the bloodstream
 Cancer: are malignant tumors
HISTORY of BREAST CANCER
 Breast
cancer has been known and
treated since ancient times
 Treatments through the years have
become more and more advanced
~Diet
~Ointment
~Cautery
~Sutures
~Mastectomy
Statistics
180,000 will be diagnosed
WOMEN
with breast cancer this year
 1 in 20 who have breast
¾ are 50 or older
cancer die in 1960
2/3 of newly diagnosed
 1 in 7 who have breast
cancers show no signs that
cancer die today
cancer has spread beyond the
 Incidence of breast
breast
cancer are increasing due
to changes in the way we
live like: postponing child
birth; taking replacement
hormones and oral
contraceptives; eating
high fat foods; drinking
more alcohol.
…more Statistics
MEN
Each year about 1,450 cases of male
breast cancer are diagnosed
Approximately 470 men die of breast
cancer each year
About 1% of all breast cancer cases are
male
Risk Factors
 Age
 History
of breast cancer
 Breast Changes
 Genetic alterations
 Reproductive and
menstrual history
 Race
more Risk Factors

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Radiation Therapy to
Chest
Breast density
Taking DES (diethylstilbestrol)
Being obese after
menopause
Physical inactivity
Alcoholic beverages
Where Breast Cancer Occurs
What is Breast Cancer?
 A Benign tumor is not
cancerous
 Not life threatening
 Can be removed with
low risk of recurrence
 Benign tumor cells do
not spread to
surrounding tissue
 A malignant tumor is
cancerous
 Are life-threatening
 Can be removed but
can reappear
 Malignant tumors
metastasize
Genetic Links
BRCA1 and BRCA2


Dr. Mary Claire
King discovered
the gene
mutations BRCA1
and BRCA2
Gene 17 is a
cancer suppressing
gene
Diagnosis
There are several diagnostic options:
 Mammogram
 Biopsy
 Ultrasound
 MRI
 Self- Exam
Mammography
A diagnostic mammogram is an x-ray
of the breast changes in women
who have no signs of breast cancer.
It usually involves two x-rays of
each breast. Using a mammogram
it is possible to detect a tumor that
can’t be felt.
~the white arrow points to the tumor
Tamoxifen
o is a chemotherapy drug
o is an estrogen inhibitor
o some health benefits: like
reducing the risk of developing
cancer up to 49%
o some health risks: liver cancer,
deep vein thrombosis and
pulmonary embolism
Herceptin
 Herceptin is an
antibiotic used to
combat breast cancer
 It combats the cancer
cell HER2
 Herceptin cuts the
risk of relapse in half
Works Cited
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Genentech. Proposed Mechanism of Action. 2005. www.gene.com/.../
oncology/herceptin/moa.jsp. Oct 19, 2005.
Kowalczyk, Liz.Dramatic Gain in Breast Cancer Found. October 19, 2005. The Boston
Globe. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_27560.html>. Oct 19,
2005.
Goodsell, David S. “Estrogen Receptor”. Protein Data Bank. Oct 25, 2005.
<http://www3.cancer.gov/legis/testimony/bcresearch.html>.
“Tamoxifen Model”. Illlistration. Oct 25, 2005. Protein Data Bank.
<http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ molecules/pdb45_2.html>. Oct 27, 2005.
Klausner, Richared, MD. “New Directions in Breast Cancer Research”. May 9, 2001.
National Cancer Institute. <http://www3.cancer.gov/legis/testimony/bcresearch.html>.
Oct 13, 2005.
“Breast Cancer Drug ‘Beats’ tamoxifen”. March 21, 2002. BBC News. news.bbc.co.uk/2/
hi/health/1885834.stm>. Oct. 18, 2005.
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“Mammograph of breast with cancer”. Photograph. Diagnostic Services and Treatment:
Breast and Cervical Cancer. <http://www.dhss.mo.gov/
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and Connections: Custom Edition for College of the Sequoias. 2006. San Francisco,
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Breastcancer.org. About breast Cancer: Statistics, Causes,
Symptoms, Surgery Options. Aug 2005. Oct. 27 2005.
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Background on Breast Cancer. 2004. Cancer Treatment.
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“Lymph Drainage”. Illistration. 2004. Cancer Treatment.
<http://www.breast-cancer-treatment.org/>.September 30, 2005.
Begin Your Journey to Independent Health (Picture)
“Wine Glasses”. Photograph. Harvard School of Public Health. 2005.
<http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/alcohol.html>.
“Junk Food Junkie Basket”. Photograph. Creative Chocolates of Vermont.
2005. <http://www.creativechocolatesofvt.com/home.html>.
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“Potrait of an old Woman”. Painting. Paintings by Peiter Bruegel, the Elder.
<http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/b/bruegel/pieter_e/painting/>. October 27, 2005.
Breast Cancer in Men. General Information on Breast Cancer. April 2005.
<http://imaginis.com/breasthealth/bcmen.asp#symptoms>.
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Pictures: April 1999 | Volume 1, Issue 4 Pennsylvania's Assistive
Technology Lending Library
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tml
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MD. Home Medical Encyclopedia. V. 1 A-H. New York, Random House,1989.
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<http://www.breastcancer,org/press_cancer_facts.html>.
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Breast Cancer History. Breast Cancer Society of Canada. 14 October 2005.
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“Isis”. Photograph. Temple of Isis: Messengers of Light. Oct 9, 1999.
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Campbel, Niel A.; Jane B. Reece, Martha R. Taylor and Eric J. Simon. Biology Concepts
and Connections: Custom Edition for College of the Sequoias. 2006. San Francisco,
California; Benjamin Cummings.