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WHII Changes- 16th- 18th Centuries lesson
World History; Voorhees
Scientific, Political, Economic, and Religious Changes
During the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries
The Age of Reason!
Scientific Revolution
Pioneers of the Scientific Revolution
o Nicolaus Copernicus
 developed heliocentric theory
o Johannes Kepler
 discovered planetary motion
o Galileo Galilei
 used telescope to support heliocentric theory
o Isaac Newton
 discovered Laws of Gravity
o William Harvey
 discovered circulation of the blood
Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature
Formulation of the scientific method
Expansion of scientific knowledge
Francis Bacon “Scientific Method”
absolute monarchies
o Centralization of power
o Concept of rule by divine right
Louis XIV and Peter the Great
o Louis XIV
 France
 Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power
o Peter the Great
 Russia
 westernization of Russia
Development of the Rights of Englishmen
The English Civil War: 1642-1647
The Glorious Revolution: 1688
o The Civil War
 Royalists= king’s supporters
 “Cavaliers”
 V.
 Parliamentarians= Oliver Cromwell and Parliament supporters
 “Roundheads”
World History
 Cavaliers- are defeated by Cromwell’s Roundheads
 Charles I surrenders to Parliament
 Charles I is executed
o Glorious Revolution
 Parliament “fires” James II and “hires” Mary II and her husband
William III
 William III “invades” England and seizes control in a bloodless
 1689 – The English Bill of Rights
England as a Constitutional Monarchy
 William and Mary agree to official and permanent limits on their
The English Bill of Rights consists of:
o limits on the powers of sovereign
o sets out the rights of Parliament
o rules for freedom of speech in Parliament
o the requirement to regular elections to Parliament
o the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution
The Enlightenment
Political Thought and Revolution
Renaissance Political Thought
o Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan, The English Civil War and Absolutism
o John Locke: Two Treatises of Government, The Glorious Revolution and
Limited Monarchy
Montesquieu: The Spirit of Law and “Separation of Powers”
o Freedom of Speech
o Freedom of Religion
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
o The Social Contract
Thomas Jefferson:
o statesman, architect, Renaissance Man, William & Mary graduate, author
of the Declaration of Independence – The Enlightenment in Action
James Madison:
o Architect of the United States Constitution – The Enlightenment in Action
Benjamin Franklin:
o Friend of Voltaire, and Thomas Jefferson
Scientist, Philosopher, Engineer, Statesman
Music and Art of the Age of Reason
o exaggerated motion
o clear, easily interpreted detail
World History
o drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur
o sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music
o "Late Baroque“
o increasingly ornate and playful
o High regard for classical antiquity
o Strong emotion
o German composer
o Baroque style
o Austrian composer
o French writer and philosopher
o believed that literature should serve as a vehicle for social change
o Candide
o Spanish writer
o Don Quixote
o French painter
o romanticism
New Technologies
All weather roads
o Improved year-round transport and trade
New designs for farm tools
o Increased productivity
Improvements to ship design lowered the cost of transport
Enlightenment=> revolution
o American Revolution
o French Revolution
o Latin America Revolutions
French Revolution:
o Fall of the Bastille
o Reign of Terror
o Robespierre
o Robespierre executed, “The Reign of Terror” ends
Outcomes of the French Revolution:
o End of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI
o Rise of Napoleon
World History