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1919-1939 ( 2 decades1920s – 1930s)
THE ROAD to W.W.II
Flags of W.W.II
After the Great War
Europe after WWI
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Millions had been killed. The
wounded couldn’t work and needed
to be taken care of
Countries were broke so the
government could not provide many
services
Not enough farmers led to food
shortages
Lots were unemployed
There were new countries and new
governments
Germany was hit the hardest due to
reparation payments mandated by
the Treaty of Versailles
Some governments simply printed
more money causing massive
inflation
Inflation: rising prices because of a
decline in the value of money
Political Chaos 1920s
• Too many political parties caused
“chaos” not order
• No one group could gain a
majority
• Leaders couldn’t get anything
done because other parties would
vote against them
• Governments were not powerful
enough to solve the country’s
problems
• Some people thought capitalism
had failed and turned to the
communist party
• RED SCARE: Fear that
communists would come to power
in any given country and then take
over private property
Closing Activity:
Complete these sentences
1. The years between WWI and WWII were
______________
2. Major countries in WWII were ___________
3. Problems in European countries after WWI
were___________
4. Politics in Europe after WWI were in a state
of Chaos because ________________
5. Inflation is __________
6. A “red scare” is _________
Summary Activity: In the Summary box at the
bottom of your Cornell notesheet
• Write 3 sentences that answer these 3
questions
• 1. What was Europe like after WWI?
• 2. What were European Governments like after
WWI?
• 3. What was a Red Scare?
Reasons that the GREAT
WAR is going to come to
an end
• All the nations were heavily in debt except for the U.S.
• There were food shortages in Germany and Austria
• The Ottoman Empire had surrendered and was talking about peace
terms with the Allies
• The British naval blockade was doing a good job starving Germany
• The U.S. had the money and men to keep the war going for a long time
• Public opinion for the war in all countries was very negative
• The last major German offensive to seize Paris was halted.
• A revolution in Austria-Hungary brought about a new government.
The new government negotiated a peace treaty with the Allies
• There were a number of German and French mutinies (refusals to obey
orders from the commanding officers)
• Many Europeans felt that American president Woodrow Wilson’s
14-point peace plan offered a fair plan for peace and so were willing to
talk of a ceases-fire
Complete these sentences
1. The years between WWI and WWII were
______________
2. Major countries in WWII were
______________
3.Problems in European countries after WWI
were___________
4.Politics in Europe after WWI were in a state of
Chaos because ________________
5. Inflation is __________
6. A “red scare” is _________
The Treaty of Versailles
screws Germany
• Germany must give up its colonies around the world
• The mineral-rich Alsace Lorraine area in-between Germany and
France is given to France
• France gets to exploit Germany’s coal-rich Saar area for 15
years
• Germany loses land to Poland and Denmark
• Reduction of Germany’s military: Could have no more than
100,000 soldiers. NO military in the Rhineland (border with France)
Could have no airplanes. Only allowed 6 warships. No
submarines
• Must sign and admit the “war guilt” clause taking full blame for
war
• Must pay war reparations mostly to Britain and France to the
tune of 33 billion $$$$$$
Governments after W.W.I
* Because the problems were so great people lost faith
in their governments quickly
* Citizens were constantly looking for new leaders with
answers – so government changed rapidly
*Many countries had dozens of political parties so it was
hard for any group to get a majority
*In some nations different political parties shared power
in coalition governments
Frequent changes in governments made it hard for any
one group to get enough support to get big reforms
passed (from1919 to 1940 France endured some 40
changes of government)
Because so many people were poor; communism was
looking good to many people
Powerful businesses spent much of their time and
money fighting these so called “Red Scares”
Vocabulary Word – Red Scare: Fear that communists
would come to power in any given country and then
take over private property
In- between the Wars (W.W.I-W.W.II)
1919-1939
• Most European nations had many financial
problems – many were out of work
• Too many political parties caused “chaos” and
no leader could get anything done because
other political parties would vote against the
action
• Some people thought capitalism had failed and
turned to the communist party
Fascism: a form of government that is super
nationalistic and militaristic
Founded by Benito Mussolini
of Italy in 1919
Characteristics of a Fascist
government
* The message is that your people
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are the greatest (master race,
etc.)
Usually charismatic speaker
Message is to restore the nation’s
greatness
The way to put people back to
work is through building the
military and
TAKE LAND ! (build an Empire)
Leaders wear military uniforms,
parades, rallies, patriotic music
Message includes: blaming some
particular group for nation’s
problems (Jews)
ANTI-Communist!! People voted
for Fascists because they
protected capitalism $$$
Mexico
Totalitarian governments: governments that
control all aspects of society
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1 one Political Party or Idea
2. one leader whose picture and statue is
everywhere
3. Mass Propaganda: biased or one-sided
information constantly spit out by the
government
4. Government Controlled Media –
newspapers, radio, tv, school books, art
5. Indoctrination (brainwashing) of their
doctrines at school and work and on the
news
6. Posters promoting the governments’
agenda are everywhere
7. Govt. drives the economy – decides
what to make – usually weapons
8. All movies, books, music and art must
glorify the governments’ agenda
9. Secret police and spies are
everywhere looking for “enemies of the
country”
10. prisons, labor camps, reprogramming
or “concentration” camps where people
are sent to “re-program” their thinking
Totalitarian governments: governments that
control ______ aspects of society
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1 __________Political Party or Idea
2. one leader whose ______________is
everywhere
3. ____________: biased or one-sided
information constantly spit out by the
government
4. Government Controlled________–
newspapers, radio, tv, school books, art
5. ______________(brainwashing) of their
doctrines at school and work and on the
news
6_________promoting the governments’
agenda are everywhere
7. ________drives the economy – decides
what to make – usually weapons
8. All movies, books, music and art must
__________the governments’ agenda
9. ____________are everywhere looking
for “enemies of the country”
10. prisons, labor camps, reprogramming
or _______________camps where people
are sent to “re-program” their thinking
• “To those who say that they will not come
over to our (NAZI) side, I calmly reply,
• “we already have the minds of your
children”
• - Adolf Hitler
Sentence starters
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The Treaty of Versailles…
Many European countries after WWI were..
Inflation is….
Governments in Europe after WWI…
A “red scare” is …
A characteristic of Fascism is …
People vote for fascists because…
People don’t vote for Fascists because…
Benito Mussolini…
Benito Mussolini: dictator of the Italian “Fascist” party
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Fascism: ultra or super nationalism.
The message that your civilization or race
have always been the greatest
Need a powerful authoritarian government.
Democracy causes chaos
Militarism: the military must be strong to
defeat communist threat. Factories making
weapons will revive the economy
Controlled media: the communists and other
instigators must not have a voice
All art, history, music and learning must
glorify your culture
Other characteristics include things like:
charismatic speaker/speeches
Patriotic songs and parades. uniforms, rallies,
self-sacrifice for the good of the country
People in opposition to your party are
“against” the progress of the country
Usually an element of persecution of certain
races (like Jews) that have polluted the
progress of your country
Fascism is much like totalitarian Stalinist
Russia but primary difference is in Fascism
capitalism $$$ is allowed and communism is
hated
Secret police, controlled media indoctrination
in schools
SUMMARY
Complete the sentences:
1. Fascism is __________
• 2. A characteristic of fascism is_________
• 3. 2 other characteristics of fascism are _________
• 4. People voted for fascists because________
• 5. Benito Mussolini ___________
HEADPACKER Bust!
(CLOSING Activity)
Complete the sentences:
1. Fascism is __________
• 2. A characteristic of fascism is_________
• 3. A characteristic of fascism is _________
• 4. Benito Mussolini ___________
• 5. People voted for fascists because________
Why people voted for the Fascists
• Powerful speakers/speeches
can persuade people
• The rallies were big and
impressive
• Nationalism or the greatness
of your people is a powerful
message
• Their message was to take the
country back to their “glory
days”
• They were “men of action” and
they’d fix the problems fast
• claimed democracy was too
many different opinions
• The Fascists promised to
destroy the Communist threat
– protect capitalism and
business $$$
• Do you think
these guys could
get 33 people out
of a 100 (33%) to
vote for them?
progressives
radicals
communists
Nazis
The League of Nations: the peace-keeping
organization of nations set up after WWI
• Solve world problems
• Not trade with aggressive ‘bad’
nations
• If one nation attacks another
nation all the other members are
suppose to go to war against the
aggressive nation
• Reasons it did not work:
• World-wide economic depression
• Wars costs money
• Hard convincing European
soldiers to fight for an Asian or
African nation
• It was abolished during W.W.II
• The United Nations is the new
peace-keeping body that is still
around today
League of Nations /
United Nations (UN)
• 1919-1939 (20 years)
• Headquarters:
Geneva, Switzerland
• 58 nations
• Many nations did not
join
• Died – because it
couldn’t stop Japan or
Hitler
• 1945 – present day
• Headquarters: New
York, USA
• 191 nations
• Still active
• 1.Woodrow Wilson was an
idealist – Why would Idealist
love the idea of a League of
Nations?
• 2.What good do you think the
League did?
• 3. What is bad about not all
nations joining?
• 4.What was the first thing the
League was supposed to do to
a “Bad” nation?
• 5. What problems might there
be with this strategy?
• 6. What if not trading with them
doesn’t fix the problem – what
then?
• 7. What problems could you
see about going to war against
the “bad” nation?
The Council:
4 leader countries
Britain, France, Italy, Japan
Secretariat
The Assembly
All 58 nations that voted.
Votes had to be unanimous
The Permanent
Court of Justice
International Labor
organization
HEADPACKER Bust!
(CLOSING Activity)
Complete the sentences:
1. A problem with the League of Nations
was__________
• 2. Some countries that did not join the League
were_________
• 3. Trade restrictions were _________
• 4. The reasons that military action didn’t work was
___________
CLOSING ACTIVITY:
Complete these sentences
Reichstag
• The German
Parliament or
government
• Chancellor: the name
of the leader (or
president) of the
Reichstag
• Hitler was appointed
the Chancellor of
Germany in 1933
• Parliament:
representatives that
form a government
and vote on laws
• Prime minister: The
leader of parliament
• Enabling Act: a law
granting Hitler the
authority to take
action without the
participation of the
Reichstag.
• In essence it made
Hitler a dictator
• German general and Paul
famous war hero
• The most respected
man in Germany
• President of Germany
• Appointed Hitler
Chancellor in 1933
thinking that he could
control him
• Died in 1934
• His death open the
door for Hitler’s
dictatorship
Von Hindenburg
Mussolini and Hitler
The Rome/Berlin Axis
(Axis Powers of W.W.II)
Vienna, Austria – Munich, Bavaria Germany
Adolf Hitler’s art
Words that will help in the study of
• Austria
Adolf Hitler
• Anti-semitism
• Munich, Bavaria
• National Socialist German
Workers (NAZI)
• Swastika
• “Mein Kampf”
• “lebensraum”
• Der “Fuhrer” – father, leader
• Third Reich (reign)
• “brownshirts”
• SS
Anti-Semitism (anti-semitic): being anti-Jewish.
Policies, writings, practices that discriminate against the Jews (a semitic tribe)
Believing things like the Jews control the banks and Media
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Why have Jews been the target of so much
persecution
Jews are different (different religion,
customs, clothes, eating habits,
holidays, etc)
Jews aren’t Christians. They don’t
believe Jesus was son of God, don’t
celebrate Christmas, etc
They were wrongly labeled “Christ
killers”
They’ve been very successful in
business and banking. This has led to
the myth that they control the banks or
money system
Because of their success – Jews have
gone to good universities so some say
they influence education
Many Jews are writers or journalists
Some say that they control the media
(newspapers, radio, tv)
Europeans have been blaming the Jews
for problems since the Middle Ages
Once in power Hitler’s solution was to
rid Europe of everything Jewish
• Hitler believed that
the some of the
German diplomats
that signed the Treaty
of Versailles were
Jews.
• He called the signers
the “traitors” who sold
out our country
Munich “Putsch” (attempted takeover)
• An attempt by Hitler
and the Nazis to take
control of the
government in Munich
Germany
• The attempt failed
and Hitler was
sentenced to 5 years
in prison but only
served 9 months
Summary Activity: In the Summary box at the
bottom of your Cornell notesheet
• Write 3 sentences that answer these 3
questions
• 1. What did Hitler think of the signers of the Treaty
of Versailles?
• 2. What was the Munich Putsch?
• 3. What the big deal about “Mein Kampf”?
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where was Hitler born?
what were his parents like?
what kind of student was Hitler?
why did Hitler go to the Austrian capital of
Vienna?
what kinds of things was Hitler reading in
his teens?
How did WWI make Hitler feel?
What kind of soldier was Hitler?
Why was Hitler temporarily blinded?
After the war who was Hitler working
against?
Questions:
1. List 3 ways that Jews are different From other cultures
2. How are they different from Christians?
3. What have they wrongly been labeled?
4. What do biased people say about Jews and banking?
5. What do they say about the newspapers and other media?
6. What did Hitler want to do once in power?
• Some facts about Hitler’s early life were…
• Anti-semitism…
• NAZI stands for…
• The swastika…
• “Mein Kampf” talked about…
• aryans
• “lebensraum” …
•
Reasons that Jews have been the target of persecution
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Outsiders that moved into a
new land
They have specific customs and
many do not compromise them
Wrongly accused as “Christ
Killers”
Do not follow the Christian
customs or calendar
Because of their financial
success their kids have gone to
good universities and have
earned good positions in
finance, education, science,
medicine, literature and
journalism.
As a result of their earned
positions, Anti-Semitic idiots
have created conspiracy
theories that they control the
world through finances and the
media
Hitler’s master “Aryan” race
Hitler’s book: “Mein Kampf” “My struggle or my fight”
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Written while in jail 1923-1924
His basic view of history and the world
That the world is ruled by the strong – by force
Aryan Germanic people blonde hair- blue eyes
“master race”
Third Reich (or 3rd reign of Germanic dominance)
This master race needed “lebensraum” or
living space
That borders are made by men and changed
by men
War in Europe is going to happen so we must
build the military
• Anti-semitism
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Throughout history Jews have been controlling
through their ownership of banking and
newspapers
Communism was evil because it took away
competition
It was required reading in German High School
On FBI’s banned book list
Against the law to print it in Germany
• In Germany it was banned
for 70 years
• It is against the law to
possess or sell it in Austria,
France and Netherlands
• The German state of
Bavaria tried to stop the
modern publication of it
• The FBI and many modern
police organizations monitor
who checks it out
• Modern Jewish groups say
that Amazon and Barnes
and Noble readily sell it
• The book sells over 20,000
copies a year
• ...borders are made
by man and changed
by man...I am guided
only by the sober
realization that lost
territories are not won
back by sharp
parliamentary bigmouths...but by a
sharp sword, in other
words, by a bloody
fight...”
• From time immemorial the
Jews have known better than
any others how falsehood can
be exploited (used). Is not their
very existence founded on one
great lie, namely, that they are
a religious community, where
as in reality they are a race?
And what a race! One of the
greatest thinkers that mankind
has produced has branded the
Jews for all time with a
statement which is profoundly
and exactly true.
Schopenhauer called the Jew
"The Great Master of Lies".
• the German nation
must never suffer the
rise of two continental
powers in
Europe...and in it see
not only the right but
the duty to employ all
means to smash it ...”
• “The function of
propaganda is, not to
weigh both sides of
an argument so far as
it favors the enemy...
its task is to serve our
own right...”
• “The great masses of
the people will more
easily fall victim to a
big lie than to a small
one...”
• Lebensraum
• Europe can have only 1 master
• Nazis wanted to destroy communism
“Lebensraum”: living space (for the master race)
In other words, expansion – taking more land!
“Borders are made by
man and changed by
man” – Adolf Hitler
“borders are just silly lines
that politicians draw on
maps”
“the master race will decide
what their borders will be
not the League of
Nations”
Time magazine man of the year 1938
• Germany had been
in such a horrible
economic hole and
people credited him
with rebuilding
Germany
• So much so to host
the 1936 Berlin
Olympic games
Ways Germany got “screwed” by
final
TREATY of VERSAILLES
• Germany is forced to give up its colonies in Africa and Asia
• The mineral-rich Alsace-Lorraine area in-between Germany and France is given back to
France
• France gets to mine Germany’s coal-rich Saar area for 15 years and keep the profits
• Germany loses land to France, Poland and Denmark
• Reducing Germany’s military:
• German army limited to 100,000 soldiers.
• NO military allowed in the Rhineland (area of Germany that borders France)
• Could have no airplanes.
• No tanks
• Allowed only 6 military ships.
• 0 (zero) U boats (submarines)
• Must sign the “war guilt” clause taking full blame for war
• Must pay war reparations (pay back $ for damages) mostly to Britain and France to the
tune of 33 billion $$$
• The Saar
• The Rhineland
• Sudetenland
• Anchluss
• The coal-rich area of
Germany that was given
to France
• The area on the
French/German border
that was mandated to be
de-militarized
• The mountainous area
that used to be German
but was given to
Czechoslovakia
• A joining together of
Germany and Austria
Ways that Hitler
violated the treaty
of Versailles
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*
Label Map 2 to look like map 1
name: ____________
Map 1
Map 2
Germany’s Response: “Do you think we’re stupid?
We’re not going to sign that”
• The German Ambassadors at Versailles refused to sign the treaty
• Britain and France responded with
• “If you don’t sign it – then we don’t have a peace treaty and technically, we’re
still at war . So get ready to resume fighting”
• Furthermore, the British declared that they would not end their blockade
of German ports if the Germans wouldn’t sign (many Germans were
starving because food could not be imported)
• Not wanting to start the war back up again - The German ambassadors
reluctantly signed it and became known by Adolf Hitler as “The traitors
who sold out our country”
• After the signing -The Treaty of Versailles became the most hated
document in German history.
• Reparation payments to the Allies caused terrible financial problems for
the country.
• German politicians frequently blamed the treaty for Germany’s problems
• When Hitler became chancellor of Germany he declared that Germany
would no longer follow the Treaty of Versailles
• Hitler telling Europe and the world that Germany would not follow the
Treaty of Versailles is one of the primary causes of W.W.II
The long name for the NAZI Party was..
The Stormtroopers…
The word der Furher means..
“Mein Kampf” talked about…
Lebensraum…
The SS…
The Gestapo…
Some German carmakers…
The NAZIs burned _______ books
Albert Einstein…
SA (brownshirts) – aka
stormtroopers
• The Nazi army
• Not the German
army
• Did things like beat
up communists
and Jews
• Burned Jewish
shops
• Kept control at
rallies
Gestapo
• Gestapo- Hitler’s
secret police that
investigated acts
against Hitler
inside Germany
SS “blackshirts”
• SS – Hitler’s strict
super elite forces
that did his
“special”
assignments (think
Holocaust – torture)
SS officer
• Judges in Germany
• Giving the Nazi
• ‘Heil Hitler’ salute
Helpful Vocabulary specific to the
European Holocaust of the 20th Century
• Anti-Semitism: having to do with being anti-Jewish. Publications
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policies, practices that discriminate against the Jews (a semitic tribe)
Ghettos: run-down, separated areas of towns where undesirables
or different people were forced to live. The term originated during
European Middle Ages as Christians would not allow Jews to live in
the same areas with them
Nuremburg Laws: Policies drawn up in Nazi Germany in the city
of Nuremburg. Laws took away citizenship rights to Jews. Forbid
Jews from government positions –including teachers. Forbid inter
marriage between Jews and non-Jews. Jews must register with
government and wear yellow Star of David to identify selves
SS, Gestapo: Hitler’s elite secret police that oversaw the roundup
and eventual extermination of the undesirables
Final Solution to the Jewish question: Hitler’s Plan to not simply
enslave Europe’s Jews but to permanently erase all trace of Jewish
blood from the continent of Europe (Genocide- complete
extermination of an entire race of people)
Auschwitz-Birkenau: largest and most infamous Nazi
concentration camp located in Poland. Held over 400,000 prisoners.
Contained gas chambers and ovens. Over million people were
murdered here.
Nippon (Japan) “land of the rising sun”
• Far East – 1st to see sun
• Beliefs about their
Emperor/Royal family
descended from Amaterasu (sun
goddess)
• Proud Samurai or warrior
tradition (never surrender)
• Very proud of their history
• VERY - nationalistic
• Their own written language
• Their own religion of Shintoism
• Their own tea ceremony – you
get the idea
Nippon (Japan)
Emperor Hirohito and
Supreme General Hideki Tojo
• The Japanese were being taught
that they were the purest or
“master race” in Asia
• In the late 1800s they
modernized and militarized
• Japan had the largest, best
equipped army, navy and airforce
• They defeated Russia in a war in
1905 and took colonies in Korea
and China
• Solution to solving their
country’s economic problems?
• TAKE LAND in Asia and get
their natural resources
• In 1931 they attacked Manchuria,
China and ruled it
• Later, they attacked all of China
• The only military threat they saw
to their dreams of Empire was
the United States navy docked at
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Japan’s goal:
to be master of an Asian
Empire
Warrior Traditions
Twisted thinking
• Japan was already
mining in Manchuria,
China but wanted to take
all of Manchuria
• In 1931 Japan destroyed
a part of their railroad and
blamed China
• This gave Japan an
excuse to go to war
against China
• 1931 – Japan invades
China
• The League of Nations
condemned Japan but did
not vote for sanctions or
send troops
Mukden Incident
• Needing an excuse to
start a war with China
to take over
Manchuria
• Japan destroyed their
own railroad in
Manchuria and then
blamed China
• Japan attacked China
and took over
Manchuria because
of the fake “Mukden
Incident”
• Once Attacked, China
asked the League of
Nations for help
• Problem: Japan was one
of of the “veto” nations on
the leadership council
• League of Nations Council
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Britain
France
Italy
Japan
• What should the
League of Nations do?
1. Why did Japan want Manchuria?
2. What was the ‘Mukden Incident’?
3. What did Japan do when the League of Nations was
condemning them?
4. Why wouldn’t nations quit trading with Japan?
5. What are 2 reasons countries didn’t send armies to
fight Japan?
6. How did Mussolini view himself?
7. What had happened 50 years earlier when Italy tried
to take Ethiopia?
8. Why didn’t economic sanctions work on Italy?
9. What is the Suez canal?
10.Why didn’t Britain block Italy from using the Suez
Canal?
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The League of Nations was like a world government that met in a beautiful building in Geneva
Switzerland. Originally 32 nations joined and eventually 58 nations became a part of the
League
BUT……… The USA, Soviet Union and Germany – 3 of the most infulential countries of the
world never joined the League so the League could decide something and their decisions did
not affect 3 giant countries
The League of Nations could propose a solution to a world problem
BUT….. in order for that proposal to pass the votes in the general assembly had to be
unanimous (everyone country agreeing) and hardly ever could you get all the countries of the
world to agree so hardly any decisions got passed
The League of Nations set up a court of International Justice that could settle disputes
between countries (and they did )
BUT….. they had no power to force every nation to follow the decision of the courts so many
countries ignored the decisions
The League of Nations could vote for trade restrictions against an aggressive (bad) nation by
having all the nations of the League not trade with the bad nation thereby hurting the ‘bad’
nations economy
BUT….. many nations ignored the decisions and went ahead and traded with the bad nations
anyway and the League had no power to stop them
Finally, if aggressive (bad) nations would not stop being bad the League of Nations could vote
for military action against the aggressive nation
BUT….countries in the League refused to send soldiers to fight the aggressive nation so the
League had no power or authority to enforce any of its decisions
• 1. What was the 1st thing the League
of Nations was supposed to do if a
nation was being aggressive?
• 2. Why didn’t nations always do that?
• 3. why didn’t nations send troops to
fight the aggressive nations?
• 4. why didn’t the League of Nations
work?
1935: Mussolini invades Abyssinia
(Ethiopia)
• Seeing that the League of
Nations did nothing to stop
Japan in Manchuria
• Mussolini of Italy decides to
attack and take
Abyssinia(Ethiopia)
• Ethiopia appeals to the
League of Nations but
• England and France, not
wanting to start a war with
Mussolini decide not to act
• So, once again the
League of Nations did
NOTHING
Suez Canal
• Furthermore, Britain
controlled the Suez
Canal
• Ethiopia begged
Britain to not allow
Italian warships
through the canal
• Afraid that this might
start a war with
Mussolini
• Britain allowed the
ships through
• 1. What was the 1st thing the league of
nations was supposed to do if a nation
was being aggressive?
• 2. Why didn’t nations always do that?
• 3. why didn’t nations send troops to fight
the aggressive nations?
• 4. why didn’t the League of Nations work?
1. The name “Nippon” means…
2. The Japanese have lots of their own
…… traditions because…..
3. Samurai warriors…
4. Japanese taught their people…
5. Japan’s goals in Asia were…
6. Japan was going to solve their
economic problems by…
7. The Mukden Incident…..
Appeasement: doing nothing,
or giving in to an aggressor’s
demands to avoid conflict or war
Appeasement: doing nothing, or giving in
to an aggressor’s demands to avoid conflict or war
•
Britain and France NOT confronting Hitler when
they knew he was building his army, navy and
airforce
•
Britain making a secret naval agreement with
Germany – basically ignoring Germany building its
navy
•
Britain allowing Italian warships to go through the
Suez canal to attack Ethiopia
•
France NOT confronting Hitler when he moved
troops into the Rhineland
•
NOT helping Austria when Hitler marched his
troops into Austria for the Anschluss
•
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberland and
France allowing Hitler to take the Sudetenland of
Czechoslovakia
• The treaty of
Versailles had
forbidden Germany
and Austria to unite
• In 1938 Hitler
threaten to invade
Austria if they didn’t
join with Germany
• The leaders agreed to
the Anschluss to
avoid war
• Spain had recently1936
elected a new
government but a
fascist dictator
named Franco was
ready to control
• With support from
both Mussolini and
Hitler, Franco and
the fascists won
and Hitler had
another ally
Spanish Civil War
• Conservatives: British
political party – like
our Republicans
• Labour Party: British
political party – like
our Democrats
• Neville Chamberlain:
Britain’s prime
Minister at the time
• Guernica: Spanish
city that got destroyed
by German bombers
in 1936 during the
Spanish civil war
British Prime Minister Neville
Chamberlain and Hitler at the Munich
Agreement of 1938
Munich
The Appeaser: British Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain
• 1. get back the coal-rich Saar
area that had been taken
away by the Treaty of
Versailles
Hitler’s 6 steps
• 2. rebuild his army
• 3. put armed troops in the
Rhineland
• 4. Anchluss with Austria
• 5. Take back the Sudetenland
• 6. Secret treaty with Russia to
to split Poland
The Nazis hated Communism
• Lebensraum
• Europe can
have only 1
master
• Nazis wanted to
destroy
communism
• Stalin sent a friend
request to Britain
• Britain ignored
Nazi Germany and USSR sign a
non-aggression pact in 1939
• In 1939 Hitler and Stalin have a
meeting and sign a
• non-aggression pact between
Nazi Germany and the Soviet
Union
• Stalin knew that Hitler hated
communism but still signed the
treaty
• because he knew that Hitler was
planning to attack Poland and
Stalin wanted in land in eastern
Poland
Poland
Agreement: Split Poland
Poland
The League of Nations: the peace-keeping
organization of nations set up after WWI
• If one aggressive nation attacks
another nation all the other
members are suppose to go to
war against the aggressive nation
• Reasons it did not work:
• World-wide economic depression
• Wars costs money
• Hard convincing European
soldiers to fight for an Asian or
African nation
• It was abolished during W.W.II
• The United Nations is the new
peace-keeping body that is still
around today
WORLD WAR II
• Axis Powers
• Allies
• Germany
• Italy
• Japan
•
•
•
•
Britain
France
Soviet Union
USA