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Transcript
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Student Name: _________________________
Unit 2: SPARTA & ATHENS
Due Date
Reading
Topic
M
9/21
ASG 48-54
Hughes: The Spartans
T
9/22
WW 1-4
WW 5-8
Plutarch: Sparta’s Peculiar Society
Plutarch: Growing Up Spartan
W
9/23
CWRA-library ACHILLES PAPER REVISIONS DUE!
Th
9/24
ASG 56-62
ASG 73-75
Hughes: The Spartans
Hughes: Athens
F
9/25
ASG 78-80
WW 9-11
Pfingsten: Athenian Democracy: Solon & Cleisthenes
Herodotus: Croesus & Solon
M
9/28
ASG 28-30
ASG 1-4
Harrison: Biography of Cleisthenes
Harrison: The Birth of Democracy
T
9/29
ASG 4-9
ASG 10-11
Harrison: The Birth of Democracy
Harrison: The Golden Age
W*
9/30
HISTORY PAPER #2 – Sparta/Athens – In Class Essay
Essay Options for In-Class Writing on Wednesday, September 30
Option1: Comparison of Spartan and Athenian Women
In the introduction to her documentary on “The Spartans,” historian Bettany Hughes declares, “I
need to confess that I’m particularly attracted to the Spartans because of their women.” She adds,
“I would just love to spend one day as a Spartan girl” (Hughes, ASG 48).
As you consider all that you know about Greek women, do you share in Hughes’ attraction to the
women of Sparta? Would you too prefer to live the life of a Spartan woman over the lives of any
other Greek women?
In order to develop your response, you should compare and contrast the lives of Spartan women
with the lives of women from Athens and other Greek cities. In particular, you should address
the following three criteria for comparison:
Education and Upbringing
Marriage Rituals and Family Life
Role in Public Life & Contributions to the City
Option 2: Comparison of Spartan and Athenian Lawgivers
Compare and contrast the societies of Sparta and Athens. What needs did the lawgiver Lycurgus
attempt to address with his reforms in Sparta in the 600s BC? And what type of society did he
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
create? What needs did the lawgivers Solon and Cleisthenes attempt to address with their
reforms in Athens in the 500s BC? And what type of society did they create?
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Due: Monday, 9/21
ASG 48-54
ASG 48-54
Hughes – “The Spartans” – Lycurgus & the Pursuit of Perfection
Political and social revolution
Inscription at Thermopylae
Perfect state, perfect warriors
Rights & duties of citizens
Sparta as savior of the Western World
1100 BCE followed by ‘Dark Ages’
Eurotas River & Taygetus Mountains
Dual Kingship
Messenians
Helots
Tyrtaeus
Hoplite warfare as a ‘team effort’
Enslavement of Messenians by 650
Principles of the ‘perfect society’ and of hoplite warfare
Lycurgus
Sparta as a military training camp
Apothetai
Agoge
Encouragement of stealing
Krypteia
Rites of passage
Election to a ‘common mess’
Homioi
Attitude toward wealth
Spartan diet
Social contract for citizens
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Due: Tuesday, 9/22
WW 1-4
WW 1-8
Plutarch - Sparta’s Peculiar Society
Features of Spartan society as described by a biographer of the lawgiver Lycurgus. The equality of
property and the absence of usable currency. The emphasis on simplicity and practicality. The importance
of communal meals. The education of boys at these common meals.
How would Spartan customs shape attitudes toward individuals and toward the state?
Which was more important?
Do any aspects of Spartan society remind you of boarding school?
Do any aspects of Spartan society differ greatly from your own experience?
WW 508
Plutarch - Growing Up Spartan
The birth and upbringing of Spartan boys in an effort to make them effective soldiers for the state. The
original determination whether a child was fit to live. The education of boys beginning at age seven.
Military training and the importance of discipline. The role of older men in the education of boys. The roe
of theft and punishment. The importance of physical toughness.
How did Spartan child rearing and education reflect the military values of the city-state?
Do any aspects of Spartan education remind you of boarding school?
Do any aspects of Spartan education differ greatly from your own experience?
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Due: Th 9/24
ASG 58-62
ASG 58-62 & ASG 73-75
Hughes – “The Spartans “ – Spartan & Athenian Women
The ‘problem’ with Athenian politics
Eunomia
Spartan emphasis on common good, duty, and cohesion
Roles for Athenian women
Visibility of Spartan women
‘Wise restraint’ for Athenian women
‘Marriage by Capture’
Production of warriors
Gynocratia & Kyniska
Enforcement of the ‘warrior ethic’
‘With your shield, or on it’
ASG 73-75
Hughes – “Athens: The Truth About Democracy” – Underside of Athens
Athens as a ‘radical place’
Athenian militarism, slavery, and subordination of women
Perfect white columns as a ‘metaphor’
Silver at Laurion
Slavery in Athens
Athens’ ‘dark underside’
Population barred from voting
Women and ‘demones’
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Due: Friday, 9/25
ASG 78-80
ASG 78-80 & WW 9-11
Pfingsten - Athenian Democracy: Solon and Cleisthenes
Monarchy
Oligarchy
Constitutional governments
Coups overthrowing Greek monarchies
Tyrants
‘Horos’
Debt slavery
Archons
Areopagus
Solon
Abolition of debt slavery
Solon’s political solutions
Qualifications for political power
Voting rights for all citizens
Solon’s relinquishment of power
Pisistratus
Hippias
Cleisthenes
Program of reform and justice
Isagoras
Popular revolt in Athens
World’s first democracy
Ostracism
Athenian General Assembly
Spartan General Assembly
Spartan social programming and militarism
(continue to next page)
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Due: Friday, 9/25 continued
WW 9-11
Herodotus - East Meets West: Croesus and Solon
The meeting between the Athenian statesman Solon and the wealthy Lydian king Croesus, who wants
validation as the happiest man alive. Solon cites very different definitions of happiness than Croesus
expects, emphasizing the importance of a happy end to one’s life. Solon’s warning that God is envious of
human prosperity and often brings the mighty down low.
What definition of happiness does the non-Greek Croesus hope to hear?
What lesson does Solon draw from his story about Tellus? What made him happy?
What lesson does Solon draw from his story about Cleobis and Biton: What made them happy?
And what definition of happiness does Solon offer to Croesus?
How does Solon’s advice to Croesus compare with Achilles’ comments to Priam (Iliad Book 24.557-595)?
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Due: Monday, 9/28
ASG 28-30
ASG 28-30 & ASG 1-4
Harrison - Biography of Cleisthenes
Solon
Eunomia
Council of Four Hundred
Pisistratus
Hippias
Hipparchos
Overthrow of Hippias
Isagoras
Cleisthenes’ sweeping reforms
Spartan intervention
Oligarchy
Cleomenes
Full-scale revolt
Cleisthenes’ recall from exile
General Assembly
Direct Democracy
ASG 1-4
Harrison – “The Birth of Democracy” – Development of Athens
most extraordinary two centuries in history
Croesus
Aristocrat
injustice
Physical world of Greece
city-states
Sparta
Homer & heroic ideal
Achilles
Ancient Studies History -- Unit 2 -- Study Guide
Sparta/Athens
Due: Tuesday, 9/29
ASG 4-9
ASG 4-9 & ASG 10-11
Harrison – “The Birth of Democracy” – Revolution in Athens
olives & Athenian economy
vase painting & Athenian potters
Hippias
tyranny
conspiracy
Olympics
meritocracy
Isagoras.
Popular Uprising in 508
Cleisthenes’ recall from exile
Institution of the simple vote
Democracy
Athenian Assembly
Persians
ASG 10-11
Harrison – “The Golden Age” – First Persian War
Pheidippides
Darius
Cultural differences – Greeks vs. Persians
Marathon
Themistocles
Democratic Assembly
Themistocles’ bold new strategy
Triremes
Silver from Laurion
Themistocles’ complex bluff