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Vietnam War & the SALT Treaty 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Vietnam War & SALT Treaty Study Guide Who became president in 1961? Who said the United States would “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty”? Who said, "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country?” What made foreign policy a major issue in every presidential election between 1948 and 1992? How did heavy military expenditures throughout the Cold War affect Virginia’s economy? What two areas of Virginia were especially helped by national defense spending during the Cold War? Explain why this was true. 7. What Cold War policy resulted in American involvement in Vietnam? 8. After World War II, from what country did Vietnamese nationalists fight for independence? 9. Who was the leader of the Vietnamese independence movement? 10. What type of government did Ho Chi Minh want an independent Vietnam to have? 11. Why did the United States support France’s attempt to keep Indochina as a colony after World War II? 12. What action did France take after its army was defeated by Ho Chi Minh’s forces? 13. What happened to Vietnam after France’s withdrawal from Indochina? 14. Why were reunification elections that had been scheduled for the mid-fifties cancelled? 15. What did the communist government of North Vietnam attempt to install in South Vietnam during the fifties and early sixties? 16. Who were the Vietcong? 17. What was the National Liberation Front? 18. What action did the Eisenhower administration take to counter North Vietnam’s efforts to take over South Vietnam? 19. Under what president did the American military buildup in Vietnam begin? Vietnam War & SALT Treaty Answers 1. John F. Kennedy 2. John F. Kennedy 3. John F. Kennedy 4. the Cold War 5. benefited Virginia’s economy proportionately more than the economy of any other state 6. Hampton Roads because of large naval, army, and air force bases, as well as Newport News Shipyard; Northern Virginia because of the Pentagon, military bases, and private defense contractors 7. containment 8. France 9. Ho Chi Minh 10. communist 11. because Ho Chi Minh was a communist 12. France withdrew from Indochina 13. Vietnam was divided into communist North Vietnam and non-communist South Vietnam 14. the Eisenhower administration feared Ho Chi Minh would win and all of Vietnam would become communist 15. a communist government 16. South Vietnamese communists who wanted to reunify all of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh; southern revolutionaries who formed the National Liberation Front 17. the official name of the Vietcong 18. sent large amounts of economic and military aid to South Vietnam 19. John F. Kennedy 20. What happened to President Kennedy in 1963? 21. Who succeeded John F. Kennedy as president? 22. What action did President Johnson take in Vietnam in 1965? 23. How many American troops were stationed in Vietnam by 1968? 24. What did it mean for the United States to fight a “limited war” in Vietnam? 25. What policy was the United States following in South Vietnam? 26. Why did the United States fight a “limited war” in Vietnam? 27. What was the position of the American people on the Vietnam War by 1968? 28. What was the center of active opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War? 29. Who won the 1968 presidential election? 30. During the 1968 presidential campaign, what pledge did Richard Nixon make regarding the Vietnam War? 31. What policy did President Nixon institute (start) in Vietnam? 32. Define “Vietnamization.” 20. Kennedy was assassinated 21. Lyndon B. Johnson 22. escalated or increased the American military buildup in Vietnam 23. more than 500,000 24. “limited war” = avoid any military action which might widen the war to include the Soviet Union or communist China 25. containment 26. to avoid either a nuclear war or a third world war 27. divided: many Americans supported the war, while many others opposed the war 28. College campuses 29. Richard Nixon 30. to bring the Vietnam War to an honorable end; “peace with honor” 31. “Vietnamization” 32. “Vietnamization” = the Nixon administration’s policy of building up South Vietnamese forces while gradually withdrawing American troops 33. Did “Vietnamization” succeed or fail? 33. failed 34. What country supplied the North Vietnamese Army? 34. the Soviet Union 35. What political scandal caused President Nixon to 35. Watergate resign as president in 1974? 36. Define Watergate. 36. Watergate scandal = the public exposure of a burglary and its cover-up by the Nixon administration 37. Who succeeded Richard Nixon as president? 37. Gerald Ford after Richard Nixon was forced to resign as president 38. North Vietnamese troops overran South Vietnam, and 38. What happened in Vietnam during Gerald Ford’s both North and South Vietnam merged under communist presidency? rule 39. What did many Vietnam veterans face in the United 39. indifference or outright hostility States when they returned home? 40. Compare the reception of Vietnam veterans with 40. World War II veterans returned to a grateful and that of World War II veterans. supportive nation, while Vietnam veterans often faced indifference or outright hostility from Americans who had opposed the war. 41. How has the treatment of Vietnam veterans changed 41. Vietnam veterans are now recognized and honored for over time? their service and sacrifices. 42. What did the Twenty-Sixth Amendment do? 42. lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to 18. 43. What did the Vietnam War demonstrate about the power of American public opinion? 44. In what three ways did involvement in the Vietnam War affect American society? 45. Who served as President Richard Nixon’s secretary of state in 1972? 46. By 1972 what did President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger realize regarding the relationship between the Soviet Union and China? 47. During the early seventies, what policy did Nixon and Kissinger initiate (start) towards the Soviet Union and China? 48. What did the United States begin to establish with communist China in 1972? 49. With what Chinese leader did President Nixon meet in 1972? 50. What is China’s capital? 51. To what other communist country did President Nixon travel in 1972? 52. Who was the leader of the Soviet Union? 53. What was the Soviet Union’s capital? 54. What treaty did the United States and the Soviet Union sign in 1972? 55. Out of what talks did this treaty grow? 56. Define the SALT talks. 57. Why was the SALT treaty so important, in spite of its many loopholes? 43. American public opinion could reverse foreign policy or cause it to go in a different direction 44. 1) tested the democratic system to its limits, 2) left scars on American society that still exist, 3) made many Americans skeptical of future military and peacekeeping interventions (sending in troops) 45. Henry Kissinger 46. instead of being strong allies, China and the Soviet Union had become rivals for power 47. by talking with both the Soviet Union and China, the U.S. hoped to play the two communist countries off against each other 48. formal diplomatic relations 49. Mao Zedong 50. Beijing 51. the Soviet Union 52. Leonid Brezhnev 53. Moscow 54. the SALT Treaty 55. the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) 56. SALT talks = the Soviet-American discussions (1969) to establish limits on the number of strategic nuclear weapons held by both sides 57. The SALT Treaty was the first step toward ending the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union.