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Transcript
Human Anatomy
Appendicular Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
• Consists of approximately 126 bones in 4 major
groupings:
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Pectoral girdle
Upper extremity
Pelvic girdle
Lower extremity
www.fisiokinesiterapia.biz
Pectoral Girdle
• Attaches upper extremity to the body
– more mobile than other animals but easier to dislocate
• Scapula and clavicle
• Clavicle attaches medially to the sternum and laterally
to the scapula
– sternoclavicular joint
– acromioclavicular joint
• Scapula articulates with the humerus
– humeroscapular or shoulder joint
– easily dislocated because of its loose attachment
Scapula (shoulder blade)
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Triangular plate that dorsally overlies ribs 2 to 7
Spine ends as acromion process
Coracoid process for muscle attachment
Glenoid fossa is shallow socket for head of humerus
Scapular Features
Scapula Features
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Right/Left
Borders and angles (3 each)
Fossas (3)
Notch
Spine
Processes (acromion and coacoid)
Glenoid cavity
Infraglenoid tubercle (attachment of triceps)
Clavicle (collar bone)
Conoid tubercle
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S-shaped bone, flattened dorsoventrally
Inferior surface marked by muscle & ligament attachments
Sternal end is rounded -- acromial end is flattened
Thickened in those who do heavy manual labor
Easily and often broken
Upper Extremity
• 30 bones per limb
• Brachium or arm contains the humerus
• Antebrachium or forearm contains the radius &
ulna (radius on thumb side)
• Carpus or wrist contains 8 small bones arranged
in two rows
• Manus or hand contains 19 bones in 2 groups
– 5 metacarpals in the palm
– 14 phalanges in the fingers
Humerus
• Hemispherical head forms shoulder
joint above anatomical neck
• Muscles attach to greater & lesser
tubercles and deltoid tuberosity
• Intertubercular groove holds biceps
tendon
• Rounded capitulum articulates with
radius
• Pulleylike trochlea articulates with
ulna
• Olecranon fossa holds olecranon
process of ulna in straightened arm
• Forearm muscles attach to medial &
lateral epicondyles
Humerus
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Right/Left
Head and necks (epiphyseal line)
Tubercles (2) and intertubercular groove
Deltoid tuberosity
Shaft and nutrient foramen
Condyles (trochlea and capitulum)
Epicondyles (felt medial and lateral to the elbow)
– Medial epicondyle protects ulnar nerve (funnybone)
• Fossas (coronoid and olecranon)
Ulna and Radius
• Radius
– head is disc that rotates freely
during pronation & supination
• articulates with the capitulum
– radial tuberosity for biceps muscle
• Ulna
– olecranon and trochlear notch form
proximal end
– radial notch holds head of ulna
• Interosseous membrane
– ligament attaches radius to ulna
along interosseous margin of each
bone
Radius and Ulna
• Radius:
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Head
Radial tuberosity (biceps
Styloid process
Ulnar notch
• Ulna:
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Trochlear notch
Processes (olecranon and coranoid)
Head
Styloid process
Radial notch
Metacarpals and Phalanges
• Phalanges are bones of
the fingers
– thumb or pollex has
proximal & distal phalanx
– fingers have proximal,
middle & distal phalanx
• Metacarpals are bones of
the palm
– base, shaft & head
– numbered I-V
Carpal Bones
• Form the wrist
– allows flexion, extension,
abduction & adduction
• 2 rows of 4 bones each
– proximal row is scaphoid,
lunate, triquetrum &
pisiform
– distal row is trapezium,
trapezoid, capitate &
hamate
But Adrian, Do I Need to Remember all the
Carpals?
Yes!!
But How Do I Remember Them?
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Proximal row first, then lateral to medial
Some (scaphoid)
Lovers (lunate)
Try (triquetrum)
Positions (pisiform)
That (trapezium)
They (trapezoid)
Can’t (capitate)
Handle (hamate)
“SOME” IS UNDER THE THUMB
And if you are a Dog Lover
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Proximal row first, then lateral to medial
Sarah (scaphoid)
Loves (lunate)
To (triquetrum)
Pet (pisiform)
The (trapezium)
Tiny (trapezoid)
Chiuhuhuas (capitate)
Head (hamate)
Pelvic Girdle
• Composed of 2 bones:
right & left os coxa
• Transmits weight from
upper body to legs
& protects viscera
• Each os coxae is joined to
the vertebral column at the
sacroiliac joint
• Anteriorly, pubic bones are joined
by pad of fibrocartilage
to form pubic symphysis
Os Coxa (Hip Bone)
• Acetabulum and obturator foramen
• Ilium is superior portion
– iliac crest and iliac fossa
– greater sciatic notch contains sciatic nerve
– ASIS, AIIS, PSIS, PIIS
• Pubis is anterior portion
– body, superior, and inferior ramus
• Ischium is posterolateral portion
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ischial tuberosity bears body weight if sit
ischial spine (separates greater and lesser sciatic notch)
lesser sciatic notch lies between ischial spine & tuberosity
ischial ramus joins inferior pubic ramus
Comparison of Male & Female
• Female less massive, shallower pubic arch greater than
100 degrees, and pubic inlet round or oval
• Male heavier, upper pelvis nearly vertical, coccyx more
vertical, and pelvic inlet heart-shaped, outlet smaller
Femur
gluteal tuberosity
• Nearly spherical head &
constricted neck
– ligament to fovea capitis
• Greater & lesser trochanters for
muscle attachment
– Intertrochanteric crest on posterior
• Posterior ridge called linea aspera
adductor tubercle
• Medial & lateral condyles and
epicondyles found distally
• Smooth patellar surface on
anterior femur
Patella and Tibia
• Patella is triangular sesamoid
bone
• Tibia is thick, strong weightbearing bone on medial side of
leg
– broad superior head with 2 flat
articular surfaces
anterior crest
• medial & lateral condyles
• separated by intercondylar eminence
– roughened anterior surface can be
palpated below the patella
(tibial tuberosity)
– distal expansion is medial
malleolus
Fibula
• Slender lateral strut that
helps stabilize the ankle
• Does not bear any of the
body’s weight
– use as spare bone tissue to
replace bone elsewhere
• Head is proximal end
• Lateral malleolus is distal
expansion
• Joined to tibia by
interosseous membrane
The Ankle and Foot
• Tarsal bones are shaped & arranged
differently from carpal bones due to
load-bearing role of the ankle
• Talus is most superior tarsal bone
– forms ankle joint with tibia & fibula
– sits upon calcaneus & articulates with
navicular
• Calcaneus forms heel (achilles tendon)
• Distal row of tarsal bones
– cuboid, medial, intermediate and lateral
cuneiforms
Pneumonic Device
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Children (calcaneus)
That (talus)
Never (navicular)
March (medial cuneiform)
In (intermediate cuneiform)
Line (lateral cuneiform)
Cry (cuboid)
The Foot
• Remaining bones of foot are similar
in name & arrangement to the hand
• Metatarsal I is proximal to the big
toe (hallux)
– base, shaft and head
• Phalanges
– 2 in big toe
• proximal and distal
– 3 in all other toes
• proximal, middle & distal
X ray of the Right Foot