Download Review #5 - Fields of Study, River Valley Civilizations

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• 6/9 Focus:
– The social sciences are broken up into
fields of study.
– Geographers look at how location impacts
the development of groups and people.
• Do Now:
– What major turning point/revolution
allowed for the development of
civilizations?
Regents Review
Economists
• Study the following:
– Scarcity of resources
– What a society should produce
– How to produce it and for whom
– Distribution of goods and services
Sociologists
• Study society and social behavior
Archeologists
• Study the physical artifacts of a
society
Political Scientists
• Study the origin, development, and
operation of political systems
Historians
• Research, analyze, and interpret the
past
• Use primary and secondary sources
Anthropologists
• Study the origin and the physical, social,
and cultural development of humans
Geographers
• Study the connection between people
and the places where they live
1. Which social scientist specializes in
studying issues such as the scarcity
of resources and availability of
goods?
A.
B.
C.
D.
anthropologist
sociologist
economist
archaeologist
2. Which aspect of social science would
a geographer most likely study in
depth?
A. how beliefs influence the behavior of a
group of people
B. how economic events influence history
C. how location influences the way people
live
D. how people influence governmental
decisions
3. Which social scientists are best
known for studying the physical
artifacts of a culture?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Geographers
Archaeologists
economists
sociologists
4. When studying ancient civilizations, a
geographer would be most interested
in looking at
A.
B.
C.
D.
language as a form of expression
family structure
climatic influences on food production
standards for leadership
5. Historians value the writings of
Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta because
they
A. serve as primary sources about trade
and culture
B. provide the basis for European holy
books
C. include advice on how to be a
democratic ruler
D. present unbiased views of life in Africa
and Asia
Peninsula
• A body of land
surrounded by
water on three
sides
• Italy, India, Korea,
Iberian
(Spain/Portugal)
Archipelago
• A group or chain of
islands
• Japan
Strait
• A narrow body of
water that
connects two larger
bodies of water
• Straits of Malacca,
Bosporus and
Dardanelles Straits
Plains
• Flat lands that have only small changes
in elevation
• Great Plains
Steepe
• A plain with short grasses and without
trees
• Central Asia
Physical Maps
• Show landmarks
such as mountains,
rivers, lakes,
oceans, and other
geographic
features
Political Maps
• Show lines defining
countries, states,
cities, or territories;
show borders
1. Which feature would most often be
shown on a political map?
A.
B.
C.
D.
topography
type of climate
capital cities
elevation
• Siberian Plain
• Sahara Desert
• Amazon Basin
• Mongolian Steppes
2. One characteristic common to these
areas is that they all
A.
B.
C.
D.
have a low population density
are located between major river valleys
are major religious centers
have large areas of valuable farmland
3. Which heading best completes the
partial outline below?
I. ______________________________
A. Seafood makes up a large part of the Filipino diet.
B. Africans built hydroelectric plants along the
Zambezi River.
C. The majority of Russians live west of the Ural
Mountains.
D. The most densely populated area of India is the
Ganges River Valley.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Rivers Are Barriers to Interdependence
Economic Issues Influence National Goals
Geography Affects Human Behavior
Governments Control the Actions of Citizen
• The fertile soil of river valleys allowed early
civilizations to develop and flourish.
• In the 1500s and 1600s, control of the Strait of
Malacca determined who traded in the Spice Islands.
• Because Japan is an island that is mostly mountainous,
people live in densely populated areas along the coast.
4. Which conclusion is best supported by
these statements?
A.Major urban centers are found only along rivers.
B.The geography of a nation or region influences its
development.
C.Without mountains and rivers, people cannot develop a
culture.
D.The spread of new ideas is discouraged by trade and
conquest.
Development of Civilizations
Review Questions
Paleolithic Era
• Nomadic People
• Hunter/Gathers
• Simple stone
tools
Neolithic Era
• Development of
farming and
domestication of
animals
Art/Architecture
Organized
Religion
Cities
Job Specialization
Government
Public Works
System of Writing
Social Classes
1. How did the introduction of agriculture
affect early peoples?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Societies became nomadic.
Food production declined.
Civilizations developed.
Birthrates decreased rapidly.
2. Early peoples who moved frequently
as they searched for the food they
needed for survival are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
hunters and gatherers
village dwellers
subsistence farmers
guild members
3. Presence of public works, art and
architecture, organized religions, and
systems of writings are associated
with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Economic Development in Ancient Egypt
Cultural Diffusion in Mohenjo-Daro
Features of the Old Stone Age
Characteristics of Civilizations
4. The term “subsistence farmers”
refers to people who grow:
A. enough food to feed an entire village
B. food to sell in village markets
C. just enough food to meet the needs of
the immediate family
D. a single cash crop
• Three common characteristics of river
valley civilizations
• Similar Latitudes
• Annual flooding
• Long growing
seasons/warm
climates
• Identify the civilization that each geographic characteristic
is most closely associated.
Nile River Valley
Himalayas (2)
Deccan Plateau
Tigris & Euphrates
Waterfalls and
Sahara Desert
Fertile Crescent
Yellow River
Indus River
Monsoons
Gobi Desert
Hindu Kush
Natural Barriers (3)
Unpredictable
River flooding (3)
Predictable Flooding (1)
Lack of Natural Barriers
• Identify the civilization that each term is
associated with:
Ziggurats
Mohenjo-Daro
Hieroglyphics
Pyramids
Dynastic Cycle
Cuneiform
Harappa
Mandate of Heaven
Aryans
Pharaohs
Oracle Bones
Caste System
Maurya and Gupta
Empires
Gilgamesh
• 6/10 Focus:
• Do Now:
– Complete the Regents Review Warm up
Questions
• The mountainous
topography (terrain) of
Greece resulted in widely
scattered settlements
that developed into many
small independent citystates. (The geography
of Greece prevented the
ancient Greek city-states
from uniting to form a
single nation.)
• The city-state of Athens practiced
direct democracy.
• The city-state of Sparta was very
different from Athens.
– Sparta placed more emphasis on military
service. Boys in Sparta were trained to be
soldiers.
– Sparta’s government was not democratic.
People had little voice in government.
• SOCRATES, PLATO, and ARISTOTLE
were philosophers of ancient Greece.
• The AGE OF PERICLES in Athens was a
GOLDEN AGE that produced
outstanding contributions in the arts
and sciences.
• ALEXANDER THE
GREAT’S conquests
caused the expansion
of HELLENISTIC
CULTURE.
• The blending of
GREEK, PERSIAN,
EGYPTIAN, and
INDIAN cultures
into Hellenistic
culture demonstrates
cultural diffusion.
• The Roman Empire extended over three
continents, surrounding the MEDITERRANEAN
SEA.
• The Mediterranean
Sea was the center of
Roman TRADE. The
Roman Empire grew
wealthy because it
developed extensive
trade networks.
• A SYSTEM OF
ROADS helped unify
the Roman Empire.
– Note: A system of
roads helped to unify
the INCA EMPIRE in
the Andes Mountains
of South America,
too.
• The Romans developed a form of
government known as the REPUBLIC
• Preserved GREEK CULTURE (GrecoRoman Culture)
• The Fall of the Roman Empire in 476
A.D. led to the start of the Middle
Ages
– Note the rise and fall of the Roman Empire
is often compared with the HAN dynasty in
China
• The SHANG DYNASTY was China's first
dynasty. During Shang rule, kings controlled
small areas while loyal princes and nobles
governed most of the land.
• To justify their rebellion against the Shang,
the Zhou people promoted the idea of the
MANDATE OF HEAVEN.
• The MANDATE OF HEAVEN is the Chinese
belief in the DIVINE RIGHT to rule.
• This process explaining the rise and fall of
dynasties is called the DYNASTIC CYCLE
• SHI HUANGDI constructed the Great Wall
of China. Over the centuries, the wall was
extended and rebuilt several times. Eventually,
it snaked for thousands of miles across
northern China.
• Shi Huangdi centralized power following the
principles of Qin LEGALISM.
– Legalists believed that rulers must achieve order
by passing STRICT LAWS and imposing HARSH
PUNISHMENTS.
• China grew wealthy because the Han
dynasty developed extensive trade
networks by opening the SILK ROAD
• Like the Roman Empire, the Han dynasty
promoted unity and communication by
building a STRONG SYSTEM OF
ROADS.
• Like the Roman Empire, The Han Empire
collapsed because of FOREIGN
INVASIONS, POLITICAL TURMOIL,
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS, and a
DECLINING MILITARY.
• The Mauryan Empire
controlled more of the
Indian subcontinent
than the Gupta Empire
did.
• Expansion was limited by
GEOGRAPHIC
FACTORS (The
Himalayas, the Hindu
Kush Mountains, the
Arabian Sea, and the
Bay of Bengal).
• Asoka promoted RELIGIOUS
TOLERATION and established codified
laws with the PILLARS OF ASOKA
• During the era of the GUPTA EMPIRE,
India experienced a golden age (a period
of prosperity and artistic creativity).
• Art and literature flourished.
• Indian scholars contributed to
mathematics by developing the
DECIMAL SYSTEM and the CONCEPT
OF ZERO.
• Indian provinces were united after 200
years of civil war.
• Indians used the SANSKRIT LANGUAGE
• Like Peter the Great of Russia, Mughal
emperor AKBAR THE GREAT was an
ABSOLUTE RULER who modernized and
expanded his empire using ideas from
other cultures.
• Akbar the Great is similar to Asoka
because he promoted religious
toleration
• The architectural achievements of ancient
Rome (e.g. the Coliseum), ancient Egypt (e.g.
the Pyramids), and ancient China (e.g. the
Great Wall of China) indicate that
ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY existed in early
civilizations.
• The PHOENICIANS are often referred to
as the “carriers of civilization” because they
traded goods and spread ideas throughout
the Mediterranean region.