Download Unit Vocab

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of geomagnetism wikipedia, lookup

Spherical Earth wikipedia, lookup

Physical oceanography wikipedia, lookup

History of Earth wikipedia, lookup

Ring of Fire wikipedia, lookup

Nature wikipedia, lookup

History of geology wikipedia, lookup

Age of the Earth wikipedia, lookup

Geology wikipedia, lookup

Plate tectonics wikipedia, lookup

Volcano wikipedia, lookup

Large igneous province wikipedia, lookup

Geophysics wikipedia, lookup

Layers of the Earth
Crust: land layer made up of rock and soil that we
walk on (thinnest layer)
Lithosphere: bottom portion of the crust and the
upper mantle
Upper Mantle: layer of pliable rock just below the
crust where earthquake movement occurs
Deep Mantle: thickest layer just below the upper
Outer Core: made of molten rock and metals just
above the inner core
Inner Core: solid center made of heavy metals;
hottest layer
Hydrosphere: all the water on Earth
Page 1 of 2
Convection currents: caused by very hot material
at the deepest part of the mantle rising, then
cooling and sinking again; repeats this cycle
Asthenosphere: heat deep inside the Earth that
drives the movement of the Earth’s plates nearer
the surface, located in the middle mantle
Page 2 of 2
Continental Drift
Geologist: scientist who studies the Earth
Continental Drift: theory presented by Wegener;
stated that continents were once one big supercontinent that drifted apart over many years to
their present-day locations
Pangaea: name given to the super-continent
Mid-Atlantic Ridge: ridge in the Atlantic Ocean
through which molten rock flows
Sea-Floor Spreading: process where new crustal
material forms at the ridges causing the old sea
floor to spread apart on both sides of the ridge
Magma: molten rock underground (called lava
when on the surface of the Earth)
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics: theory that the Earth’s crust is
broken into pieces or plates; each plate includes
material from a layer below the crust (mantle);
plates slide on the lower portion of the mantle
Divergent Boundary: places where the plates
move apart (Mid-Atlantic Ridge)
Convergent Boundary: places where the plates
collide (Himalayan Mountains)
Transform Boundary: places where plates slide
horizontally past each other
Fault: cracks in the Earth’s crust caused by the
movement of plates
Normal Fault: 2 sides pull apart and 1 side falls
below the other
Reverse Fault: 2 sides push together and 1 side
rises up over the other
Strike-slip Fault: 2 sides slide horizontally past
each other
 New Madrid is the fault closest to us;
combination of a strike-slip and reverse
Parts of an Earthquake
Focus: point below the Earth’s surface where the
earthquake starts
Epicenter: point on Earth’s surface directly above the
Surface Waves: waves that travel across surface of
Earth and tear apart structures; can move side to side
or up and down (Most destructive)
Seismic Waves: vibrations from the sudden movement
that travels through the crust; 2 types of waves
P Waves: primary waves; travel like an accordion
S Waves: secondary waves; travel like a twanged fork
Aftershock(s): tremors/shaking after the earthquake
Seismograph: instrument used to measure the strength
of an earthquake
Tsunami: huge ocean wave caused by an earthquake
Measuring Strength of an Earthquake
Magnitude: amount of energy released by an
Richter Scale: scale from 1 to 10 that ranks
earthquakes according to magnitude (uses
seismograph); for every unit increase the energy
released is increased by a factor of 30
Mercalli Scale: scale from 1 to 12 (in Roman
Numerals) that describes earthquakes based upon
the amount of damage
Volcano: an opening in the Earth’s crust from
which hot molten rock moves from deep inside
the Earth
Ring of Fire: edges of Pacific Plate where many
earthquakes and volcanoes occur
 Most volcanoes occur along plate boundaries
 Volcanoes can
o Create new land
o Create fertile soil
Types of Volcanoes
Shield Volcano: wide, flat mound created because
lava from volcano is not as thick (viscous) and
doesn’t clog up
Cinder-Cone Volcano: has steep-sided cone
created from volcanic explosion of thick magma
that bursts free
Composite Cone: symmetrical shaped cone;
eruption may explode then have flowing lava;
explosion “takes turns” between shield and
cinder-cone type explosions
Formation of Volcanoes
Subduction Volcano: formed when one plate falls
below the other (Mt. St. Helens & Mt. Vesuvius)
Rift Volcano: formed when two plates pull apart
(African Rift Valley)
Hot-Spot Volcano: formed when magma melts a
hole through the middle of a plate (Hawaiian
Parts of a Volcano
Magma: hot, molten rock inside the Earth
Lava: molten rock on the Earth’s surface
Crater: major vent at the top of the volcano
Conduit: path from magma chamber to crater
Cone: the volcano, formed by volcanic material
Magma Chamber: stores molten rock
Dike: vertical crack that holds harden magma
Sill: horizontal crack that holds harden magma
Fissure: long, thin fracture out to the side of the
More on Volcanoes
Dormant: French word for “sleep,” a dormant
volcano has not been active for a long time, but
erupted in recorded history
Extinct: has not erupted in recorded history
Side effects of volcanoesGeyser: an opening in the ground through
which hot water and steam erupts periodically
Hot Springs: an opening in the ground where
hot water and gases escape continually, but
not erupt
Geothermal Energy: heat from below the
Earth’s surface; produces steam to run power
plants that provide electricity