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Home > Spartan Oligarchy vs. Athenian Democracy
Spartan Oligarchy vs. Athenian Democracy
By Ayesha
Created 01/10/2011 - 15:39
Mon, 01/10/2011 - 15:39 —
Ayesha [1]
Start: 01/22/2011 13:00
End: 01/22/2011 14:00
Timezone: America/New York
Unit:
Ancient Greece
Essential Question:
Democracy or Oligarchy? Which is the more effective form of government?
Grade Level:
10
Global History Unit:
Ancient World-Civilizations and Religions (4000 BC - 500 AD)
Global History Ancient World-Civilizations and Religions (4000 BC - 500 AD) Objectives:
Move toward more complex government systems
Political systems
Greek civilization
The rise of city-states- Athens/Sparta
Growth of democracy in Athens versus the Spartan political system
Instructional objectives/outcomes:
Objective 1:
The student will be able to describe how the Spartan Oligarchy developed and what affects it had on the
people of Sparta, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
Objective 2:
The student will be able to describe how the Athenian Democracy developed and what affects that had on
the people of Athens, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and
determine which one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on
the rubric.
Assessment Evidence:
Assessment for Learning
Assessment Type:
Selected Response
Constructed Response
Personal Communication
Description of Assessment Evidence:
Objective 1:
The student will be able to describe how the Spartan Oligarchy developed and what affects it had on the people of
Sparta, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
The students will be completing one short answer question for Objective 1 in the worksheet (Appendix 11).
This question is designed to test the students’ Comprehension and Application of the material that was presented
to them in the lecture. I will be monitoring the students during this exercise and will assist them when needed.
Objective 2:
The student will be able to describe how the Athenian Democracy developed and what affects that had on the people
of Athens, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
The students will be completing two short answer questions for Objective 2 in the worksheet (Appendix 11).
These questions are designed to test the students’ Comprehension and Application of the material that was
presented to them in the lecture. I will be monitoring the students during this exercise and will assist them when
needed
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and determine which
one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on the rubric.
The students will be completing one long answer question for Objective 3 in the worksheet (Appendix 11). This
question is in two parts. The compare and contrast chart is designed to have the students Analyze the content
they learned in the input section of the lesson plan. The second part of the question, where they must determine
which government they prefer and why, is designed to have the students Evaluate the content.
Learning Activities:
For outline of lesson and tentative times for each section in the TLE refer to Appendix 1
Anticipatory Set:
I will primarily ask everyone to settle down, get into their seats and face forward.
Then I will begin a short clip (0.38 sec) from the movie 300 titled “No Retreat, No Surrender, Spartan Law” from
the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNZAahpYGSg [2].
In this clip Leonidas is addressing his warriors and telling them that Spartan Law is about war, and the honor in
fighting to the death. That fighting for freedom is more important than living as slaves and that a Spartan is
expected to give his life for the freedoms of his people.
This exciting clip is meant to engage the students and present the lesson plan “Spartan Oligarchy vs. Athenian
Democracy” in an exciting way. The students are presented with a new idea, Spartan Law, the code of ethics the
Spartans were expected to live by. The students have previously been studying Ancient Greeks, including the
city-states of Sparta and Athens, so they have some background knowledge of the people and their customs.
Therefore this movie clip would be an extension of that learning and would present the new idea of Law and
Politics in this Ancient time, how political systems developed and functioned.
Teaching/Presentation:
I would then introduce the Standards and the Objectives that need to be met today. I would have them
previously written on the blackboard in a section that is reserved for the particular standards and objectives of
the day. I would read out each standard and objective, and then I would say to the students “are there any
questions regarding these objectives or standards?” If the students asked questions that would later be answered
in the lesson I would say “We will be covering that in the lesson”. If the students asked why they needed to meet
these objectives, I would answer “The standard of learning Ancient Greece is to broaden your understanding of
the world that came before and to learn how the political system of today came about. The objectives are testing
you to determine if you have a firm grasp on what was taught today and if you can translate what you learned
into their own words.”
I would then move on to completing a K-W-L chart with the students. I would say, “Everyone please take out a
blank piece of paper and a writing utensil, because we are going to complete a K-W-L chart. Everyone should
have a minimum of 5 points in each column out of the ones that we discuss in class. (See Appendix 2)
Each section of the chart would be further divided into two, one section for each Sparta and Athens
In the K (Knowledge) section of the chart, the students would be expected to detail information on what
we have been learning for the past lessons on Sparta and Athens. This would include information on each
city-state, ideologies, their treatment of women, their treatment of lower and slave classes, what they
considered a citizen to be, marriage practices, day to day activities, treatment and raising of children and
etc. I would ask the students “What have we learned aboutSparta so far?” After completingSparta, I would
move on to Athens, asking “What have we learned aboutAthens so far?”
In the W (Want) section, the students would detail what they would like to learn about the political
systems of each city-state. I would guide this discussion and the students so that they would come up
with some ideas that directly relate to what the students will be learning that day, based on what I have
planned for the lesson. I would say to the students, “Today we will be discussing the different political
systems of Sparta and Athens, what would you like to learn about the Spartan Oligarchy or the Athenian
Democracy.” If the students were stuck, I would make suggestions like “Does everyone know the definition
of Oligarchy or Democracy? No? Then let’s put that in the want column” Also I would “Is everyone
informed on why or how each government came about? No? OK let’s add that to the want column”.
The L (Learned) section of the chart will be left blank and the students will complete this in the
conclusion section of the lesson, as a “ticket out the door”. I will say “OK, we will be leaving the L section
of the chart blank for now, but make sure you think about what to add in this section as you will need to
complete it before you can leave for your next class.”
INPUT:
Objective 1:
The student will be able to describe how the Spartan Oligarchy developed and what affects it had on the people of
Sparta, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and determine which
one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on the rubric.
I will show the movie clips, which are various scenes from the Movie 300. The first will be excerpts from the
video titled “Uber Xena? Lena Headey – 300”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8FgNDdtNIc [3]
, and also a clip titled “This Is Sparta”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZeYVIWz99I [4]
The scene will start with the section in the movie where Queen Gorgo and a council member are
discussing how she needs to plead to the senate, and how he will try to arrange for her to speak to the
senate. (0:40 –1:20) This section of the clip introduces the idea of the council/senate and also introduces
how one would go about speaking with them about an issue.
The next clip is the Queen is speaking to Theron about her coming before the council (3:50 – 4:55). In the
clip Theron details some ideologies of the Spartans, how their laws and council functioned. He mentions
the Spartan Code.
The third clip is the section of the movie where the Queen is speaking to the council. (6:26 – 8:20) This
gives the students a visual aid of what a senate would look like and how one would speak to them. It also
shows the ideologies (liberty, justice, freedom, hope) of the Spartan people and what is important to
them.
The final clip is when Leonidas says “This isSPARTA” and its just a fun exciting part of the movie that
would pique the interest of the students and make the class somewhat enjoyable.
After the clips I would ask the class “Can anyone tell me what those clips were about?” We would ultimately
come to the conclusion that it discussed the ideologies of the Spartans, as well as the Spartan council and law. I
would then say “This is not a completely accurate presentation of the Spartans, but it gives you an idea of how
the system worked, what the senate looked like and what was important to the Spartan people. When Queen
Gorgo was speaking she outlined what the Spartans held to be important, she said “the principles that this room
was built on” and she listed “liberty, justice, law and order, reason and hope” This is a true representation of the
Spartans, their governmental system was based on these principles, they were a violent but honorable people.
They believed in doing what was right, even if it meant they had to sacrifice their comforts.”
This would be the transition into my lesson on the Spartan Oligarchy and how it was formed.
“There were four predominant forms of government in Ancient Greece. A Monarchy, Tyranny, Oligarchy and
Democracy. We will be discussing Sparta today in which an Oligarchic type of government formed. The
definition of Oligarchy from www.dictionary.com [5]
is a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique;
government by the few.”
“Sparta wasn’t completely an Oligarchic government; it had elements of a Monarchy and Democracy in it as well.”
“In the 8th Century BC, Sparta was starving, its population had grown beyond what the land could provide for,
and so the Spartan people began to look for more fertile land that could support them and their families. They
looked to their neighbor, Messenia. Messenia was very fertile and so the Spartans invaded, and succeeded in
taking over the land. In 640 BC, Messenia pleaded to their ally Argos for help in fighting the Spartans and once
they had successfully obtained their help, the Messenians revolted. Not only did the Messenians almost win but
they nearly destroyed Sparta. The Spartans still controlled the Messenian territory but they were outnumbered
ten to one and it was only a matter of time before they were over-run by the Messenians. In 650 BC, during this
dark time for Sparta, Lycurgus came to power. Lycurgus changed the face of Sparta. They were a Monarchy
and he changed them into a Military State. The enormity of the near defeat that was dealt to the Spartans made
accepted it with fervor and fought to become the best warriors in Greece.
This was revolutionary for Ancient Greece, because it changed the face of Sparta forever. The Messenians
became agricultural slaves, like serfs in Medieval Europe.”
“Can anyone tell me what a serf is? Correct, serfs are slaves because they live on their master’s land, they have to
work the land and give a significant amount of produce to their master and the rest they can keep for
themselves and their families. How do you think this new way of life affected the Spartans? That’s right they
were now the Masters of the Messenians. I mentioned earlier that the Spartans feared another Messenian revolt,
how do you think this new way of life solved that problem?”
This question would allow for the students to comprehend and apply the material that has just been
presented to them, they would have to identify how this change in social structure displaced the power,
giving the Spartans more control over the Messenians.
After that quick discussion I would reinforce what was outlined by saying “The Messenian helots led a miserable
life, they were allowed to keep barely enough produce for survival and their labor was long and very difficult.
The Spartans became the masters of the land and they were the owners of the Messenians. Not only did this
save the Spartan people because they now controlled their foreign subjects, but it changed the Spartan way of
life drastically. They now became the hard warrior like people that Sparta is known for. Their lives were
dedicated solely to warfare and training for battle. This ideology seeped into every aspect of their lives as we
have learned in previous lessons.”
I would then pause and take a minute to give the students a chance to ask questions on the content that has just
been presented to them. I would say “Does any one have any questions or need any clarification on what I have
said so far?” I would then answer any questions that arose.
“Now before we go any further in the lesson, let’s have a minute or two to Think, Pair, Share. Get in to groups of
two with someone who is right beside you and take a minute to review everything you have just learned about
the history of Sparta and how the Oligarchic government was formed.”
While the students are discussing the lesson, I will roam about the room and monitor what they are saying,
checking to see who understands the course material and who is confused
After giving the students a minute or two to discuss, I would ask the students, “Who wants to share one point we
discussed in the lesson today?” and I would ask different groups to share points of the lesson in order to reenforce what was taught and also to check for understanding. I wouldn’t always pick a student or group that was
willing to answer (by putting up their hand) I would try to pick a student who is generally quiet in order to
involve them and develop their oral/verbal skills.
If anyone mentioned something that was not consistent with what we had learned or it seemed that they were
confused about an aspect in the lesson, then I would clarify the misconceptions before moving on. Also if an
aspect was missed I would mention that to the class, I would either ask them to remember by posing a question
or simply state what was missed.
Then I would continue with the lesson,
“The Spartan government was mostly an Oligarchy. What is the definition of an oligarchy? That’s right “rule by a
small group of people”. The people that lived inSparta were split into three categories.
Spartiates: men, warriors, full citizen, these are the Spartan men, full rights
Perioci: foreigners, non-warriors, working class, brought in to provide the community with needs such as
Carpenters, Blacksmiths and etc, they were not considered full citizens and were given some rights
Helots: slaves, serfs, they had no freedom and no rights, they made up the majority of the population
Spartan government had many elements
The first element was the Two Kings, they had three aspects to their power
Religious: they were priests of state and they performed sacrifices to the Delphian Sanctuary
Judicial: they were limited to responsibility of dealing with issues about heirs, adoptions and public roads
Military: they had the most unrestricted power in Military issues. They functioned as the generals in
command of the Spartan Armies
The second element is the Ephors or The Five Overseers
They were elected annually and served for a one year term
Ephors were elected from citizens or Spartiates
They were responsible for dealing with the day to day necessities or issues in the Spartan society. They
dealt with civil cases, criminal jurisdiction
They represent a democratic element of the Spartan Government because they were elected by the citizens
They are the most powerful branch of Government because they could bring charges against anyone in
Sparta, even the kings
They could also veto the council or assembly votes
The third element is the Gerousia or Council/Senate
This was 28 a group of men plus the two kings
All were over the age of 60
They were elected by the citizens
They served for life
Their purpose was to act as judges and dealt with criminal jurisdiction
They were the senior element of society and functioned as guides to the community in order to provide
wisdom when needed, so they also were the element that proposed laws to the assembly for them to vote
on
The final element was the Apella or Assembly
This was all Spartan citizens aged 30 and above
Their only function was to vote on the councils recommendations/propositions
Women were not considered citizens and did not partake in the political sphere”
“Once again we will now take the time out to Think, Pair, Share. Please get into different groups of two and take
a minute to discuss what we have just learned about the Spartan Government.”
I will again roam about the room while the students discuss the lesson in order to determine if the students
understand the course material.
After giving the students a minute or two to discuss, I would again ask the some students (trying to call on
different students this time) to share with the class what they have discussed by saying, “Who wants to share one
point we discussed in the lesson today?” and I would ask different groups to share points of the lesson in order to
re-enforce what was taught and also to check for understanding. I wouldn’t always pick a student or group that
was willing to answer (by putting up their hand) I would try to pick students who are generally quiet in order to
involve them and develop their verbal skills.
If anyone mentioned something that was not consistent with what we had learned or it seemed that they were
confused about an aspect in the lesson, then I would clarify the misconceptions. Also if an aspect was missed I
would mention that to the class, I would either ask them to remember by posing a question or simply state what
was missed.
Once this is completed, my lecture about Sparta is also completed and so I would move on to my second
Objective and the second part of my lecture
Modeling:
Objective 1:
The student will be able to describe how the Spartan Oligarchy developed and what affects it had on the people of
Sparta, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
During my lesson I would use a power point presentation (for the Spartan Section of PPT see Appendix 3)
This power point would be used while I am teaching the lesson. This would be a visual aid to my words.
It gives the basic points of my lesson; I would elaborate on these points. This is essential for visual
learners because it gives them something concrete to look at and it reinforces my words so that they can
process the material
I included a slide with a map of Sparta with a picture of Leonidas from the movie 300 screaming and
pointing to Sparta with his sword, with the words, “This isSparta” in bold letters. This is funny, but
educational. It shows the correct location of Sparta, teaching the students where it is in Greece, but its
funny and gives them a chance to laugh, thereby making it more memorable and creating a better
environment for learning
The power point would be available to the students to access at home; they would be able to interact with
the power point. I would have interesting links on the pages that would lead them to websites with more
information (see Appendix 4 for the Links)
After I have completed the teaching this section of the lesson, I would give a handout of a concept map that
outlines how the Spartan Oligarchy functioned (See Appendix 5) I would say,
“If you look at the sheet I just handed out to you, you will see an outline of the different branches of the
Spartan Government. This is a visual representation of what I have just taught to you. It gives you a
graphical diagram of each branch and how they interacted with one another”
The purpose of this handout is to give the students a visual aid. A visual aid is an essential tool for those
students who are visual learners; it gives them a concrete explanation of the content in order for them to
process it in a more effective way.
This handout is following the “Direct Instruction” technique known as a “Structured Overview”
Checking For Understanding
Objective 1:
The student will be able to describe how the Spartan Oligarchy developed and what affects it had on the people of
Sparta, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
I have outlined four places in my Input section where I stop and address the students, asking them if they have
any questions or need any clarification on the material so far.
This is in order to give the students a chance to voice any concerns they have during the lesson, rather
than just at the end of the lesson, when they may be very confused or have forgotten what they wanted to
ask
Think, Pair, Share
As outlined in my Input section, I would stop two times in my lecture to Think, Pair, Share.
I would hide the power point slides so that the students would have to rely on their memory to come up
with key points of the lecture.
The students would pair up (using a different partner each time) and be given a minute or two to review
the content that was just presented to them
While they are reviewing this material I would walk about the room and monitor the conversations,
noting if the students had a good grasp on the material or if they were confused
If I noticed confusion, I would address this after when we are discussing the key points in the
lecture. For example if the students thought that the Spartans were defeated by the Messenians and
then once again fought for power, “I noticed that some of you were thinking that the Messenians
won the war after they revolted, in actuality they almost won the war, the Spartans retained power
after the revolt, but were severely weakened and so that is why they changed their governmental
system”.
After the students had discussed we would begin talking about the points. I would ask the students “Who
wants to share a point that was mentioned in the lecture?” Then I would call on student pairs who had
raised their hands and also try to call on students who have not raised their hands in order to encourage
communication amongst quieter students or discover if the students chose not to speak out of confusion
Input:
Objective 2:
The student will be able to describe how the Athenian Democracy developed and what affects that had on the people
of Athens, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and determine which
one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on the rubric.
“Earlier I mentioned that there were four predominant forms government in Ancient Greece. Can anyone tell me
what those four governments were?” The students will answer, “Monarchy, Oligarchy, Tyranny and Democracy”.
“Sparta as we have just covered was a Monarchy turned into an Oligarchy with elements of a Democracy and
Monarchy. Now we will be discussing Athens, which developed into the first ever known Democracy.
Athenians are given credit for inventing Democracy as a full system of government. The definition of
Democracy on www.dictionary.com [5]
is “government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and
exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.”
“The type of democracy practiced inAthens is known as a direct democracy and its definition from
www.dictionary.com [5] is “a form of democracy in which the people as a whole make directdecisions, rather
than have those decisions made for them by elected representatives”
“In 6th Century BC Athens was ruled by Hippias, he was a tyrant. A tyrant is someone who forcefully takes
power, without lineage or claim as a monarch would or without election as a democratic leader would. Hippias
was a terrible leader and did not care for the populace of Athens; he thrived on control and brute force.
Cliesthenes, a young aristocratic politician with big dreams for Athens, appealed to the Spartans, asking them to
help him overthrow Hippias. Sparta agreed to help Cliesthenes and together they drove Hippias out in 510 BC”
“After this victory Cliesthenes expected to take power ofAthens, but Isagoras, another young and ambitious
politician, from an aristocratic household quickly rose to challenge his claim as the leader of Athens.
Cliesthenes and Isagoras both acted quickly, Cliesthenes appealed to the leading houses of Athens, the
aristocrats, in order to incur favor with them, while Isagoras knowing he was not popular appealed to his close
friend Cleomenes one of the Spartan Kings”
“Although the Athenian Aristocrats were in favor of Cliesthenes, the Spartans determined the fate of theAthens
and it was Isagoras who ultimately claimed power. In 508 BC Cliesthenes fled before the armies of Sparta
arrived in Athens in fear for his life. The Athenians believed that this was another Tyranny, in reality it was an
Oligarchy with Isagoras at the head of the 300 aristocrats that supported him and they in turn relied on the
Spartan military to enforce their power”
“Isagoras began to dismantle all of the aristocratic houses that supported Cliesthenes, there were over 700
houses, the noblemen and women of these houses were either killed or brutally cast out of Athens. Isagoras’
next action was to disassemble “The Council of the Four Hundred”, this council had no real power, but was
symbolic and the layman Athenians believed it to be very important. This was the beginning of the end of
Isagoras’ rule. His disregard for the thoughts and feelings of the layman Athenians and underestimating their
power as a whole was Isagoras downfall. In 507 BC the Athenians rioted and it snowballed into a full-scale
revolt. The Spartans army was unprepared to deal so many angry Athenians, and they were able to trap Isagoras
and the army on the Acropolis.
“From previous lessons we know what the Acropolis is; can someone please remind the class? That is correct,
the Acropolis is the highest hill/mountain in that area, the origin of Athens before its population grew and
spread to the surrounding valley.”
“The Spartans and Isagoras were trapped for days, before they finally agreed to a humiliating truce with the
Athenian people. They agreed that the Spartans would leave Athens, and that all of the allies of Isagoras would
be executed. During this time Isagoras managed to escape, but his short rule of Athens had ended.”
“The Athenians were free of an overlord for the first time in history and did not know what to do with the power.
They called back Cliesthenes, because he was the best suited for the job, but on the condition that he would not
be a ruler. Together they created a new form of government called a “Demos” or Democracy”
In order to encourage comprehension, application and analysis of the content that has been presented to the
students, I would ask, “The Athenians went from a Tyranny to a Democracy, how do you think this drastic
change affected their daily lives?” The students would have to identify the changes to the governmental
structure, and interpret how this affected day to day life and contrasting life before and after Democracy.
I would then pause and take a minute to give the students a chance to ask questions. I would say “Does any one
have any questions or need any clarification on what I have said so far?” I would then answer any questions that
arose.
“Now before we go any further in the lesson, let’s have a minute or two to Think, Pair, Share. Get in to groups of
two with someone who is right beside you and take a minute to review everything you have just learned about
Athens and how the Democratic government was formed.”
While the students are discussing the lesson, I will roam about the room and monitor what they are saying,
checking to see who understands the course material and who is confused
After giving the students a minute or two to discuss, I would ask the students, “Who wants to share one point we
discussed in the lesson today?” and I would ask different groups to share points of the lesson in order to reenforce what was taught and also to check for understanding. I wouldn’t always pick a student or group that was
willing to answer (by putting up their hand) I would try to pick a student who is generally quiet in order to
involve them and develop their oral/verbal skills.
During this discussion I would clarify and misconceptions or mention any important aspects that were missed,
before continuing on with my lesson
“The Athenian Demos or Democracy was a Direct Democracy. Can someone please tell me what the definition
of a Direct Democracy is? Thank you, that is correct a Direct Democracy “is rule by the citizens voting in an
assembly”.
“The Athenian Democracy is based on the principle of INSONOMIA: which is Equality of all Citizens before
the Law”
“The Athenian people were broken up into four groups
Athenian Men: they were citizens of the city-state and were given full rights
Foreigners: they were not considered citizens and were not given a vote
Athenian Women: were almost like property and had to be guarded by husband or father at all times,
were not citizens
Slaves: were property, women were guarded by the man who owned them, given no rights and not
citizens
“The Athenian Democracy only applied to the citizens, so only the Athenian men were allowed to partake in this
new system and they were each given one vote.”
“There are four branches to the Athenian Government
Ecclesia or Peoples Assembly: this was the entire population of citizens, they debated and voted on laws
deciding whether to pass them or not
Magistrates: these were elected by the Assembly, they applied the laws and were the generals leading the
army
Boule or Council: this was made up of 500 citizens that were selected by lot, which means their names
were drawn from a container in order to determine who served. Every citizen above the age of 30 was
eligible for the council. The Council would meet regularly to discuss all the aspects/problems in the city.
Assembly, who would then have the power to veto or approve these laws by vote.
Heliaea or People’s Court: this was made up of 6000 jurors also selected by lot, these were the judges that
sat at the judicial hearings of those who were breaking the laws of Athens
“The Assembly and Council would meet at Pnyx, a hill in the shadow of the Acropolis, in order to vote on laws.”
“The Assembly was given the power to vote on expelling citizens fromAthens for a period of 10 years. This
ensured that any one trying to seize power over Athens would be removed from the city-state before they could
do any harm.”
“This concludes are lecture portion for the lesson today, does anyone have any questions about anything we
learned today?” I would then answer any questions that arose.
“Now we will again take out a minute or two to Think, Pair, Share. Please get into groups of two, try to work
with someone you haven’t worked with today and take a minute to discuss what we have just learned about the
Athenian Government.”
I will again roam about the room while the students discuss the lesson in order to determine if the students
understand the course material or if there is any confusion.
After giving the students a minute or two to discuss, I would again ask the some students (trying to call on
different students this time) to share with the class what they have discussed by saying, “Who wants to share one
point we discussed in the lesson today?” and I would ask different groups to share points of the lesson in order to
re-enforce what was taught and also to check for understanding. I would again try to draw out the quieter
students in order for them to develop their participation in class.
If anyone mentioned something that was not consistent with what we had learned or it seemed that they were
confused about an aspect in the lesson, then I would clarify the misconceptions. Also if an aspect was missed I
would mention that to the class, I would either ask them to remember by posing a question or simply state what
was missed.
Once this is completed, my lecture portion of the lesson is completed and I would move on to other aspects of
my lesson.
Modeling
Objective 2:
The student will be able to describe how the Athenian Democracy developed and what affects that had on the people
of Athens, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
During my lesson, I would use a power point presentation (for the Athenian Section of PPT see Appendix 6)
This power point would be used while I am teaching the lesson. This would be a visual aid to my words.
It gives the basic points of my lesson; I would elaborate on these points. This is essential for visual
learners because it gives them something concrete to look at and it reinforces my words so that they can
process the material
The power point would be available to the students to access at home; they would be able to interact with
the power point. I would have interesting links on the pages that would lead them to websites with more
information. (see Appendix 7 for Links)
After I have completed the teaching this section of the lesson, I would give two handouts (see Appendix 8 and
9). Each are different concept maps, one outlines the Athenian Social Structure (Appendix 8) and the second
outlines the branches of the Democratic government in Athens, detailing how they connected (See Appendix 9)
First I would hand out the sheet outline Social Structure (Appendix 8) and I would say, “This sheet is a
concept map that outlines the Athenian Social Structure for you, the citizens and non-citizens are clearly
outlined in this map.
I would then hand out the second sheet (Appendix 9) and I would say, “This sheet is a concept map
outlining the branches of the Athenian Democracy. Each branch has arrows and the arrows show how the
branches interconnected and interacted with each other.”
The purpose of this handout is to give the students a visual aid. A visual aid is an essential tool for those
students who are visual learners; it gives them a concrete explanation of the content in order for them to
process it in a more effective way.
This handout is following the “Direct Instruction” technique known as a “Structured Overview”
Checking For Understanding
Objective 2:
The student will be able to describe how the Athenian Democracy developed and what affects that had on the people
of Athens, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
I have outlined two places in my Input section where I stop and address the students, asking them if they have
any questions or need any clarification on the material so far.
This is in order to give the students a chance to voice any concerns they have during the lesson, rather
than just at the end of the lesson, when they may be very confused or have forgotten what they wanted to
ask
Think, Pair, Share
As outlined in my Input section, I would stop four times in my lecture to Think, Pair, Share.
I would hide the power point slides so that the students would have to rely on their memory to come up
with key points of the lecture.
The students would pair up (using a different partner each time) and be given a minute or two to review
the content that was just presented to them
While they are reviewing this material I would walk about the room and monitor the conversations,
noting if the students had a good grasp on the material or if they were confused
If I noticed confusion, I would address this after when we are discussing the key points in the
lecture. For example if the students thought that the Spartans were defeated by the Messenians and
then once again fought for power, “I noticed that some of you were thinking that the Messenians
won the war after they revolted, in actuality they almost won the war, the Spartans retained power
after the revolt, but were severely weakened and so that is why they changed their governmental
system”.
After the students had discussed we would begin talking about the points. I would ask the students “Who
wants to share a point that was mentioned in the lecture?” Then I would call on student pairs who had
raised their hands and also try to call on students who have not raised their hands in order to encourage
communication amongst quieter students or discover if the students chose not to speak out of confusion
Modeling
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and determine which
one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on the rubric.
“In your worksheet for the Independent Practice section of today’s lesson you will be given a question where you
are asked to contrast the two forms of government that you have learned about today.”
In order to clarify any question the students may have on how to contrast the two I will use a handout (as a
word document displayed on the screen from the computer in class) from a previous lesson where two concepts
were contrasted. (See Appendix 10) I would say, “Here is a handout from a previous lesson contrasting the
treatment of Women in Sparta and Athens. This is an example of how to contrast to show you what I am
expecting from you when you answer the question in the worksheet.”
Checking for Understanding
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and determine which
one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on the rubric.
I will ask the students if they have any questions about what is expected of them. If the questions are
straightforward I will guide them to come up with the answers as a class, by posing the question to the class and
giving the students a chance to clarify points for one another. This will cause the students to be more involved
in the learning process of the lesson as well as allow me to gauge how well the students understand what is
being asked of them
I will also have the students come up with one or two contrasting points as a class. I would say to the students
“Now that we have looked at a previous chart that portrays contrasting, can anyone think of a contrast between
the Spartan Oligarchy and the Athenian Democracy?” I would give the students some time to think about the
answer before calling on two or three people to share their points. This would allow to me to see if the students
are on the right path, as well as provide clarification for any students who may still be confused.
Guided Practice
Objective 1:
The student will be able to describe how the Spartan Oligarchy developed and what affects it had on the people of
Sparta, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
Objective 2:
The student will be able to describe how the Athenian Democracy developed and what affects that had on the people
of Athens, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
I would hand out a worksheet to the class. (See Appendix 11(a) and Appendix 11(b)) I would say, “This is a
worksheet that needs to be completed in class, we will do the first section together as a class.” I would go
through the Multiple Choice questions one by one. I would read the first one out loud and we would answer it
together. I would pose the question to the students and pick one student to give the answer and explain why. I
would then ask the class if they all agreed with the answer. If there was a student that believed the answer was
something else, I would also ask them to state the answer they believed to be correct and why they chose that
one. We would vote as a class who” had the right answer and then I would reveal which was the correct answer.
would repeat what I did for the first question.
We would then move on to the next question on the worksheet. It is a short answer question that directly relates
to Objective 1. We would also complete this question together as a class. I would have a student read out the
question “Describe the series of events that caused the governmental system inSparta to change from a
Monarchy to an Oligarchy?” I would ask the students what they think I mean by using the word “describe”. We
would determine that I was looking for the students to go further then just list the key events, I would expect
them explain details of what happened and how it led to the next key event. As a class we would answer the
questions, once again I would alternate between calling on students that wanted to answer the question and
students who were staying quiet. This would encourage everyone to share and speak as well as determine if
there was confusion. After the key event had been mentioned by one student, I would have two or three other
students describe the event and how it led to the next key event.
Completing this question in class would be guided practice for Objective 2, even though the material
does not directly relate to the Objective because the question for that is similar to this question.
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and determine which
one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on the rubric.
In Section C of the worksheet, the students would be asked to “Create a chart that contrasts the two forms of
government in each city-state. In paragraph format explain which state was better suited for its time and which
one you would prefer to live in. Key points from lecture should be used when explaining your choice.”
I would provide the students with an example of contrasting two concepts (Appendix 10)
This would allow the students to see a concrete example for them to follow when they make their own
contrast chart
Next I would ask the students to come up with some examples of contrasting elements in the two governments.
I would allow one or two concepts to be shared with the class. This would help the students get started but it
would not give them all the answers to the question.
Independent Practice
I would say to the students, “Now that we have done the first section of the worksheet, please take the rest of the
class to finish the other sections in the worksheet. The worksheet is not for homework and needs to be
completed and handed at the end of class today.” (Appendix 11)
Objective 1:
The student will be able to describe how the Spartan Oligarchy developed and what affects it had on the people of
Sparta, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
The students will be completing one short answer question for Objective 1 in the worksheet (Appendix 11).
This question is designed to test the students’ Comprehension and Application of the material that was presented
to them in the lecture.
Objective 2:
The student will be able to describe how the Athenian Democracy developed and what affects that had on the people
of Athens, at a minimum of level 3 on the rubric.
The students will be completing two short answer questions for Objective 2 in the worksheet (Appendix 11).
These questions are designed to test the students’ Comprehension and Application of the material that was
presented to them in the lecture.
Objective 3:
The students will be able to contrast the two forms of government, identifying key points of each, and determine which
one they prefer, giving clear reasons relating to the lesson, at a minimum of level three on the rubric.
The students will be completing one long answer question for Objective 3 in the worksheet (Appendix 11). This
question is in two parts. The compare and contrast chart is designed to have the students Analyze the content
they learned in the input section of the lesson plan. The second part of the question, where they must determine
which government they prefer and why, is designed to have the students Evaluate the content.
Closure
Three minutes before the end of class I would mention to the students, that class is almost over and they need to
take out some time and complete the L section of the K-W-L chart. I would say, “Class is almost over, please
complete you work sheet and also do not forget to add three points for each Sparta and Athens in your “Learned”
section of your K-W-L chart. You will need to show it to me before you leave class as your ticket out the door.”
Home Link:
The students will be given a project to complete at home. This project will encompass all the lessons they have learned about the various citystates of Greece. The students will be required to use the material taught in class as well as conduct research from internet sources or from
books in order to create their own city-state of Greece. The student will be given one week to complete this project and it will be activity that
will test the students’ ability to “Synthesize” everything they have learned in this unit. When I hand out the assignment, I will outline what is
expected of them and answer any questions they have on the matter. (See Appendix 13)
Materials:
Computer (with internet access) and Projector
movie clips
Power Point presentation (Appendices 3 and 6)
3 Handouts
one for Objective 1 (Appendix 5)
two for Objective 2 (Appendix 8 and 9)
Contrast Chart Example
Word document displayed on projector screen from computer (Appendix 10)
Worksheet to be completed in class (Appendix 11)
Rubric outlining what is expected of the students (Appendix 12)
Homework assignment taken home (Appendix 13)
Attachment
Size
Appendix 1.doc [6]
32.5 KB
Appendix 2.doc [7]
27 KB
Appendix 3 - Sparta Power Point.ppt [8]
309.5 KB
Appendix 4.doc [9]
23.5 KB
Appendix 5.doc [10]
350.5 KB
Appendix 6 - Athens Power Point.ppt [11] 443.5 KB
Appendix 7.doc [12]
23.5 KB
Appendix 8.doc [13]
608 KB
Appendix 9.doc [14]
709.5 KB
Appendix 10.doc [15]
29.5 KB
Appendix 11.doc [16]
29.5 KB
Appendix 12.doc [17]
31 KB
Appendix 13.doc [18]
20 KB
Bibliography.doc [19]
26 KB
Source URL: http://lessonmapper.com/node/152
Links:
[1] http://lessonmapper.com/user/72
[2] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNZAahpYGSg
[3] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8FgNDdtNIc
[4] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZeYVIWz99I
[5] http://www.dictionary.com/
[6] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 1.doc
[7] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 2.doc
[8] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 3 - Sparta Power Point.ppt
[9] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 4.doc
[10] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 5.doc
[11] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 6 - Athens Power Point.ppt
[12] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 7.doc
[13] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 8.doc
[14] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 9.doc
[15] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 10.doc
[16] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 11.doc
[17] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 12.doc
[18] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Appendix 13.doc
[19] http://lessonmapper.com/sites/default/files/Bibliography.doc