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Transcript
Electronic Component
Identification
Capacitors
• A capacitor is an electronic component that can be
used to store an electrical charge.
• Capacitors are often used in electronic circuits as
temporary energy-storage devices.
• Capacitance is measured in units of farads (F) and
named after Michael Faraday, a British chemist and
physicist who contributed significantly to the study of
electromagnetism.
Ceramic disk
Monolithic
ceramic
Solid tantalum,
polarized
Dipped silvermica
Radial aluminum
electrolytic
Mylar
Axial aluminum
electrolytic
Mylar
Capacitors: Types and Package Styles
Ceramic Disc Capacitors
Electrolytic Capacitors
Mylar /
Monolithic Ceramic
Electrolytic Capacitors
Capacitors: Types and Package Styles
Surface Mount
Tantalum Capacitors
Surface Mount
Ceramic Capacitors
Size Comparison
How To Read A Capacitor’s Value
Disc Capacitors
Code
Tolerance
A
±0.05%
B
±0.1%
C
±0.25%
D
±0.5%
F
±1%
G
±2%
J
±5%
K
±10%
M or NONE
±20%
N
±30%
Q
−10%, +30%
S
−20%, +50%
T
−10%, +50%
Z
−20%, +80%
4 7 2 K
First Digit
Second Digit
Third Digit
Fourth Digit
First Figure
Second Figure
# of Zeros
Tolerance
4
7
00
K
4700 pF 10%
Note: Units on Disc Capacitors are always in pico-farads
Capacitor: Example
Example:
Determine the
nominal value for the
capacitor shown.
Code
Tolerance
A
±0.05%
B
±0.1%
C
±0.25%
D
±0.5%
F
±1%
G
±2%
J
±5%
K
±10%
M or NONE
±20%
N
±30%
Q
−10%, +30%
S
−20%, +50%
T
−10%, +50%
Z
−20%, +80%
Capacitor: Example
Example:
Determine the
nominal value for the
capacitor shown.
Solution:
10000 pF 10%
Code
Tolerance
A
±0.05%
B
±0.1%
C
±0.25%
D
±0.5%
F
±1%
G
±2%
J
±5%
K
±10%
M or NONE
±20%
N
±30%
Q
−10%, +30%
S
−20%, +50%
T
−10%, +50%
Z
−20%, +80%
Electronic Component
Identification
Diodes
Diodes are semiconductor devices, but are considered
passive since they do not contribute any amplification or
gain to a circuit.
Anode
Light-emitting
diode (LED)
Cathode
Small signal
detector or
switching diode
Zener diode
Types of Diodes
The semiconductor diode is very versatile. The many different types enable a
variety of applications. These applications include small signal applications, high
current, high voltage, different types of diodes for light emission and detection,
fairly low forward voltage drops, and diodes to provide variable capacitance.
Small signal diode
Laser diode
Light emitting diodes
Photodiode
PIN diode
Schottky diodes
Zener diode
Diodes: characteristics and parameters
Forward voltage drop (Vf)- An electronics device passing current will
develop a voltage across it called the forward voltage drop.
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) - This diode characteristic is the maximum
voltage a diode can withstand in the reverse direction.
Maximum forward current(IF) - When designing a circuit that passes any
levels of current it is necessary to ensure that the maximum current
levels for the diode are not exceeded.
Leakage current (IR) - If a perfect diode were available, then no current
would flow when it was reverse biased. It is found that for a real PN
junction diode, a very small amount of current flow in the reverse
direction as a result of the minority carriers in the semiconductor. The
level of leakage current is dependent on a number of factors. The
reverse voltage is one, but also temperature. Leakage current can rise
appreciably with temperature.
Electronic Component
Identification
Resistors
• A resistor is an electronic component that
resists the flow of electrical current.
• A resistor is typically used to control the
amount of current that is flowing in a circuit.
• Resistance is measured in units of ohms ()
and named after George Ohm, whose law
(Ohm’s Law) defines the fundamental
relationship between voltage, current, and
resistance.
Resistors: Types and Package Styles
Carbon Film Resistors
Variable Resistors
(potentiometer)
4 Bands
Carbon Film Resistors
5 Bands
Surface Mount Resistors
Determining A Resistor’s Value
Color Code
• Resistors are labeled
with color bands that
specify the resistor’s
nominal value.
• The nominal value is
the resistor’s face
value.
Measured Value
• A digital multi-meter
can be used to
measure the resistor’s
actual resistance
value.
Reading A Resistor’s Value
Resistor Color Code
Resistor Value: Example
Example:
Determine the value for the
resistor shown.
18
Resistor Value: Example
Example:
Determine the value for the
resistor shown.
Solution:
10 x 100  5%
1000  5%
1 K  5%
19
Electronic Component
Identification
Inductors
Values specified in henries (H), millihenries (mH) and
microhenries (μH)
A coil of wire that may be wound on a core of air or other
non-magnetic material, or on a magnetic core such as iron
powder or ferrite.
Two coils magnetically coupled form a transformer.
Wire gauge and physical size of the coil determine the
current handling capacity.
Inductors: Types and Package Styles
Molded inductor & air-wound inductor
Ferrite core toroidal
transformer
Adjustable air-wound inductor
Air wound
inductor
Iron powder toroidal
inductor
Relays
• Relays are electromagnetically operated switches.
• Relays are used for motor control circuits, switching circuits
and power switching.
Switches
• The pole is the movable part
Single-pole
single-throw
switch
Single-pole
double-throw
switch
Double-pole
single throw
switch
• The throw is the number of
circuits that are affected
differently during the
switching operation
Single-pole
push-button
switch(make)
Single-pole
push-button
switch(break)
Single-pole
double-throw
push-button
switch
Single-pole
selector
switch
Electronic Component
Identification
Transistors
A transistor is a component that has three pins. The type of the transistor
can be determined by the model number, which is printed on the body.
Collector
Base
Emitter
Drain
Gate
Source
2N2222A in a
TO-18 package
2N2222 in a
TO-92
package
2SC2078 in a
TO-220 package
Transistor specifications
There are a number of standard parameters that are used to define the
performance of a transistor:
Type
number
Case
Material
Polarity
The type number of the device is an individual part number given to the device.
Device numbers normally conform to the JEDEC (American) or Pro-Electron
(European) numbering systems - see Related Articles under main left hand menu
block. There is also a Japanese standard system for transistor numbering.
Case style - a variety of case standard case styles are available. These normally
are of the form TOxx leaded devices and SOTxxx for surface mount devices. Note
it is also important to check the pin connections as they are not always
standard. Some transistor types may have their connections in the format EBC
whereas occasionally they can be ECB, and this can cause confusion in some
cases.
The material used for the device is important as it affects the junction forward
bias and other characteristics. The most common materials used for bipolar
transistors are silicon and germanium.
The polarity of the device is important. It defines the polarity of the biasing and
operation of the device. The two types are NPN and PNP. NPN is most common.
It has higher speeds as electrons are the majority carriers and these have a
greater mobility than holes. When run in common emitter configurations, the
NPN circuits will use a positive rail voltage and negative common line, PNP
transistors will require a negative rail and positive common voltage.
Integrated Circuits (IC’s)
3
4
1
1) 8 Pin Solder Socket
6
2) 14 Pin Solder Socket
7
8
3) 14 Pin DIP IC
4) 8 Pin DIP IC
2
5) 40 Pin DIP
5
6) 14 PIN SOIC
7) 8 Pin SOIC
DIP – Dual Inline Package
SOIC – Small Outline Integrated Circuit
PLCC - Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
8) 44 Pin PLCC
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection
Ground your work surface
Use an anti-static mat
Ground your tools (i.e., soldering
iron)
Many irons are constructed with a
grounded tip
Ground yourself
Use a wrist or ankle strap, but always
include a series resistor of high value to avoid
any shock hazard.
Touch a grounded object before
handling static sensitive
components.
Static
electricity
can severely
damage integrated
circuits, especially CMOS
chips.