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Muscles of the face, head, and
neck
Functions of muscles
• 1. Movement
• 2. Heat production
• 3. Maintain posture/body position
Types of muscle
• There are approx. 640 muscles in the body (~320 pairs).
These muscles are grouped into 3 categories.
• Skeletal muscle (striated): Muscle that is under
voluntary control. Most are attached to the skeleton
by tendons at one or both ends, but some are attached
to skin, cartilage, or organs.
• Smooth muscle(non-striated): muscle that is
involuntary. Most of this muscular tissue is found in
internal organs. It is under the control of the
autonomic nervous system so it doesn’t involve
voluntary control.
• Cardiac muscle(striated): Special muscle only found in
the heart. Although it’s striated like skeletal, it’s
involuntary. This muscle generates its own electrical
impulses and requires a constant supply of oxygen.
Characteristic
Skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
Location
Attached to skeleton
Walls of intestines,
blood vessels, etc.
Walls of heart
Type of control
Voluntary
Involuntary
Involuntary
Striations
Present
Absent
Present
Speed of contraction
Most rapid
Slowest
Intermediate
Ability to remain
contracted
Least
Greatest
Intermediate
Energy Production
• The energy required for muscle contraction is derived
from the metabolism of glucose (sugar). Muscle fibers
need to continually resynthesize ATP (energy) because
they can only store small amounts. The oxidation of
glucose produces carbon dioxide and water, which in
turn produces lactic acid.
• Only 1/3 of the energy muscles receive is used for
work, the remainder is released in the form of heat to
maintain body temperature. Our muscles can create
heat through voluntary activity (walking) or involuntary
activity (shivering)
Helpful hints for naming muscles
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Size:
Vastus
Maximus
Longus
Minimus
Brevis
Shape:
Deltoid
Latissimus
Teres
Trapezius
Rhombus
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Location:
Pectoralis
Gluteus
Brachii
SupraInfraSubLateralis
Medialis
Intermedius
Direction of muscle fibers:
Rectus
Oblique
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Action:
Adductor
abductor
flexor
Extensor
Levator
Number of attachments:
Triceps
Biceps
Quadriceps
More terms!!!
• Prime mover: Muscle whose contraction is the
major source of a particular movement
• Antagonist: muscle that opposes the action of a
prime mover or initiates an opposite movement.
• Tendon: Band that connects muscle to bone
• Origin: Typically, a muscle’s proximal attachment
and most stationary point
• Insertion: Typically, a muscle’s distal attachment
that moves with the bone during contraction.
Helpful hints for naming muscles
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Size: vastus (huge)
maximus (large)
longus (long)
minimus (small)
brevis (short)
Shape: Deltoid (triangle)
latissimus (wide)
teres (round)
trapezius (trapezoid)
rhombus (rhomboid).
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Location: Pectoralis (chest)
gluteus (buttock)
brachii (arm)
supra-(above)
infra-(below)
sub-(under, beneath)
lateralis (lateral)
Direction of muscle fibers:
Rectus (Straight)
Oblique (Angular)
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Action: adductor (towards midline)
abductor (away from midline)
flexor (flexes)
extensor (extends)
levator (to lift or elevate)
Number of attachments:
Triceps (3 attachments)
Biceps (2 attachments)
Quadriceps (4 attachments)
Frontalis
Frontalis
Zygomaticus
minor
Frontalis
Zygomaticus
minor
Zygomaticus major
Frontalis
Zygomaticus
minor
Zygomaticus major
Risorius
Frontalis
Zygomaticus
minor
Zygomaticus major
Risorius
Mentalis
Frontalis
Orbicularis oculi
Zygomaticus
minor
Zygomaticus major
Risorius
Mentalis
Frontalis
Orbicularis oculi
Zygomaticus
minor
Zygomaticus major
Risorius
Mentalis
Levator labii
superioris
Frontalis
Orbicularis oculi
Zygomaticus
minor
Zygomaticus major
Risorius
Mentalis
Levator labii
superioris
Orbicularis oris
Frontalis
Orbicularis oculi
Zygomaticus
minor
Zygomaticus major
Levator labii
superioris
Orbicularis oris
Risorius
Mentalis
Depressor labii
inferioris
Muscles of head/neck
Temporalis
Muscles of head/neck
Temporalis
Occipitalis
Muscles of head/neck
Temporalis
Occipitalis
Sternocleidomastoid
Muscles of head/neck
Temporalis
Occipitalis
Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius
Muscles of head/neck
Temporalis
Occipitalis
Sternocleidomastoid
Platysma
Trapezius
Muscles of head/neck
Temporalis
Occipitalis
Masseter
Sternocleidomastoid
Platysma
Trapezius
Muscles of head/neck
Temporalis
Occipitalis
Buccinator
Sternocleidomastoid
Masseter
Platysma
Trapezius
Actions of facial muscles
• Orbicularis Oculi-Closes eye as in blinking
• Frontalis & Occipitalis-Together are known as the epicranius and are
responsible for raising the eyebrows, wrinkling the skin of the
forehead
• Zygomaticus major: Elevates and retracts corner of the mouth
• Zygomaticus minor: Elevates and retracts upper lip
• Levator labii superioris: Elevates and puckers upper lip
• Risorius: Moves corners of mouth laterally
• Orbicularis oris: Closes lips (kissing muscle)
• Depressor labii inferioris: Depresses lower lip (frown)
• Mentalis: Moves lower lip forward
• Masseter: Closes jaw
• Buccinator: Compresses cheeks against teeth (sucking), allows
cheeks to expand during blowing (trumpeter muscle).
Actions of head/neck muscles
• Temporalis: closes jaw
• Platysma: Depresses mandible, draws corner
of mouth downward, tenses skin of neck
• Sternocleidomastoid: Flexes and rotates neck
• Trapezius: Extends and rotates neck